Crime Prevention Principles And Practices Criminology Essay

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In actual democratic word, most of the police forces deceive their citizens by presenting them the numbers of cases in which they have been investigating, and by any skill or chance they get the criminal or clear up the case with justifications on how the case had occurred and how they hope to find out the criminals in order to take them to the court. Most of the time, those police officers that work without uniform usually enjoy higher status than uniformed officers, whereas, within many police agencies, crime prevention officers are seen as public relations functionaries who are less respected and worsened by both the public and their colleagues. To many police officers, crime prevention work is simply not real police work. This is what one can call the excuse of "a bad payer", for the reason that instead of the police to go after the losses, they could be much worried with effective and efficient criminal prevention policies, yet

… within both informal and formal police cultures, crime solving and criminal apprehension are usually more highly valued than crime prevention. An individual officer is more likely to be commended for arresting a bank robber than for initiating actions that prevent such robberies. (Cordner, 1995:3)

Accordingly, crime prevention has to play a big role and has to be the focal point of the police force conceiving effective policies and implementing them efficiently. In general crime prevention requires an intervention in three main areas of action which combined bring good results such as law enforcement, social crime prevention and situational crime prevention. These reduce the dispositions of the individual to perpetrate crime. On other hand, inteady of just to be stuck on these areas of intervention for crime prevention many researchers such as Frank (2011:12-13), Van Dijk (1999) and Brantingham and Faust (1976) argue that crime prevention also has to be done in level models such as "…(1) primary prevention, directed at modification of criminogenic conditions in the physical and social environment at large; (2) secondary prevention, directed at early identification and intervention in the lives of individuals or groups in criminogenic circumstances; and (3) tertiary prevention, directed at prevention of recidivism (Brantingham and Faust, 1976: 284).

Diagram 1.1

Sphere of general crime prevention

crime prevention

Source: adapted by the researcher

Situational crime prevention

The situational crime prevention give more emphasises on the habitat in which the crime can be committed by reducing the opportunities of criminal to commit crime. Clarke (1997:4) conceptualises as "... opportunity-reducing measures that (1) are directed at highly specific forms of crime, (2) involve the management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment in as systematic and permanent way as possible, (3) make crime more difficult and risky, or less rewarding and excusable as judged by a wide range of offenders." Yet this researcher understands that situational crime prevention "... is focused on the settings for crime, rather than upon those committing criminal acts. It seeks to forestall the occurrence of crime, rather than to detect and sanction offenders. It seeks not to eliminate criminal or delinquent tendencies through improvement of society or its institutions, but merely to make criminal action less attractive to offenders" (Clarke, 1997:2). Some researchers such as Frank (2011), Clarke (1997), and Tonry and Farrington illustrated some measures that do help on crime prevention such as surveillance cameras, urban organization, electronic access for cars and for telephone systems, railing houses or locals for commerce, streets illumination, cleaning up of scrub on parks and public places, closures and traffic schemes for residential neighbourhoods, alcohol controls, promotion of sporting and training citizens in conflict management. Individually, everybody do their part as locking the door, secure valuables, counsel the kids, look to buy or build a house in secured neighbourhood, invest on alarms for houses or cars, avoid to be in dark or dangerous places or yet with dangerous people. The situational crime prevention clearly demonstrates that crime issue is not just for the state or the government, yet it's a task for both the citizen and those responsible for the maintenance of law; thus it represents problem-solving undertaken by both private and public sectors.

2.1.1 Law enforcement

This is related to the governmental institutions oriented to the application of the law such as the police, courts and prisons. Frank (2011) argues that in law enforcement crime prevention, the law is applied in order to fortify the rule of law therefore to decrease the index of crime. Furthermore, he bring some examples while illustrating the policing, oriented or non oriented patrol, severely penalize repeat offenders, fight against corruption in public institutions in order to bring trust on them. This strategy of crime prevention also comprises changes of the criminal law, enforcement techniques and sentencing policies where some radical systems such as USA and Chine are encompassed by death penalty involvement of the mass media to discourage the criminals and to tell citizen to be aware on preventive action, so mostly, it acts on deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation and on socialization (Tonry and Farrington, 1995:3-4).

2.1.2 Social crime prevention

Although Tonry and Farrington (1995:3) agree on this designation, they prefer to bring double concepts to signify the same thing. Instead of considering social crime prevention as Frank (2011) has illustrated, they have developmental and community crime prevention. Those understand that the community do influence the behaviour of the individual therefore by changing it physical and socially one can prevent criminal conducts, altering buildings and neighbourhood design, promoting awareness and recreational programs for the youth. In other hand, social governmental programs can prevent crime (Tonry and Farrington, 1995: 9-10). Frank argues that social crime prevention consist in tackling those social factors that can lead to perpetration of crime such as programs focused on the unfavoured families or families with a criminal record who have small children and adolescents and policies on education, employment and promotion of sport. (Frank, 2011:12).

2.2 The PRM reform and crime prevention policies in Mozambique

2.2.1. The PRM

PRM was created as result of great reforms in the policing models as legacies of the colonial era. As soon as the independence launched in Mozambique the police of Mozambique had acquired the name of "Corpo da Policia" (CP), created by law noo 54/75, of 17th of May where both colonial police officer (PSP) and Mozambican from FPLM (Forcas Populares de Libertacao de Mocambique)could be seen working together in a clear demonstration of transmitting experience from the first to the second principally on the traffic police. In 1979 by the force of the law noo 5/79, of 26th May, Popular Police of Mozambique (PPM) was created while a single party process was in fashion, then with the implementation of the rule of law in Mozambique by the constitution of 1990, the Police of Republic of Mozambique (PRM) was created by the force of the law noo 19/92, of 31th December, as a form of preparing the multiparty process and in a clear demonstration to the world of the mind changing of the Mozambican government to a democratic regimes and life where the human rights are above all state rights demanding each and whatever state to promote it. Accordingly, Lorizzo (2001) argues that many policies and law enforcement reforms were undertaken a long time. PRM has got 5 training fields namely Centre of Formation of Officers of Michafute which later was transformed into ACIPOL - Academy of Police Science under the force of the law noo 24/99, on 18th May, centre of formation of unities of PRM of Matalane, Dondo, Nakitiri and training center of Police-dogs in Maputo.

2.2.1 Crime prevention policies in Mozambique

Crime prevention policies in Mozambique lie down under the rule of some laws, and strategic plans, private and public action. Operationally, they may depend on the theories used by the administrator or the police maker bounded by intellectual capacities limitations and lack of enough information (Limdblom, 1959:84). Frank (2011:5-10) basing on the experiences of United Kingdom, argues that crime prevention policies have to be focusing on the outputs or results as well as its conception process has to be inclusive so that all or the main stakeholders could be involved such as government bodies, donors, NGOs, international agencies within the country, communities, civil societies, traditional and religions authorities and citizens; yet it cannot be seen as a debate of "club of friends" with single or similar vision; therefore, apart from the participatory approach, it has to be evidence-based with long term and progressive, as well as they have to plan an institutional coordination within the institution and with various stakeholders. However, it was seen that the PRM due to the nature of the task, '[...] consider only some alternatives, have limited information, and stop searching for a solution when they have found a satisfactory one, instead of holding out for the absolute best course of action' (Deborah, 2002:232). The Institutional Development Strategic Plan for MINT, EDIMINT, contrary to PRM Strategic Plan - PEPRM "... followed a participatory process, and privileged to Consultation Report Diagnostic MINT-2006, the PARPA II, the agenda for 2025 and other strategies of the Government of Mozambique such as Government's Five Year Programme 2005-2009 [1] ; as well as other specific aspects of each area inherent statutory mandate." (MINT, 2008:2). EDMINT as one of the crime prevention policy, in practice has to obey the following principles: observance of legality; respect for Human Rights; provision of a service that meets the needs of the citizen; establishing a close relationship with the community; ensuring the effectiveness of the corporation and efficient use of available resources; participation in the promotion of civic and patriotic; guarantee of non-partisanship, fairness and proportionality; cooperation with other similar organizations in the region and the world (ibdem). "The EDIMINT, is based on seven pillars: Institutional Aspects; Development Human Resources, Administration, Finance and Logistics, Information Technology and Communication, Equipment and Materials, Infrastructure, and Transversal Aspects."(ibdem) [2] . Yet, the pillars of the EDMINT are just focalizing to the reforms of the MINT denying the crime prevention strategies as such as illustrated on the PEPRM. MINT comprises DIC (civil identification), Commando General, the Body of Public Salvation-Fire Department and Migration and has the following duties: ensure the security, peace and public order; protect people and property; preventing and combating crime; ensure the identification of national and foreign citizens in the country; ensure the movement of people across borders; preventing and fighting fires and natural disasters.

In general crime preventions have to focus in three scenarios: the victim, the environment and the criminal; accordingly, EDMINT has identified relevant endogenous and exogenous factor of favourable for the practice of crime which can be closely related to factors internal and external to the country. For the internal factors, there are highlight the following: first, the state of absolute poverty originated among other causes by the high cost of living and inflation, the continuous rural exodus to the cities, the high rate of unemployment, the increase of street children, beggars and the mentally ill; the proliferation of informal markets products that facilitate the transaction of illicit origin; the difficulty of mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Second, there is a weak criminal justice system and social control. This manifests as follows: weaknesses in the functioning of the Board of administration of justice; the impunity of criminals and offenders in general; the lack of skilled manpower, material and financial resources; the proliferation of firearms in the hands of others, that are used in the commission of unlawful acts; the prevalence of criminal law outdated, inapplicable and excessive formalism; third, the obscurantism and degradation of moral and cultural values; lastly, the abuse of alcohol and drugs (MINT, 2008).

The Mozambican crime prevention policies such as Consultation Report Diagnostic MINT (2006), PARPA II, the agenda for 2025, Government's Five Year Programme, PEPRM and EDMINT have specific principles as guide lines underlining strategies for crime prevention. For these issues, most of them have an area of public order, security and tranquility. These major principles as well as those shaped on laws that guide the PRM are then undertaken by different sectors in form of plans of action such as (i) NEP [3] bringing guidelines of the patrol and vigilance, sectorization (social help) and Community Policing according to the local where has to be practiced, (ii) instructions from the Commander General of PRM, (iii) Directives from the Ministry, (iv) Operative Plans which can be annual, those which are mostly approved by the Ministry and implemented by the field commanders or directed to an action specifying a certain operation or action originating from the both top or the base. Each of these are transformed or adapted following the reality of each place or field (province or district) [4] 

While the MINT and the PRM are institution responsible on the combat and prevent crime (law 19/92 of 17th May and CRM), there are many other public and private institutions developing crime prevention policies. Reisman and Lalá (2012:29-45) illustrates some examples of participation of private and public institution on crime prevention through their institutional strategic plans or initiatives.

"The PGR underwent a period of institutional assessment and strategic planning and its Strategic Plan 2011-2014 was approved in October 2011. The Plan envisages a greater involvement of public administration, private sector, civil society and communities in crime prevention actions, promoting ethics and moral values, inter-institutional articulation and coordination and the consolidation of the GCCC…"(Reisman and Lalá, 2012: 29).

The PGR has been controlling the Central Office for Combating Corruption, the GCCC [5] substituting the former Anti-Corruption Unit, and apart from the headquarters in Maputo, the GCCC has regional offices in Beira and Nampula.

The Ministry of Education (MINED) has been drawing education policies and strategies for upgrade the knowledge of national citizens creating peace and health promotion. Their later Zero Tolerance to Sexual Abuse Against Children Campaign illustrates clearly their participation in the crime prevention; moreover, the MISAU has the Integrated Victims of Violence Program where they work in coordination with MINT, MINJUS and MMAS. The MMAS has created a joint venture with LDH working together on excluded groups as result of drugs addicts, detainees, street children, and mental illness including those living with HIV/AIDS; besides, these provide social, material and nutritional support as well as psychosocial interventions a task that normally contradicts with the activities of INAS (Waterhouse, 2007:4).

In the private and NGOs sector, Reisman and Lalá, 2012 underline the efforts of the UNICEF - united Nations Children Fund which has been working on the promotion on children's rights in Mozambique focusing on guns/small arms, alcohol and drugs, gender based violence, early childhood development, and urban design/child-friendly spaces. They tackle the Children in Conflict with the Law 2) Children in Contact with the Law; 3) Prevention of Violence against Children. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the European Union (EU) have helped on the reforms of the security sectors such as the PRM, on community policing and police training at Matalane boosting the institutional development a crime investigation sector.

USAID and the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) have drawn their strategies tackling specifically HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, municipal governance, anti-corruption, and girl's scholarships.

Many NGOs such as Women's Rights and Victimization, Forum Mulher (Women's Forum), Muleide, NHAMAI, Children's Rights and Victimization, RedeCAME, Rede da Criança,REDICEM/ROSC, ARES, Human Rights League (Liga de Direitos Humanos or LDH), FDC are focusing on primary and secondary crime prevention focusing on women and children developing programs helping them judiciary, psychologically, economically, on conflit resolution, researches research, exposure, advocacy, monitoring, and awareness building, creating and promoting peace, safety, and Security, democracy and Human Rights, community empowerment, reintegration & Development. Thoguether with these NGOs there are CIP (Centre for Public Integrity (Centro de Integridade Pública), FDC, JOINT, The Mozambican Law Society or Bar Association (OAM), National Youth Council (CNJ), JUSTAPAZ,

IEPA: (Institute for Peace Building for Lusophone Countries), PROPAZ, FOMICRES: The Mozambican Force for Crime Investigation and Social Reinsertion. Furthermore, there are religious organizations with the similar purpose such as acting in the areas of human rights, democracy, HIV/AIDS, and peace building. Conselho Cristão de Moçambique (CCM), Conselho de Religiões de Moçambique (COREM) and REMAR are some exaples of religious organization in Mozambique with some action in prol to the crime prevention. Toguether with these NGOs there are the private sectors as campanies, SASOL, MOZAL, Moçambique em Acção: Moçambique em Acção (Mozambique in Action) is a social responsibility program created by the SOICO Group, an independent media company. VALE Moçambique. These are more tackling on social crime prevention in Mozambique crating programs of education, housing, employment and recreation. Lastly who join to all above is the media Media and Academia and Research Institutes.

These private and public institutions have created some promising crime prevention initiatives covering the principles of law enforcement, social and situational crime prevention. For instance the following initiatives are undergoing in the Mozambican territory: Well developed civil society networks: a network created by many organizations with their roots in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment; moreover, they most of them have focused on women and children; the Police Station (Esquadra) Based Violence Victim Support Units, normally known as Gabinetes de Atendimento à Mulher e Crianca attending cases linked with domestic violence based on the law of "domestic violence"; Dialogue Mechanisms: serves as a bridge between the government or the international partners and citizen serving as thermometer of the government, NGOs or donors plans; the Juvenile justice interventions focusing on children in conflict with the law ; Legal Aid for the provision of legal aid; Child Help Line: The Child Help Line (Linha Fala Crianca)a system Created to facilitate case reporting receiving reports, proving counseling to children, generating data on crime against children; Crime reporting system and Crime Observatory, a PRM initiative with support from UNDP is a new crime reporting system; Community radio, created in rural areas for awareness, Working with Men on GBV focusing on men groups to explore traditional gender stereotypes with purpose to overcome negative social pressures of masculinity and create a men with acceptable social values, Community courts and tribunals and safety volunteers: most of which members of the community policing councils; Integrated support for victims of violence providing integrated support to victims of violence and bring together multiple service providers (Reisman and Lalá, 2012). However, the questions to be risen are if these initiatives do cover the necessities of Mozambican and with which coverage, for the local media still reporting cases of human right violation from both the society and those responsible for guaranteeing safety.

2.3 Conclusion

Its universal understanding that for the occurrence of any crime there three are necessary three elements to exist: the victim, the environment and the criminal. Meanwhile, if one of these elements has been removed, the crime will not occur or be existing. But in doing so is the same to kill the society and this is a radical way of crime prevention. The best way of attempting to reduce the victimization and to detain criminals and crime has to be the governmental or private effort on law enforcement, social and situational crime prevention. Mozambique has been having many projects in different areas of development in the name of development, but at the end these projects and programs contribute to the crime prevention.