Crime Rate In Usa And In China Criminology Essay

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Merton, R.K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press. The book discusses structural and functional analysis of social structure, applied in knowledge of sociology and social sciences. The author discusses some of the sociological themes that have diverse domains of social, economic, educational and political systems within the society. Drawing from the paradigm of anomie and opportunity structure, the author discusses structurally induced deviant behavior, showing why crime is not necessarily a social evil as viewed by many members of the society. The author discuses the nature of anomie theory, explaining how distinctive cultural values of achievement, individualism, universalism and materialism are strongly related to the salient American dream that has played a major role in encouraging crime. This book is relevant in this research as it points out to some factors that encourage criminal activities in the U.S.

Schwendiger, H., & Schwendiger, J. (1975). 'Defenders of Order or Guardians of Human Rights?' in Ian Taylor et al. (eds) Critical Criminology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

The author draws from different theoretical, social, educational, political and state perspectives to give different definitions and perspectives of crime and criminal behavior. Using different examples based on social construction, religious perspective and state legality, the author clearly shows that what people refer to as crime and criminal behavior varies from one community to another, hence there is no universal definition of crime and criminal behavior. This article provides researchers with an insight into different perceptions on crime within different communities embracing the need to broaden or eliminate social relationships in order to have a better understanding of crime.

"Cost of Crime: $674 Billion. (1994, January 17). Cost of Crime. U.S. News and World Report, pp. 40-41.

This article gives details of expenses and losses incurred by the society, businesses and government as a result of crime and criminal behavior in United States. Based on different studies and statistics on crime in the U.S., the article articulates and quantifies the impact of criminal activity on economic and social lives of crime victims as well as the community in which the crime occurred. This article is useful to policy makers and researchers as it provides guidance on statistical information available on cost of each crime and criminal activities in United States.

Messner, S.F., & Rosenfeld, R. (3rd ed.). (2001). Crime and the American Dream.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

This book explores the relationship between crime and the American dream. Drawing from statistical framework on fraudulent criminal activities executed by individuals against organizations as well as crimes executed by organizations, the author shows how the American dream, that emphasizes on material wealth and money as a measure of success has contributed to increasing white collar criminal activities, with the rich working hard to get richer and the poor working hard to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor. In both cases, crime is involved because those who lack access to legal means of acquiring wealth pursue crime as a means of wealth acquisition. Using inequalities within the American Society, the author shows the irony in today's American equal opportunity slogan. The book provides useful information to social scientists, researchers and the government on factors contributing to crime in the U.S.

Xia, M. (2006). Assessing and Explaining the Resurgence of China's Criminal Underworld. Global Crime, 7(2), 152-175.

This article provides information into China's underworld criminal activities for the past two decades. The author uses China's crime statistics to give a quantitative assessment of crime in China by critical examination of organized criminal syndicates and their underworld society. The author shows how challenges from criminal underworld have continued to be a serious threat to Chinese society and authorities and points out to some factors that have encouraged the rapid increase of underworld criminal activities. This article can be useful to researchers, political scientists, government and those seeking information on increasing rate of China's underworld criminal activities as well underlying factors behind rapid increase of crime in China.

Bakken, B. (Ed.). (2005). Crime, Punishment, and Policing in China. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

The book gives critical analysis of increasing crime problem in China. The author explains how increasing crime is partly socially and politically constructed phenomenon, demonstrating that the official Chinese government crime rates are often less representative of actual criminal problems than of strong efforts of government control. The author discusses how China has adopted and implemented Western reforms that have modernized its economy and liberalized its criminal justice policies and institutions, with less regard for communalism as earlier practiced. This has led to increase in criminal activities. The article provides useful information on factors and practices that have led to high crime rate in China.

Quinney, R. (1965). Is Criminal Behaviour Deviant Behaviour? The British Journal of Criminology, 5(2): 132-142.

In this article, the author explores the relationship between criminal law and social norms and how modern crime cannot be controlled by social means. The study uses information obtained from exploring the degree of correspondence between criminal behavior and normative deviation to suggest the relationship between criminal behavior and deviation as well as the relationship between criminal law and social norms. The author articulates that modernization has replaced uniform, stable and consistent social norms formerly practiced in peasant societies with diverse and differentiated values and norms in heterogeneous societies. This has led to increased rate of crime and emergence of hitch criminology, necessitating the use of criminal law as formal means of maintaining social order in differentiated societies because other means of social control are inadequate. The article provides useful information to researchers on changing society trends, modernization and Westernization, showing how they contribute to increasing crime rate in the society.

Reynolds, M.O. (1990). Why Does Crime Pay? National Center for Policy Analysis Backgrounder, No. 110.

The article explains the benefits of crime to criminals. The author draws from crime statistics in United States to show that most criminals are not caught and that only one percent of those caught are put to jail, with the average term served being only 13 months. The article provides useful research information on crime statistics in United States. Highlighting pursuit for material wealth, unequal opportunities in wealth acquisition and lack of effectiveness for state legal systems in crime control as the motivating factors behind high crime rate in U.S. The article provides useful information to social scientists, the government and the researchers on causes of criminal activities in U.S.

Brockmann, H., Delhey, J., Welzel, C., & Yuan, H. (2008). The China Puzzle: Falling Happiness in a Rising Economy. Retrieved, January 21, 2011, from

This research article reviews the impact of massive improvement in material living standards in China. The research findings contradict the assumption that income growth at low living standards leads to profitable individual gains and happiness. The research is based on deprivation theory and the concept of frustrated achievers to show how income inequality in China is increasingly skewed towards upper income strata, a situation that has worsened the financial position of most Chinese. Drawing from the income gap between the poor and the rich, the author shows how Westernization in china has led to financial dissatisfaction that has depressed happiness, hence the emergence of high crime. The article is useful to researchers and social scientist exploring the causes of increased crime in China and relationship between crime, anomie and disaffection in Chinese society.

Hart, H.L.A. (1961). A Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The author gives a critical analysis between the law, coercion and morality in an attempt to clarify whether all laws are conceptualized as coercive orders or as moral commands. The author explains lack of connection between law and morality and points out that existence of legal rights may be devoid of any moral justification. This work is useful to research on crime as it justifies the fact that condemning any act as a crime does not make it illegal, hence the support for crime in pursuance of American dream.