Criminal Justice Sexual Assault Criminology Essay

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Sexual assault refers to any sexual intercourse that is against an individual's will or without permission. Sexual assault includes cases where aggression, force, or arms are used. In other cases, the victims are intoxicated or frightened to grant consent. Sexual assault occurs to both men and women. Actually, it has been estimated that approximately 5% to 10% of the sexual violence cases in the United States incorporate male victims. Laws against sexual assault were passed, originally, to stop men from treating women as their properties and protect women's value. This observation has rather changed since the law has been modified to protect the bodily honor and personal sovereignty of women as individuals. However, the enforcement of sexual assault laws is not consistent and the majority of the rape cases are never reported (Hess and Swift, 33).

The sexual violence of ritual victims is cruel, sadistic, and mortifying. The ritual sexual assault is far more brutal than that which is normally imposed by a pedophile or incest. The perpetrators of sexual assault seek to gain total control over the victims. Sexual assault may appear in form of marriage rites, sodomy, and forced rape cases, repetitive fondling as well as oral copulation. Some sexual assaulters use physical violence to perpetrate the act. Other assaults incorporate the use of tools for incursion of body orifices by use of weapons such as knife or gun, as well as symbolic objects such as crucifix or baton. In other cases the victims of sexual assault are forced to have sexual intercourse with children, animals, dead bodies or dying persons (Hess and Swift, 41).

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Sexual assaulters use dangerous weapons such as guns and knives, physical force, or they may use the threat of force to get the upper hand. In other cases, the assaulters may use blackmail tactics or a position of power to intimidate victims into compliance. Other assaulters may use illegal drugs, alcohol, or a mixture of both, to stop the victims from fighting back during the assault. Sexual assault is basically an infringement of a person's body and free-will furthermore it can have long-term emotional consequences.

Sexual assault has a number of consequences on the victims: denial, defenselessness, dislike of sex, rage, self-blame, nervousness, embarrassment, nightmares, apprehension, despair, flashbacks, guiltiness, rationalization, lack of sensation, promiscuity, and difficulty trusting others. Additionally, family and acquaintances experience psychological scarring as well as a strong urge for revenge, a need to "fix' the predicament and move on (Hess and Swift, 72).

Discussion 8: Illegal Drugs

Illegal drugs refer to drugs that are prohibited by the state and are unlawful in certain circumstances. People are not allowed to have or use illegal drugs. A drug can be defined as any chemical that is calculated to have an effect on the human body. Other drugs may be considered to be illegal but may be prescribed by the doctor. Drugs can be categorized into hallucinogens, depressants or downers, anti-psychotics and stimulants. Hallucinogens affect how individuals think, see, hear and feel; stimulants expedite an individual's central nervous system; depressants decelerate the human being's central nervous system and anti-psychotics are used to balance emotions and moods of people. People use drugs to feel better; however, other people use drugs to recreation purposes (Eban 25).

Pharmaceutical diversion refers to the act of diverting lawful drugs for illicit uses. It is anticipated that many people have an addiction of prescription drugs. A bid number of addicts do not have any history of substance abuse but they end up with an addiction after their first use of the prescription drugs for legal medical purposes. Most of the times, the diverted prescription drugs find themselves on the streets where unlawful drug abuse is a serious problem (Eban 18).

Pharmaceutical diversion harvests large earnings for the illegal traffickers, and ruins the lives of the abusers. This ultimately affects their acquaintances, families, as well as their occupation. Pharmaceutical drugs diversion indicates that the prescription drugs were unlawfully obtained through various methods. Pharmaceutical diversion may have been achieved through fraud, or through drug theft. Health care experts experience the prescription drug addict each day. The drug hunters target doctors, dentists, pharmacists, as well as their employees, in a persistent attempt to get pharmaceutical drugs.

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Drug seekers may visit numerous health care specialists so as to obtain more prescription drugs in order to satisfy their addiction, otherwise sell them for high profits inside the Street. The drug-seekers repeatedly fake ailments or diseases in an attempt to get pharmaceutical drugs. Most pharmaceutical drugs are illegally obtained through fraudulent prescriptions. In most cases, the drug seekers change a legitimate prescription using a pen color that resembles the original prescription. In other cases, the drug seekers steal from pharmacies, buy drugs from patients or get drugs from relatives and associates. At times, the dug seekers buy drugs online without a personal visit to the doctor. Pharmaceutical diversion is an illegal act since it results to drug shortage and drug abuse, for this reason, it should be prohibited (Eban 63).

Discussion 9: Discuss the factors that impact "Prisonization."

Prisonization refers to the process of acknowledging the social life and mores of prisoners. Prisonization can be defined as a process in which newly institutionalized delinquents come to acknowledge prison's way of life and criminal ethics. Prisonization generates an informal prisoner code. The prisoners gradually adopt these institutional aspects and penitentiary regulations for their struggle for survival (Reid 367).

Even though many prisoners begin their penitentiary experience with just a few principles that support illegal deeds, the socialization process they experience while imprisoned leads to a much better acceptance of such principles. Prisonization incorporates all changes the inmate undergoes in penitentiary, whether as a result of adoption of subcultural principles, resistance to the subculture, or alterations unconnected to the subculture.

The inmate code detaches the inmate from the influence of prison staff through fostering the inmate's loyalty to his fellow inmates. Devotion to the prison code symbolizes a sort of solidary opposition. Prison rules are different from the rules of the wider society. When individuals truthfully obey the prison rules, they reject the rules of the penitentiary administration and rules of the society. Prisonization process negatively affects the rehabilitation process. When a prisoner is accustomed to the jail culture, he or she finds the outside life to be very challenging (Reid 367).

There are various factors that impact prisonization: the prisoner's susceptibility and character; the relationships of the prisoners outside the penitentiary; the prisoner's association with a major gang in prison; the prisoner's residency in the penitentiary for instance type of cell and the cell-mate; and the prisoner's degree of accepting the prison codes.

Length of confinement affects the prisonization process as well as the degree of adjustment to prison mores. The longer the confinement period, the more prisonized the inmates become, and the less expected they are to effectively adjust to the society's culture, and the more expected they are to be re-imprisoned after their release. Reliance upon constant supervision and power makes independent existence outside prison to be challenging. Most inmates go through a recovery process when they draw near parole or liberation, wherein they get rid of the attitude and principles of prison society and adopt morals and behaviors that are in agreement with ordinary society (Reid 367).

Modern Correctional Alternatives

Modern correctional alternatives are designed to reduce criminal activities through prevention, rehabilitation as well as incapacitation. On the other hand, prisons, which are the traditional way of corrections, are designed to rehabilitate wrongdoers by coaching them to acquire new skills and prevent them from committing further offences through locking them up in prison. There are various modern correctional alternatives: probation, fines, shock incarceration, day reporting and house arrest (Pollock 273).

The wrongdoers are expected to pay out a certain sum of money rather than serve a jail term. Most judges charge permanent and flat-fee fines cautiously. The amount of fine depends on the seriousness of the offenses as well as the criminal history of the lawbreakers. Consequently, judges often believe the permanent fines are too merciful on wealthy criminals and too insensitive on poor ones. The use of day fine allows judges to first agree on how much sentence an offender merits (Harry, Latessa, and Ponder, 74).

Day reporting centers are intended for individuals on pretrial discharge, trial, or parole. Participants are expected to report at their assigned day reporting centers regularly so as to take part in various activities that are presented by the center. Wrongdoers who are expected to report to the day reporting centers are given some form of treatment or therapy concerning alcohol and substance abuse. Failure to abide by program obligations or to report to the centers regularly can result to incarceration. Membership at the reporting centers can also be stopped if the participant commits a new felony (Pollock 274).

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Community Service Programs are often administered white-collar offenders, juvenile delinquents, as well as individuals who commit petty crimes. Under these programs, wrongdoers are usually obliged to work for the state or private nonprofit organizations where they are expected to clean parks, gather roadside garbage, set up seats and tents for community activities, paint society projects, as well as assist at nursing homes.

In house arrest, the punished individuals are expected to strictly stay at home excluding when they are attending school or work; they are monitored by electronic devices that emit signals. House arrest can incapacitate lawbreakers by preventing them from taking part in criminal activities (Pollock 274).