Criminal Justice And Legal Studies Criminology Essay

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The idea of retribution is based on the concept of lex talionis, the law of retaliation, which is similar to the idea of an eye for an eye. Similarly the Oxford dictionary defines retribution as "punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance for a wrong or criminal act" (Oxford). Therefore, it can be said that retribution is based on the idea that society needs to take out its revenge on the offender for violating society's norms.

Deterrence is defined by the Oxford dictionary as "a thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something". Deterrence is used in the Namibian Judicial system to discourage the accused person and a warning to likeminded criminals that they will be severely dealt with by the courts if they indulge in committing serious offences. (S v Kashamba, 2009). Thus deterrence can be describe as sentenced the person for a crime as an example to induce the public to refrain from criminal conduct,

Seiter describe incapacitation as a correctional theory that flows from the idea that we can make it physical impossible for an offender to commit a crime (Seiter, 2005). Thus to keep offenders imprison are not the only manner to make it impossible to commit a crime, another option is home confinement which is a form of incapacitation in the area of community-based corrections. The death penalty, which was abolished by the Namibian Government with the adoption of the Namibian Constitution in 1990, (Government, 2010) is the ultimate form of incapacitation. Incapacitation is expensive as it carries high cost in terms of buildings and operation of prisons but also separate families during the time of incarceration.

Prisoner Rehabilitation is defined by Skotnicki (1996, p. 30) as "the restoration to useful life of a person sentenced to a prison term". Therefore it can be said that a prisoner is not permanently a criminal and that it is possible to restore them to a life in which they can become responsible and contributing members in their community.

Rehabilitation programmes should help offenders become contributing/productive citizens after their release (Bruyns, 2007, p. 118).

Prisoners who attended rehabilitation programmes and complete them during imprisonment are less likely to return to prison as they obtain some skill that can support them when they are release. According to the first report by the House of Commons, it was found that the best way to reducing re-offending is to ensure that prisoners on their release have the ability to find proper employment in accordance with skills obtained. (Commons, 2005). The Deputy Officer in Charge of Windhoek Central Prison (WCP) informs the researcher that an inmate who was released in 2007 from prison is a successful businessman dealing in car parts and also having a towing company. This inmate was trained in the motor mechanic division in WCP. In contrary to popular believe, some programmes can be tailor made to support inmates with a sentence of less than two years imprisonment.

In this study paper the researcher wants to investigate the various programmes offered by the Namibian Corrections and compare it against the United Standards Minimum Rules for the treatment of prisoners. The Namibian Correctional Service is currently in a transition stage to change from punitive to Offender Risk Management of Correction Strategy (ORMCS) which includes changing from warehousing to Unit Management system. This also includes the changing from treatment intervention to evidence based treatment. This programme was piloted in WCP and rolled out to Elizabeth Nepemba Correctional facility in 2010. According to Beukes (2012) the education programmes is abolished to make way for the implementation of a new education programme which will fit with the ORMCS.

Currently only Walvis Bay Prison housed short term inmates (inmates with a sentence less than 3 years imprisonment). The Unlock of Walvis Bay Prison on the 30 March 2012 was 590 inmates of which 160 were short term inmates. The type of offences includes violence offences Robbery 10, Combating of immoral Act 2, Assault to do grievously body harm 25, Attempted Rape 1 and culpable homicide 1. Non violence offences include Road traffic Act 13, contempt of court 2, theft 56, stock theft 30 and theft from motor vehicle 20 (Amupadhi, 2012). The short term inmates can be divided into two categories such as Violence offenders 39 and Non-violence offenders 121.

1.1 Background of the study

The aim of the researcher is to compare the Programmes offered at Walvis Bay Prison against the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners standards and recommends programmes which can help the inmate live a productive life after release. Namibia is a signatory to the United Nations' Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners which provides guidelines for international law regarding persons held in prison and other forms of custody. The country has also adopted a mission statement for the Department of Prisons and Correctional Services saying that the Namibian Prison Service "contributes to the protection of society by providing reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody of offenders" in accordance with universally acceptable standards.The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of prisoners specify in Section 77 (2) that prisoners be enrolled in rehabilitation programmes for them to continue with their rehabilitation after release. (Nations, 1977, p. 81)

Travis (2010) reports in The Guardian that the reoffending rates remain unacceptably high among short term prisoners as the rehabilitation programmes offered are ineffective. (Travis, 2019, p. 2). This statement can be true if prisoners are allocated to wrong and ineffective programmes. Some programmes can be tailor made to fit the needs of specific groups of inmates. The question remained still if the programmes offered to short term prisoners are effective or is it only to keep them busy while in prison. If programmes offered are not carefully introduced to inmates, the recidivism rate will continue to rise as inmates was not rehabilitated while in prison.

Therefore, programmes have to be introduced that fit the needs of the inmate and where the inmate has to fit in the programmes. According to Huffmann some offenders in the United States attend programmes as this is a stipulation for early release. (Huffman, 2009). Such conditions for release can harm the good intention of offering programmes to offenders. The author therefore wants to evaluate the current programmes offered in Prison and see how it will address the needs of the offender.

Worrall (2008) finds that morals and reasoning training favourably alters the behaviour of low-level offenders. Also, according to Worrall (2008) treatment programs focusing on anger management and life skills training are promising, whereas programs focused on improving victim awareness do not. Finally, Worrall (2008) concludes that treatment aimed at rehabilitation is more effective than prison or other harsh sanctions, particularly when it is combined with cognitive-behavioural therapies.

The programmes available at Walvis Bay Prison are supportive programmes and are delivered to long term - and short term inmates. The inclusion of short term inmates started only during January 2012 (Platt, 2013).

There is currently no prison rehabilitation regime in the United Kingdom specifically designed to meet the needs of short-term prisoners. The claimed justification for this is that prisoners serving short sentences are not inside long enough for rehabilitation programmes to make a difference. However, it has been argued that the lack of attention paid to short-term prisoners during their stay in prison, combined with the lack of resettlement services or social support following their release, helps to create a 'revolving doors' pattern of those prisoners re-offending and returning to prison within a short space of time after release (Her Majesty Prison, 2004).

The programmes available at Walvis Bay Prison are Literacy Programmes, bible studies, Secondary education, daily allocation of work to external stake holders, HIV/AIDS-, violence prevention -, anger management -, substance prevention - and life skills programmes (Platt, 2013).

1.2 Problem statement

The Namibian Correctional Service is in a transitional stage and no rehabilitation programmes are offered at most institutions to short term inmates. Walvis Bay Prison offered rehabilitation programmes which are supportive programmes, but are they really addressing the needs of inmates with less than two years sentences?

1.3 Purpose of the study

Short term prisoners were excluded from rehabilitation programmes and they only received supportive programmes at the beginning of January 2013 (Platt, 2013).

There is currently no prison rehabilitation regime in the United Kingdom specifically designed to meet the needs of short-term prisoners. The claimed justification for this is that prisoners serving short sentences are not inside long enough for rehabilitation programmes to make a difference. However, it has been argued that the lack of attention paid to short-term prisoners during their stay in prison, combined with the lack of resettlement services or social support following their release, helps to create a 'revolving doors' pattern of those prisoners re-offending and returning to prison within a short space of time after release (Her Majesty Prison, 2004).

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find programmes that can assist the inmate to life a productive life after release.

1.3.1 Aim of the study

To determine which Rehabilitation programmes are offered at Walvis Bay Prison and how it can be improved to assist short term inmates after release.

1.3.2 Research Objectives

To investigate the need of rehabilitation programmes for short term inmates in Walvis bay Prison.

To compare the current rehabilitation programmes with the UN Minimum Standards for the treatment of sentenced prisoners.

1.4 Research Questions

Which Rehabilitation Programmes are most needed for short term inmates?

How many of the short term inmates (inmates with less than two years imprisonment) participate in rehabilitation programmes?.

Which best practices rehabilitation programmes are availably internationally for short term inmates?

1.5 Significance/Importance of the study

The proposed project will address the need to make rehabilitation programmes more attractive and easy accessible for short term offenders to show interest in the programmes and an urge participate voluntarily in rehabilitation programmes while in Prison. Short term offenders have to continue with their studies after release as a condition of their parole. There will be no extra cost to Government if the rehabilitation programmes are adjust to address the needs of short term offenders but can reduce cost if the programmes are implemented successfully as reoffending will be limited.

The benefit for the community will be that the offender return back to the community with skills and the possibility of reoffending will be minimal. During parole the offender will still attends programmes as a condition of the parole and return to Prison if he did not compile with the parole conditions.

The Social Exclusion Unit report in 2002 found that the "majority of prisoners, particularly those serving short-term sentences, receive little practical support, before release or afterwards". There has been a tendency to justify this lack of attention to the rehabilitative needs of short-term prisoners on the ground that nothing effective can be done within such a short timeframe.

The research will be valuable for the Namibian Correctional Service as it will address the importance of rehabilitation programmes for short term inmates as the lack of social support following their release, helps to create a 'revolving doors' pattern of those prisoners re-offending

1.6 Delimitations of the study

The focus of this study will be on the various rehabilitation programmes that are offered at Walvis Bay Prison and how short term inmates are involved. The researcher will also focus on what the inmates see as a need to be added to the existence programmes to assist them after release.

A pilot study will be done by the researcher to detect some flaws in the procedures and to rectify if possible before the initial research commence.

Wellman and Kruger (1999) identified three values of a pilot study which are: (Welman K. , 1999, p. 146)

To detect possible flaws in measurement procedures and in operationalisation of independent variables.

To identify unclear and ambiguous items in a questionnaire

Non- verbal behaviour of participants may give important information embarrassment or discomfort experienced the content or wording of items in a questionnaire

The researcher plans to commence with the study on the 3rd June 2013 until the 07th June 2013 during day time from 08h00 until 17h00 after approval was granted by the Commissioner-General of the Namibian Correctional Service. This will be done in accordance with the Unit Managers not to disrupt the daily activities of the Unit.

1.7 Project Plan

See Appendix A for a detailed project plan.

2. Literature review

According to Lewis S et al (2003) short-sentence prisoners - those sentenced to less than 12 months and normally released at the mid-point of their sentence - constitute the majority of adult prisoners. This group has the highest re-conviction rate among released adult prisoners, but as a consequence of their short-sentences, few are able to take advantage of offending behaviour programmes and pre-release services designed to improve their prospects of resettling successfully and leading law-abiding lives in the future. Unlike longer-term prisoners, moreover, they are not subject to statutory post-release supervision and are thus dependent upon voluntary after-care services for help with the multiple problems which research demonstrates are a consistent feature of the profile of short-sentence prisoners.

Similarly, Roger (2011) found that short-term prisoners are serving sentences of 2 years and less therefore; the New Zealand Corrections Department does not generally allow them to attend education, training or rehabilitation programmes. The Department stated that: "The amount of time to be served (by those on short term sentences) is likely to severely limit the offender's opportunities… This means it is very unlikely that these offenders will attend rehabilitative programmes while in prison."

Similarly, in Namibian Prisons short term inmates are not included in any programmes as their sentences are not favourable to complete a lengthy rehabilitation programme. If these category of prisoners are not take care of during their short stay in prison helps to create a 'revolving doors' pattern of those prisoners re-offending and returning to prison within a short space of time after release (Her Majesty Prison, (2004).

Her Majesty report finds that the most common interventions are:

Needs assessment to identify the offender's needs and classify the types of intervention required. This is a core ingredient in sentence and resettlement planning.

Education to address the prisoner's educational deficits.

Behavioural and cognitive skills programme to challenge offending behaviour and offending-related risks, and provide treatment for substance misuse.

Vocational training to provide transferable and recognised skills to increase prospects of employment on release.

Work to give prisoners-often for the first time-experience of the working day and increase prospects of employment on release.

2.1 Delivering of service within the prison

Lewis S et al (2003) found that the effective implementation and delivery of services for short-term prisoners requires:

strong professional management and leadership, and adequate numbers of experienced staff(including seconded prison staff) geared to providing this kind of service;

effective, timely and less time-consuming assessment procedures;

genuine prison/probation/voluntary sector partnership in delivering resettlement services;

better facilities in prison from which to work, including private areas where prisoners can be interviewed;

better access for short-term prisoners to existing prison services, such as CARAT;

effective case management from the point of assessment through to the post-release phase of intervention:

Full monitoring and recording of work carried out with offenders, including referrals, to facilitate evaluation and provide a check on programme integrity.

The NCS are not having any classification system in place for short term prisoners and in Walvis Bay Prison they are included in the programmes meant for long term prisoners. When prisoners are asses with their admission they can be referred to programmes early in their sentence. These referred programmes have to be in line with their sentences for rehabilitation purposes and also to prepare them for life after release.

2.2 Access to services and opportunities

Gaps in provision of services needed to facilitate reintegration of offenders indicated a need for:

improved partnership working with Employment Services, local authorities and relevant voluntary or private sector agencies;

access to a wider range of suitable housing including supported housing and drug rehabilitation centers;

Improved employment opportunities and services for offenders not considered 'job ready' as a result of poor skills, drug/alcohol abuse.

There is a need for after care services for short term inmates to ensure that they are having housing, proceed with programmes not completed during their stay in prison and to be reconcile with their families.

2.3 Rehabilitation after release

Griegson, (2013) quoted the Justice Secretary of the United Kingdom Chris Grayling that short custodial sentences will include a period of rehab in a bid to curb reoffending. Prisoners serving sentences less than 12 months will be forced to undertake a period of rehabilitation upon release for the first time under proposed reforms revealed today. As part of a "rehabilitation revolution", Inmates serving less than 12 months only currently undertake rehab on a voluntary basis and are otherwise released into the community with no supervision or support.

Prisoners in Namibia who received adequate treatment in Namibia can be placed with employers after their release.

2.4 Faith based programmes

As an unprecedented number of offenders are expected to be released from the nation's prisons in coming years, corrections officials are looking for innovative ways to increase the chance that fewer of them will return. Many officials have turned to religious programs that seek to change inmates' internal motivations as well as external behaviours. (Rushaf, 2008)

The biggest experiment in religious prison programs may be in Florida, according to Rushaf, which operates three "faith and character-based institutions" - entire prisons that provide religious programming aimed at rehabilitation. More commonly, programs are dedicated to units within a prison, or prisoners receive help from volunteer mentors coordinated by faith-based groups.

In addition Utah State Prison states that offenders are offered activities, programs and services to provide for their educational and spiritual needs.

Similarly as in Florida, Utah State Prison provides chaplains for offenders with church counselling and non-denominational services. The chaplains are part-time staff members of the Department and assist both staff and offenders with crisis intervention and help them during personal and family trials. Chaplains are a resource for religious knowledge to staff, offenders and volunteers. They provide additional assistance by establishing ongoing relationships with community religious leaders; have direct contact with offenders through consultations, programs and services; evaluate needs of offenders and decide the best sources available to meet those needs; answer questions regarding religious programs (services, symbols, reading material); and are a source for mediation (emergencies, deaths, fights, injuries) for staff and inmates.

Offenders under the jurisdiction of the Utah Department of Corrections represent more than two dozen different religions. In order to meet each offender's educational and spiritual religion needs, a variety of activities, programs and services are provided.

Walvis Bay Prison offered bible studies which are conducted by non Governmental Organisation and churches inside the Prison to all inmates on a scheduled time. The Prison Regulation section 234 makes provision for an inmate to receive bibles, religious literature and be visit by a minister of his denomination.

Rushaf further stated that inmates residing at the Shimane Asahi Shakai Fukki Sokushin Center (Shimane Asahi Social Rehabilitation Promotion Center) in Japan, will be participating in a program in which they will help train guide dogs for the blind, by having inmates raise the puppies with classes on dog-walking and obedience training. Similar programs are currently operating all over the United States, and these types of programs have been proven to reduce violence among inmates and foster a sense of responsibility.

2.5 Literacy Programmes

In 1798, seven years after the first American prison opened its doors, "schooling" became a function of the American prison. To the extent that prisons are intended as venues for rehabilitation, education has an important role in prison operations. Rapid increases in the U.S. prisoner population over recent decades have increased the need for educational services in correctional settings. Research shows that incarcerated populations are over-represented in segments of the general population that lack basic literacy skills (Stauer, 2008).

From literacy to GED preparation to vocational education programs, prisons have historically attempted to offer at least some basic education to inmates in prison. On the other hand, sceptics claim that, in many cases, prison education produces nothing more than "better educated criminals". However, many studies have shown significant decreases in recidivism. A study by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons found: "The more educational programs successfully completed for each six months confined, the lower the recidivism rate."

2.6 Prison contemplative programs

Rusaf further described prison contemplative programs which are classes or practices - including meditation, yoga, and contemplative prayer or similar -that are offered at correctional institutions for inmates and prison staff. There are many stated benefits of these programs - such a stress relief for inmates and staff - and some measured and anecdotally reported benefits in studies. These programs are gaining in acceptance in North America and Europe but are not in the majority. These programs may be part of prison religious offerings and ministry or may be wholly secular. Of those sponsored by religious organizations some are presented in non-sectarian or in non-religious formats. Contemplative practices in prison date back at least to Pennsylvania prison reforms in the late 18th century and may have analogy in older correctional history. In North America, they have been sponsored by Eastern religious traditions, Christian groups, new spiritual movements such as the Scientology-related Criminon prison program, as well as interfaith groups.

2.7 The Honor Program

The Honor Program, as describe by Rusuf, conceived by prisoners and non-custody staff at a prison in California has been operating since 2000. Based on the principle of incentivizing positive behaviour and holding individuals accountable for their actions, the purpose of the Honor Program is to create an atmosphere of safety, respect, and cooperation, so that prisoners can do their time in peace, while working on specific self-improvement and rehabilitative goals and projects which benefit the community. Prisoners wishing to apply for the program must commit to abstinence from drugs, gangs, and violence, and must be willing to live and work with fellow prisoners of any race.

2.8 Vocational Education

This provides job training that prepares inmates with the know-how and training for today's workplace. Inmates can be trained in carpentry, construction trades, computer programs and repair, horticulture, painting, plumbing and much more. CCA was the first corrections agency to achieve accreditation by the National Center for Construction Education Research, a nationally recognized authority in construction and maintenance training quality. CCA is also an authorized testing centre for the Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS) program, which globally recognizes proficiency in Microsoft applications.

Similarly the Federal Bureau of Prisons states that occupational and vocational training programs are based on the needs of the inmates, general labour market conditions, and institution labour force needs. An important component is on-the-job training, which inmates receive through institution job assignments and work in Federal Prison Industries. The Bureau also facilitates post-secondary education in vocational and occupationally oriented areas. Some traditional college courses are available, but inmates are responsible for funding this coursework.

The situation in Namibia are different from the above scenarios in that not all Institutions are having workshops where inmates can be teach a skill, those who have the opportunity did not receive certificates that indicate they pass the certain job category.

2.9 Life Skills Education

The Utah State Prison offers offenders numerous life-skills classes and programs aimed at growth and teaching the skills necessary to promote personal change. Offenders are mapped for life-skill classes according to their Level of Service Inventory scores (LSI).(Utah Prison, 2013).

In addition the Corrections Cooperation of America found that this programme emphasizes the importance of social responsibility and concentrates on parenting and family dynamics, cognitive skills, interpersonal skills, substance abuse education and employability. These are the day-to-day strengths that help inmates positively face the challenges of independent living.

3. Research methodology

The researcher will do a survey at Walvis Bay Prison with a total inmate lock up of 590 inmates for the month February 2013 of which 160 inmates are serving sentences with less than three years imprisonment. (Amupadhi, 2013). The researcher planned to make use of questionnaires, with closed and open ended questions which will be completed by the respondents inmates serving less than three years imprisonment and interviews.

3.1 Research approach

Research in social sciences largely depends on measurements and analysis and interpretation of numerical as well as non numerical data. Quantitative research methods focus on statistical approaches while qualitative methods are based on content analysis, comparative analysis, grounded theory, and interpretation (Strauss, 1990).

Stachowiak (2008) define a pilot study as a smaller version of a larger study that is conducted to prepare for the real study. (Stachowiak, 2008, p. 2)Therefore, pilot studies are used as feasibility studies to ensure that the ideas or methods behind a research idea are sound, before launching the

3.2 Research design

The researcher opted to utilise the survey research method as the basic research design. The survey will made use of respondents as mentioned above who will be requested to respond to questions on listed questionnaires. Illiterate inmates will be assisted by the researcher as this will be a qualitative study.

The study attempted to compare the rehabilitation programmes offered at Walvis Bay Prison especially to short term inmates and compare it with the UN Minimum Standards for the treatment of sentenced prisoners. (Nations, 1977). The researcher will also made use of literature to gain information on which programmes are offered in other parts of the world and the results of such programmes on inmates.

3.3 Population and Sampling

The study population will be the sentenced inmates at Walvis Bay Prison with a sentence of less than three years imprisonment.

The simple random sample used by the researcher will be to reach all with a sentence of three years and lesser which was in total 160 at the end of February 2013. This will be done due to time constrain and not to interfere with the daily activities of the prison. According to Wellman, Kruger and Mitchell (2005) "the advantages of simple random sample are that it is representative of the population in the sense that it does not favour one unit of analysis over another." (Welman, 2005, p. 60).

3.4 Tools

The researcher will make use of a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions which will be completed by the respondents and administered by the researcher.

According to Heberlein (1978) previous studies have shown that people are more likely to respond to questionnaires that cover issues that are relevant to them.

The questionnaire will be designed on the population to be research, the sample size and the research method to be used. (Masson, 1996).

According to Milne some advantages of a questionnaire are:

The responses are gathered in a standardised way, so questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than interviews.

Generally it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire.

Potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group. This potential is not often realised, as returns from questionnaires are usually low. However return rates can be dramatically improved if the questionnaire is delivered and responded to in class time.

The researcher will make use of previous questionnaires as was used by Bruyns (2007) and also look at literature review to serve the needs of Namibian inmates.

3.5 Procedure

As indicated in Appendix A the researcher will write a letter to the Commissioner-General on the 15 May 2013 asking approval to conduct a pilot study at Windhoek Central Prison (WCP). from 23 - 24 May 2013 and the initial survey at Walvis Bay Prison from 03 - 07 June 2013. On the 18 May 2013 all documentation and tools will be reviewed to be ready for the pilot study at WCP. After conducting the pilot study at WCP the instruments will be pre-test and revised if necessary from the 25-30 May 2013. On the 01 June 2013 the researcher will travel to Walvis Bay and meet the Officer in Charge and staff on the 02 of June 2013 in the morning and the inmates in the afternoon to discuss the purpose and method of the research. The initial survey will be conducted from the 03-07 June 2013 and all completed questionnaires will be collected. On the 08 June 2013 the researcher will travel back to Windhoek and start to capture the data on an approved data system on the 09 June 2013. The 09 and 10th will be used to analyse and interpret the data. Thereafter, the researcher will compile and submit a draft research report to his supervisor on the 12 June 2013.

3.6 Data analysis

According to Williams (2003) the usual sequence of data analysis is:

Descriptive analysis: describe the distribution and range of responses to each variable and examine the data for skewness.

Recode data into categories where appropriate, for example, ages into age ranges, to enable statistically meaningful comparison of sub-groups.

Bivariate analyses: use simple cross-tabulations to identify trends and examine possible associations between one variable and another.

Multivariate analyses/regression analysis techniques can then be used to test the effect of one variable on an outcome, whilst controlling for another.

Two forms of data will be gathered by the researcher:

Primary research data in the form of questionnaires, from respondents -sentenced inmates with a sentence of less than two years imprisonment.

Secondary research data in the form of reference literature on the research topic.

The researcher will analyse the data by identifying the various programmes offered at WCP, the result of these programmes, how the inmates value the programmes and their expectations. Thereafter, the researcher will compare these results with the UN Minimum Standards for the treatment of prisoners and which programmes was successful internationally.

The comparison will indicate to the researcher which rehabilitation programmes can best suite the Namibian environment.

3.7 Ethical Issues

According to Agsson (2010) In order to create an accurate and effective survey for a research study, ethical values must be considered.  Not only must the value of ethics be looked at from the viewpoint of the researcher, it must also be interpreted through the eyes of the subject being surveyed.  Both parties have rights and responsibilities with regard to the research being performed.

The following are some ethical principals that are address by various codes according to Shamoo, (2009) and which will guide the author accordingly: Honesty, Objectivity ,Openness, , Confidentiality, and Respect for colleagues, , Non-Discrimination, and Legality.

The researcher will strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data and not deceive colleagues and participants.

The researcher will further strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. He will not disclose personal or financial interests that may affect the research. Further more, the researcher will keep his promises and agreements, act with sincerity and strive for consistency of thought and action.

The researcher will share data, results, ideas, tools, resources and be open to criticism and new ideas and avoid discrimination against colleagues or participants on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity.

Lastly, the researcher will adhere to the Prisons Act, No 17 of 1998, Prisons regulations, Commissioner-General directives rules and procedures of the NCS and any other legal document that governs the Namibian Correctional Service.

Further more, the researcher will complied with the ethical consideration of research involving prisoners (Gostin, Vanchieri & Pope, 2007) and will adhere to the following principals:

Permission will be obtained from the Commissioner-General to carry out the pilot study of the research at Windhoek Central Prison and the main research at Walvis Bay Prison.

The participants will be informed that participating in the research is voluntarily and that they must not expect any reward such as early parole, remission or released.

The participants will be informed that the information will be kept confidential as the questionnaire did not indicate any identification such as Name, prison number etc.

The questionnaires will be collect immediately to ensure confidentiality and not be passed on to unauthorized persons.

Limitations

The focus of this study will be on the various programmes that are offered at Walvis Bay Prison and how short term inmates are involved. The following aspects can have an influence on the commencement and accuracy of the survey.

The approval received from the Commissioner-General

Access to inmates as some are on a daily span duty, court appearances and medical appointments

Honesty among inmates as the information cannot be verify with files as the questionnaire is anonymous.

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