Criminal And Terrorism Profiling Serial Rape Criminology Essay

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Rape can broadly be defined as, without the express unconditional consent of that person, forcibly having sexual intercourse with said person. Rape is hence a crime which displays the offender's prowess through the use of sex.

One key difference between a single rape incident, as opposed to serial rape, is that there tends to be more than one incident of rape in serial rape. This is usually accompanied by a timeframe in which no crimes are committed. The act of serial rape may worry the local community, which would then cause them to feel fearful of leaving their houses, as they believe that they could be the next victim of the serial rapist. The commission of such a crime will also place great pressure on the police to discover the identity of the culprit, and to swiftly find and apprehend the culprit to maintain a public image of effectiveness, and hence reassuring the public that the police is capable of handling such crimes.

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The aim of this report is to examine the general profile of a serial rapist, to classify the serial rapist into one of several typologies and characteristics based on the known details of the crime, and the 'Cross + Check' system as a means to assist investigators to narrow down the possible profiles of the offender, with reference to a case study in Singapore.

Literature Review

Looking at the background of serial rapists would help to understand the rationale as to why serial rapists perform such violent acts. More attention should be paid to their adolescent years, as this is the time when they are easily influenced by their social environment. Discovering the similarities between the backgrounds of serial rapists would be helpful in identifying key factors that may affect an individual's inclination to commit offences. By studying the backgrounds of serial rapists, it was discovered that a significant number live in dysfunctional families, either experiencing several spates of family violence, or having a single-parent family as a result of divorce or separation.

Apart from this, studies have also shown that criminals generally prefer to commit crimes in a certain distance from their home. These crimes would not be committed in the immediate vicinity of the criminal's house, as the close proximity to their house would increase the chances of meeting a neighbour during the commission of the criminal act, who would be able to recognise the criminal. A location that is too far would also not be ideal, as the location would not be familiar enough for the criminal to know how to get in, commit the crime, and get out without being detected. Hence, a location of an intermediate distance from the house is chosen, which will not have the flaws of the above two distances.

Criminal profiling is such that, based on the criminal's background, such as his personal behaviour and characteristics, the information gathered by investigation of the crime scene, and the significance of the location of the crime, the combined information provides police with the ability to narrow down the range of possible profiles of the offender and assists to purge unnecessary information from the analysis.

To elaborate, Douglas, Ressler, Burgess, & Hartman (1986, p.402) states that: "Profiling does not provide the specific identity of the offender. Rather, it indicates the kind of person most likely to have committed a crime by focusing on certain behavioural and personality characteristics."

Psychological Profiling Typology

Through the course of research, it was discovered that the FBI had developed a typology of rapists that many investigators find useful in their course of work. This typology essentially divides offenders into two categories: the disorganised asocial offender and the organised nonsocial offender. According to Ronald M. Holmes, this typology can be very useful when sex is the primary motive of the crime.

Disorganised Asocial Offender

Organised Nonsocial Offender

Spontaneous offense

Victim unknown

Minimal Conversation

Chaotic crime scene

Sudden violence

No restraints

Sex after death

Body not moved

Weapon left

Physical evidence

Planned offense

Targeted stranger

Personalises victim

Controlled Conversation

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Controlled crime scene

Aggressive acts

Body moved

No weapon

Little evidence

Typologies of Rape Offender

According to Groth, Burgess, and Holmstrom (1977) study and research, they have determined that the factors of anger, power and sexuality play an important role in any incident of rape. As a further elaboration on this, they divided serial rapists into four different categories: Power-assertive, Anger-retaliation, Power-reassurance, and Anger-excitation. However, it must be noted that these categories only apply in cases in which the victim was not an acquaintance of the offender, which tends to be the case for serial rapists.

Power-assertive

Power-assertive rapists believe themselves to be superior to women, and use rape as a means of demonstrating that superiority. They usually come from a background of domestic issues and many divorces. They are violent towards their victims but only to the extent of facilitating control over their victims.

Anger-retaliatory

Anger-retaliatory rapists believe that women are responsible for all the setbacks in his life, and use rape as a means of fighting back against women. They usually come from a background of physical and mental abuse from their family members. They are violent towards their victims, with the intent of causing significant physical and emotional pain to the victims.

Power-reassurance

Power-reassurance rapists tend to have poor social skills and view the act of rape as a part of a consensual relationship with the victim. They are the least violent among the four types.

Anger-excitation

Anger-excitation rapists derive satisfaction from tormenting their victims. They are the most violent amongst the four types, possibly holding the victim for a few days, and are most likely to end up murdering their victims.

Case Description (Serial Rape in Singapore)

Serial rape is not a crime that will happen frequently in Singapore, due to it being a safe country. However, this does not mean that such crimes will never happen in Singapore. As a matter of fact, there was a prominent case which occurred a few years ago in Singapore, which will be presented as a local case study.

Three incidents related to the serial rapist were reported in this case. The offender was arrested for raping a 69 year old and sodomising a 20 year-old female student twice within Clementi. Another incident had occurred where the same offender attempted to sexually assault a female student, aged 18, while she was talking on her handphone, but took her handphone and fled instead of continuing with the assault. This took place over the time period from July 2004 to March 2005.

All the three victims were either staying in the Clementi area or otherwise attending schools in the vicinity. They were attacked near the offender's home, and suffered from bruising as the offender had assaulted them with punches, and had dragged two of the victims towards secluded spots to facilitate the commission of the crime.

Case Analysis (Using 'Cross+Check' System)

In the Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Dr Geoff Dean addressed that the goal of the C+C system is to systematically generate logically-derived inferences for analysis and prioritisation into investigative leads and strategies to find and develop evidence as well as plan and manage the overall investigation (The 'Cross+Check' System: Integrating Profiling Approaches for Police and Security Investigations, p2, Geoff Dean). A diamond-shaped figure with four different quadrants is developed to draw inferences based on the information known at the time. This process of analysis will assist the investigator to derive inferences and thereafter change the investigative approach to accommodate the new leads that are found.

The four quadrants are namely: 1) Police/Security Information Level, 2) Descriptive Information Level, 3) Diagnostic Information Level and 4) Research Information Level.

Quadrant 1 contains factual information derived mainly from a crime scene in the case of a reactive crime, or from various operational sources in relation to a proactive crime or security operation or threat. The type of information required at this level would cover elements of the crime, such as the time and location where the crime occurred, and the modus operandi (M.O) of the crime, such as the method of entry, the actions done during the commission of the crime, and subsequently the means of escape.

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Quadrant 2 contains a significant amount of descriptive information that can be used to not only perform routine police work, such as checks on vehicle and licence details, or photofits of the suspect, but also to generate the statistics of crimes, offender types or security threat suspects, to determine the likelihood of the associated element being involved. Information at this level focuses on the victim's statements, any statements from witnesses, and interviews conducted with the victim's families and friends. The characteristics of the suspect may then be deduced based on this information.

Quadrant 3 contains information that is diagnostic of the situation. It thus relies on professional opinion of the situation, based on the facts of the case. In the case of reactive crimes, criminal psychologists and forensic experts may be called in, while socio-cultural experts may be asked for comments on the social climate of the community, given a potential threat to the security of that community. The type of information required at this level looks at the behavior and the psychological elements of the offender, focusing on whether influence, or simply the use of force, was used on the victim during the crime.

Finally, quadrant 4 contains research-derived information that could allow investigators to identify any trends that could pertain to the relevant situation involved. This could comprise the number of crimes committed at the location, the history of any criminals that were previously convicted of such offences, and the demography of the criminals. This level also involves the motivations behind the criminals' actions.

Dr Geoff further notes that the core operational advantage of the Cross+Check System lies in its ability to collate and visually analyse the inter-relationships between four qualitatively different sources of information. (Geoff Dean, The 'Cross-Check' System: Integrating Profiling Approaches for Police and Security Investigation, p 7)

The figure below shows an operational framework of 'Cross+Check' Model as a Knowledge Management System (Geoff Dean, The 'Cross+Check' System: Integrating Profiling Approaches for Police and Security Investigations, p8)

1st Quadrant : Police/Security

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

'Cross+Check' System

Copyright: Dr. Geoff DeanInformation Form

Tentative Inferences

2 out of the 3 cases happened in the night where it is usually quiet at the targeted area, except for the 3rd case which occurred before noon.

The offender may be young adult in his early twenties with sufficient strength and energy to drag the victims along the ground and physically assaulted them, not ruling out the possibilities of youth offender. Offender may also be suffering from anti-social personality disorder.

Offender may be residing at the vicinity of the targeted areas to facilitate his swift escape by foot after the commission of the offence.

'Crime / Security' Characteristics

3 cases of serial rape occurred between the periods from July 2004 to March 2005.

1st case - 12th July 04 (Mon) @ 10pm

2nd case - 10 Mar 05 (Thurs) @ 8pm

3rd case - 11 Mar 05 (Fri) @ 11am

1st case - An unused railway track under the Clementi Avenue 6 flyover

2nd case - Footpath near the Ulu Pandan Park Connector

3rd case - Footpath near the Ulu Pandan Park Connector

All victims were brutally battered into submission, and were physically dragged along the ground towards secluded spots.

No specific victims but they shared similarities; alone at the point of offence commission and were defenceless. Only 1st case involved a 69 years old widow and the remaining two cases involve teenagers

No witnesses for the 3 cases as the incident occurred in secluded spots. The offender is believed to have left on foot after the commission of the offence.

1. 'Police/Security'

Information Checklist

TYPE OF CRIME/SECURITY:

Personal/Property/Corporate/Organised crime / security threat

CRIME/SECURITY ELEMENTS:

Time / Day / Date

(any significance)

Crime/Security location

(indoor / vehicle / outdoor / underwater)

Crime/Security Site

(point of contact / primary scene / secondary scene / Intermediate scene / dump-site or disposal site)

M.O. ELEMENTS (Personal Crime):

Method of Approach

(surprise / con)

Method of Attack

(blitz / surprise / con)

Method of Control

(verbal threats / presence of weapon / physical force - for compliance and-or restraint / use of weapon)

Method of Escape

(on foot / bike / car)

Precautionary Actions

(disguises-bulky clothing / alteration of voice / blindfold / use of gloves / use of condom if sexual assault / use of fire / disposal of victim's clothing / looking at or taking victim identification)

If a Body (left at primary crime site or other site / condition / position )

Item Removal (evidential items / financially valuable items / personal items-as trophy and/or as souvenir)

VICTIM ELEMENTS:

Victim Selection

(availability / location / vulnerability)

(any evidence of relational or opportunistic victim) (any evidence of symbolic criteria / fantasy criteria)

Victim Resistance

(victim compliance / passive resistance /

verbal resistance / physical resistance)

M.O. ELEMENTS (Property Crime):

Method of Entry

(no damage / forced entry)

Method of Search

(random / systematic)

Property Damage

(no damage / malicious damage)

Signs of Arson (use of accelerant)

Property Removal

(valuables / personal)

Method of Escape

(on foot / bike / car)

M.O. ELEMENTS (Corporate Crime):

M.O. ELEMENTS (Organised Crime):

M.O. ELEMENTS (Security threat):

ANY OTHER ELEMENTS

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

'Cross+Check' System

Copyright: Dr. Geoff Dean2nd Quadrant : 'Descriptive'

Information Form

2. 'Descriptive'

Information Checklist

WITNESS(S) STATEMENTS

Record address, sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, occupation, activity at the scene of the crime, witness under influence of drink or drugs, any other specific pieces of information from or about witness(s).

MEMBER(S) OF PUBLIC

Any specific pieces of information about offender, crime, security issue regardless of whether or not it is considered relevant at the time.

INFORMANT(S)/ANONYMOUS CALL

Any specific knowledge/information eg, tips offs, etc., about offender, crime, security.

VICTIM (S) STATEMENTS

Record address, sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, occupation, activity at the of the crime/security issue, victim under influence of drink or drugs, any other specific pieces of information from or about victim.

FORENSIC / PATHOLOGY REPORTS

Any specific information/evidence eg. fingerprints, DNA tests, toxicology, dental records, blood spatter patterns, time of death (if applicable) etc.

INTERVIEWS:

VICTIM'S FAMILY, FRIENDS

Any specific pieces of information about victim as described by family members, friends, work colleagues, acquaintances, and others regardless of whether or not it is considered relevant at the time.

SURVEILLANCE / INTELLIGENCE REPORTS

Any specific pieces of information about suspects, the crime, victim, security issue gathered from surveillance / intelligence operations eg. phone taps, tracking mobile calls, database searches, etc.

OFFENDER (S) CHARACTERISTICS

sex, age, ethnicity, height, accent, build, hair length, hair colour, facial hair, tattoos, distinctive smell, any other distinctive physical features, use of a disguise, offender under the influence of drink or drugs.

Any other specific pieces of information the victim and/or witness(s) described about the offender regardless of whether or not it is considered relevant at the time.

ANY OTHER ELEMENTS

'Reported' Characteristics

Suspect's description was made out by the victims through interviews after police report was lodged. In the 2nd case, the 18 years old foreign student was also robbed of her handphone by the offender.

Suspect was arrested 1 month after the 3rd case and he was sent for psychiatric assessment. Findings revealed he was not suffering from any mental illness and was not of unsound mind at the material time of the offences. Suspect has previous police record.

Tentative Inferences

Police discovered that the suspect had sold the victim's handphone at a second-hand handphone shop and was able to track him down.

Suspect's place of abode and description was given out to resources on the ground to look out for him loitering around the vicinity.

From it, a resemblance on inferences made from the suspect's characteristic from the 1st quadrant (his built and age) was discovered. Resources were put on high alert for the suspect.

Suspect could have 'relapsed' and commit the serial rape.

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

'Cross+Check' System

Copyright: Dr. Geoff Dean3rd Quadrant : 'Diagnostic'

Information Form

'3. 'Diagnostic'

Information Checklist

BEHAVIOURAL ELEMENTS:

'Staging' Behaviour

'staging is conscious action by an offender to thwart an investigation by attempting to conceal, redirect, or manipulate evidence in such a way as to provide a different motive for the crime

'Scripting' Behaviour

'scripting is what the offender said to the victim and how the offender said it as well as what they command the victim to do and/or say. The 'script' the offender uses to direct the victim verbally and behaviourally reveals their ideal fantasy about the nature of the crime.

'Signature' Behaviour

'signature' is behaviours committed by an offender which are not necessary to commit the crime, as they serve to satisfy particular emotional and psychological needs of the offender.

PSYCHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS:

Beh. indicative of developmental dysfunction

Control - often expressed as an obsessional trait arising from developmentally unresolved problems of jealousy and envy.

1.directed at victim's actions

2.directed at the experience of being in control of another person

Power - expressed as threatened or enacted physical or sexual violence.

1. instrumental violence - practical function

2. expressive violence - personal needs function

Fantasy - expressed as eroticized power and aggression. Two types of paraphilias:

1.Remote on non-intimate contact with a target

(fetishism, voyeurism, frotteurism)

2. Forceful intimate intrusion into the target

(sadomasochism, picquerism, ritualized sexual killings, necrophilia, cannibalism)

Beh. indicative of cognitive dysfunction

Psychotic Thinking - expressed in delusions, hallucinations and distorted thinking.

Personality Disorder - expressed as impulsivity & dissociation, dependency, under & over-controlled hostility, paranoid projection and displacement.

hemical Addictions - pathological intoxication, alcohol or drugs - induced psychotic type processes

SOCIO-CULTURAL / POLITICAL ELEMENTS

4 main categories of rapist typology:-

a) Power-Reassurance rapist

b) Power-Assertive rapist

c) Anger-Retaliatory rapist

d) Anger-Excitement (Sadist) rapist

ANY OTHER ELEMENTS

3 styles of approach used by rapist:-

a) The "con" approach

b) The "blitz" approach

c) The "surprise" approach

Motivational Characteristics

Victims were brutally battered and threatened into submission

Victims were dragged to secluded spot by the offender

Inflicts a direct, injurious physical assault to subdue and physically injuries the victim

Physically overpower a women

Inhibits certain fantasy components of the the rape that may arouse the rapist

Tentative Inferences

The offender is possibly an anger-retaliatory rapist, the act is brutally pummelling victim's faces, frightening them into submission and dragging them to secluded spots. The offender could possibly has the following description:

Male

Young adult in his twenties

Work or live at the vicinity

Has felony arrest record

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

'Cross+Check' System

Copyright: Dr. Geoff Dean

4th Quadrant : 'Research'

Information Form

Tentative Inferences

Conduct search with the databases CRO and PID for records of ex-criminals with rape or molest related offences.

Most likely lives or works in the vicinity of the crime scene. May narrow down the CRO and PID searches on ex-criminals residing at the vicinity. (3km radius)

Police resources to conduct extensive surveillance at the neighbourhood and focus on male juveniles and young adults in their twenties.

Police patrol officer to step up spot check at the estate during the night between 7pm to 11.30pm when the dawn sets, except for the last extreme case where the incident occurred before noon.

'Generalisable' Characteristics

The offender has a criminal record. Check with Criminal Record Office (CRO) and

Police Intelligence Department (PID) on ex-criminals with rape or molest related offences.

Offender is likely to be residing or working in the vicinity of the crime scene.

If offender is young adult, should be of low-income or unemployed, as he is able to attack the 3rd victim in broad daylight before noon on a weekday (11 Mar 05, Fri @ 11am).

Check with Police Intelligence Department (PID) for ex-criminals with rape or molest related offences who have just been released from incarceration institutions.

4. 'Research'

Information Checklist

(general crime findings)

CRIMINAL HISTORY

Most serious offenders have a previous criminal history

RESIDENTIAL LOCATION

Most criminals will commit their crimes within a relatively short and predictable distance from their base or residence. This is usually the case with the first few crimes in a series.

CRIME LOCATION

The location of the crime is not random.

Criminals operate out of a mental or cognitive map of their chosen environment. Hence, they develop a working knowledge of where suitable 'target' victims may be found and the safest and quickest route home so as to avoid apprehension.

OFFENDER POPULATION

Most crimes are committed by a minority of offenders. Hence, an individual offender will often be responsible for a series of previous offences that may or may not be directly related to the current crime.

Most offenders tend to be relatively young adult and adolescent males.

Most offenders upon release will probably re-offend, often within a year

MOTIVATIONAL THEMES

'scripting' & 'signature' behaviours reveal the emotional and psychological themes that motivate the offender. Eg. Revenge, rage, etc. depending on the type and nature of the crime.

NARRATIVE THEMES

Most serious offenders reveal one or more prominent themes in how they will generally live their daily life by the manner in which they carry out the crime. Four key themes are:

Criminality / aggression / sadism / intimacy.

SPECIFIC CRIME FINDINGS:

2. 'Descriptive' Information

tentative inferences

Police discovered that the suspect had sold the victim's handphone at a second-hand handphone shop and was able to track him down. The suspect was called in to provide his DNA voluntarily to the police.

Suspect's place of abode and description was given out to resources on the ground to look out for him loitering around the vicinity.

From it, a resemblance on inferences made from the suspect's characteristic from the 1st quadrant (his built and age) was discovered. Resources were put on high alert for the suspect.

Suspect could have 'relapsed' and commit the serial rape.

1. 'Police/Security' Information

tentative inferences

2 out of the 3 cases happened in the night where it is usually quiet at the targeted area, except for the 3rd case which occurred before noon

The offender may be young adult in his early twenties with sufficient strength and energy to drag the victims along the ground and physically assaulted them, not ruling out the possibilities of youth offender. Offender may also be suffering from anti-social personality disorder

Offender may be residing at the vicinity of the targeted areas to facilitate his swift escape by foot after the commission of the offence

3. 'Diagnostic' Information

tentative inferences

The offender is possibly an anger-retaliatory rapist, the act is brutally pummeling victim's faces, frightening them into submission and dragging them to secluded spots. The offender could possibly has the following description:

Male

Young adult in his twenties

Work or live at the vicinity

Has felony arrest record

OUTCOME SPACE

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

'Cross+Check' System

Copyright: Dr. Geoff Dean

4. 'Research' Information

tentative inferences

Conduct search with the databases CRO and PID for records of ex-criminals with rape or molest related offences.

Most likely lives or works in the vicinity of the crime scene. May narrow down the CRO and PID searches on ex-criminals residing at the vicinity. (3km radius)

Police resources to conduct extensive surveillance at the neighbourhood and focus on male juveniles and young adults in their twenties.

Police patrol officer to step up spot check at the estate during the night between 7pm to 11.30pm when the dawn sets, except for the last extreme case where the incident occurred before noon.

INVESTIGATIVE

PRIORITIES

FORM

Case Reference No: Serial Rape

Investigating Officer:

Any other comments:

Although, out of the three victims, only the 69 years old victim was being rape by the offender. It was crucial for the law enforcement to quickly apprehend the offender before another victim being targeted. Also, the fast respond and action determined the capability and credibility of Singapore Police Force throughout.

Given the description of suspect like his age, height and built provided by the victim, police patrol officer to conduct high vigilance check to look out for the suspect at the estate vicinity during the night between 7pm to 11.30pm when the dawn sets. CID task force officers were also deployed on the ground to look out for the suspect.

1

2

Check with CRO and PID on ex-criminals with rape or molestation related offences who have just been released from incarceration institutions. Checks should focus on male young adults who stay around or work at the vicinity of the crime scene.

3

After obtaining the list of ex-criminals with sexual related offences from CRO and PID, searches are to be contained on male young adults, dark complexion, residing at the vicinity of the crime scene.

4

After the 2nd case has been reported by the 2nd victim, the Police discovered that the suspect had sold the victim's handphone at a second-hand handphone shop and was able to track him down. The suspect was called in to provide his DNA voluntarily to the police.

'Snapshot' of likely Offender (s):

Offender is likely to be a male young Indian adult in his twenties who is probably suffering for anti-social personality disorder. He maybe residing at the Clementi estates near to the crime scene and has previous criminal record.

'Cross+Check' System Copyright: Dr. Geoff Dean

Prioritised listing of potential investigative leads & strategies

(based on most significant inferences)

outcome of the investigation

The suspect was arrested in the vicinity of his home on 14 April 2005 when officers from the Criminal Investigation Department Task Force laid an ambush near his place of residence. After his arrest, the accused was charged for 2 counts of rape, 1 count of outraging of modesty and 1 count of robbery.

On 2 February 2006, the accused was sentenced to imprisonment for 20 years and given the maximum 24 strokes of the cane. Dr Stephen Phang, then deputy chief of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, testified in court that the accused was not of unsound mind at the material time of the offences.

The accused was aware that each time he assaulted and raped his victims, he was in fact committing a crime. Further investigations into his background revealed that when he was 16 years old, he had molested his female schoolmates. As a result of these molests, he had to undergo a strict reformative programme at the Reformative Training Centre.

As mentioned by Deputy Public Prosecutor Christopher Ong, 'No woman would be safe from the accused when he is "in the mood" to carry out his depraved attacks.' The arrest of the offender alleviated the atmosphere of fear amongst the community, and prevented stepping out of one's home to be a cause of fear or worry.

Case Discussion

Committing rape is a serious offence in Singapore. Any offender convicted of such an offence will be punished with a mandatory sentence. Below are the general guides spelled out in Singapore Statutes.

Definition of Rape:-

Section 375 of the Penal Code, Chapter 224

(1)  Any man who penetrates the vagina of a woman with his penis -

(a)

without her consent; or

(b)

with or without her consent, when she is under 14 years of age,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(4)  No man shall be guilty of an offence under subsection (1) against his wife, who is not under 13 years of age, except where at the time of the offence -

(a)

his wife was living apart from him -

(i)

under an interim judgment of divorce not made final or a decree nisi for divorce not made absolute;

(ii)

under an interim judgment of nullity not made final or a decree nisi for nullity not made absolute;

(iii)

under a judgment or decree of judicial separation; or

(iv)

under a written separation agreement;

(b)

his wife was living apart from him and proceedings have been commenced for divorce, nullity or judicial separation, and such proceedings have not been terminated or concluded;

(c)

there was in force a court injunction to the effect of restraining him from having sexual intercourse with his wife;

(d)

there was in force a protection order under section 65 or an expedited order under section 66 of the Women's Charter (Cap. 353) made against him for the benefit of his wife; or

(e)

his wife was living apart from him and proceedings have been commenced for the protection order or expedited order referred to in paragraph (d), and such proceedings have not been terminated or concluded.

(5)  Notwithstanding subsection (4), no man shall be guilty of an offence under subsection (1)(b) for an act of penetration against his wife with her consent.

Explanation.

Penetration is sufficient to constitute the sexual intercourse necessary for the offence of rape.

Exception.

Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being separated from the man, or otherwise undergoing proceedings related to separation, and not under 14 years of age, is not rape.

Punishment for Rape

Section 375 of the Penal Code, Chapter 224

(2)  Subject to subsection (3), a man who is guilty of an offence under this section shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 20 years, and shall also be liable to fine or to caning.

(3)  Whoever -

(a)

in order to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offence under subsection (1) -

(i)

voluntarily causes hurt to the woman or to any other person; or

(ii)

puts her in fear of death or hurt to herself or any other person; or

(b)

commits an offence under subsection (1) with a woman under 14 years of age without her consent,

shall be punished with imprisonment for a term of not less than 8 years and not more than 20 years and shall also be punished with caning with not less than 12 strokes.

Conclusion

The investigation and closure of this particular rape case, in which sex is the weapon, required experienced investigators who knew how to utilise the 'Cross+Check' system. As explained by Dr Geoff, the 'Cross+Check' System is a tool that assists investigators to better handle different types of information and then deduce inferences based on that information to solve crime and/or security problems. (Geoff Dean, The 'Cross-Check' System: Integrating Profiling Approaches for Police and Security Investigation, p 24)

Essentially, the 'Cross+Check' System is a valuable knowledge management system to assist the investigative process. Its use may not entirely be limited to investigations however, and may prove itself to be another means for frontline officers to prevent crime and preserve the security of Singapore.

Word Count: 1929 words (excluding headers, words in boxes and references)