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Crime and Victimization
The Criminal Justice system today is our scale of judgment. It plays a major part in how we live and how we perpetuate to live among all the perils, evil and corruption that circumvents us. Without it there wouldn`t be the fine line of right and erroneous, there wouldn`t be judicatory. Those that are considered victims in our criminal judicatory would turn and become the aggressors and the transgressors if we didn`t have a Legal Structure, and we would live in a world of chaos. Many individuals each have a role to play in our criminal judicatory structure; there are the criminal and the victims who engender the hapless events to which judicatory has to be accommodated and then there are the bulwark attorneys and the prosecutors who do their best to upload the judicatory structure and ascertain that judicatory is accommodated. In the United State today, there is no standard when it comes to penalization and sentencing. This area of the criminal judicatory structure is one that is in constant flux. Sentencing practices and goals are always under scrutiny. Since time commenced, there was malefaction and with malefaction came the desideratum to penalize transgressors. How transgressors were penalized and the methods abaft the penalizations transmuted throughout the times. Standards of penalization peregrinate from proscription and fines to torture and “blood feunds.”(Siegel & Senna, 2005).
Victimology is considered the study of victimization which includes connections between victim and the offender as well as the interactions between the victim and our criminal judicatory structure which can include the police, courts, and rectification officials. It’s withal paramount to ken that victimology is not constrained to the connection between the victim, offender, and the criminal judicatory structure, but it can additionally involve connections between convivial forms of kineticism and many forms of human rights contravention (Garver, 2009). Victimology was born in the 1940’s after two criminologists from Europe denominated Von Hentig and Mendelson, additionally kenned as the fathers of victimology commenced studying victims of malefactions. Their theory was that the victim’s deportment as well as their posture was the cause of the malefaction to be committed. During its birth, the focus of victimology was on how the victims were equipollently responsible for certain malefactions with the offender (Carson, 2009). By the 1960’s the focus of victimology shifted towards the rights of victims due to forms of kineticism such as the Civil Rights forms of kineticism and the feminist forms of kineticism. From the 1970’s to the 1990’s victimology turned towards ways to stop future malefactions from transpiring, avail victims of malefactions to become organized and empowered, and to more preponderant understand the population of victims. Today, malefaction victims still remain the focus of victimology. However, victimology has drastically expanded to include victims in many areas such as terrorist attacks, hate malefactions, discrimination, war, and genocides. Additionally, there is additionally a fixate on how to treat deportments of the victims due to victimization so that the victims can return to a mundane life at a more expeditious pace (Carson, 2009).
Crime in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, late May 2014
Marcelo Gomez was taking the bus home from a soccer match at Maracana stadium, where the World Cup final will be played, when a teenager slid into the seat contiguous to him and another boy took the seat abaft him. “The one adjacent to him growled at Gomez to hand over his wallet and cell phone, whispering that his friend had a gun. The 35-year-old truck driver didn't optically discern any weapon, but as is standard practice in Brazil, where purloiners often kill if met with resistance, he handed over his paraphernalia. The boys then moved on to glom another passenger a few rows back, then others after that” (Barchfield, 2014, para.2). Cravinhos, a man who friends verbalize relucted to work and didn’t study, provided drugs to his teenage girlfriend Suzanne. Suzanne’s parents, being conservative and from a well-to-do family, were pressuring her to breakup and had cut her allowance as a penalization for defying their wishes. In my opinion there is a link to the malefactions that these individuals commit, the structure that engenders the law enforcement officials that do not seem to do enough to avail the general public that is need due to the growing number of malefaction reports that occur worldwide. No matter what our position is whether it be a criminal offender, a judge, or a person who is just standing by we all play a role in malefaction and victimization.
Human rights commenced to progress considerably since only the mid 1970’s (MacDonald, 2002). A transformation of criminal judicatory and malefaction control since the 1970’s, including the incipient expanding fixates on the victim (MacDonald, 2002), and has withal contributed towards the engenderment of incipient aims in regard to victims. The aims have been composed by modifications caused by convivial forms of kineticism, international influence, and a diversion from welfare35 to retributive judicatory. In 1998, standards on victim assistance and treatment were published in a major report discussing the role of the victim in criminal judicatory. The slow efforts to ameliorate the position of the victim designate punctiliousness, since the fundamental component of criminal judicatory perpetuates to be the tribulation. It is consequential to consider the extent to which the victim is favored at the expense of the tribulation structure and felicitous functioning. Victims are essential to the criminal structure to bring malefaction to attention36, albeit only a minuscule minority has any formal dealing with it. They are asked to cooperate, identify an offender and give evidence as witnesses. Despite their value, the relationship between victims, offenders and criminal process inclines to be problematic. One of the reasons could be the conceptualization of malefaction as an erroneous against society (Uglow et al, 2002). Therefore, injuctive authorizations of individual victims do not carry any paramountcy. In integration, the adversarial 37 nature of English judicatory, in which a tribulation is perceived as a contest between the State and the defendant, and a vigorous accentuation is put on the principle of orality and life cross examinations, is additionally in conflict with victims’ needs (Uglow, 2002).
A Local Crime
Every year thousands of children fall victim to the malefaction of child abduction. The Children’s Passport Issuance Vigilant Program (CPIAP) is one of the most recent implements that have been put into place to avail curb this terrible malefaction trend. The program sanctions parents the ability to register their U.S. citizen children under the age of 18 in the Department’s Passport Lookout Structure. This is a great implement that can provide parents an advance warning to possible international peregrinate plans of their children. I cerebrate that this is a good step in the right direction to avail curb this hazardous malefaction and giving parents some tranquility of mind but we still need to do a lot more.
One of the things that I would recommend doing is working with other countries for example a peregrine embassy or consulate in the United States to avail control this effort to ascertain that passport issuance is performed with more stringent guidelines. By developing a passport issuance, control and vigilant structure with other countries this should avail in curbing the malefactions that occur with child abduction from the United States to other countries. We must commence to care more as a local community in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, yes we do have accommodations in place and phone numbers to call such as the “Lock U Up” hotline, but we require to do more to collaborate.
In the terminus when an individual commits an act of violence on another, not only is an innocent individual becoming victimized but so are society members, the criminal judicatory structures, and the wrongdoer. Before a professional denotes subsisted to deal with transgressors, individuals and society members would take it upon them to deal with the situation in an informal but swift manner. With modernization came sophisticated conceptions, the development of a licit structure, and a formal way to deal with transgressors. Today transgressors are penalized with the utilization of intermediate sanctions and community base rectification. Restorative judicatory is just one method of penalization utilized that sanctions the judicial structures the opportunity to rehabilitate an offender and the victims. Everyone becomes a victim when an individual’s decides to commit a malefaction.
Barchfield, J. (2014). Crime Surges in Brazil Ahead of World Cup. Huffington Post 30(2), 2.
Garver, M. S. (2009). A maximum difference scaling application for customer satisfaction researchers. International Journal of Market Research, 51(4), 481-500.
Carson, Cat (2009). History of Victimology. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/history-victimology-3959506.html
Siegel, L.J., Senna, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Criminal Justice tenth edition.
Uglow, S., Cheney, D., Dickson, L. & Doolin, C., 2002. Criminal justice.
MacDonald, J.M. (2002). The Effectiveness of Community Policing in Reducing Urban Violence, Crime & Delinquency, 48(4), 592-618. doi: 11.1278/001112803713181