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The dawn of the new democratic South Africa put a huge pressure on state department to a change and re-aligns their focus and relevancy with regard to constitutional and political correctness. The South African police service among others had to bolster and improve its image and constitutional correctness and relevancy. It was mainly on the mandate and the total image which included demilitarization and more important the policy position as a guiding role including operational day to day work performance. Standard operating procedures relating to new philosophical approach and the strategic understanding of its impact at face value of the organization and the community they serve.
The fact that community policing implementation within the two identified stations in Gauteng North is constantly changing, this indicators cannot be generalized to the whole of the (9) nine Provinces of the Republic of South Africa. Our communities are by their nature very diversed. The following for understanding of integrated implementation of this adopted policing philosophy. Specific principles relate to accountability, integrity, impartiality and effective service.
How individual police officials act in relation to application and implementation of community policing the standard operating procedures must always is adhered to. The change may be due to the demand of the community. The partnership that must be there and the structures that must be formed are by nature the core of community policing.
There are very specific difficulties relating to implementation and the understanding by members within sectors on relationships. The core f community policing in the station that formed the population of the researched has been the focus on sector policing as foundation. If this type of structures are build and understood by all relating to their functioning the core principles are easily understood.
For the constant change of the implementation process the causative factor, relate to the continuous changing factor of the communities around the two stations on socio, political and economic factors.
Community participation is affected by the notion of police reservists who a high number of them are currently not working and are forming an integral part of the forum. Youth is also included and they have their own interests. The practical is enforcing some community members not to be more concern about being part of the structures.
Chapter 1 Introduction and Background
Central Theoretical Statement
Selecting the Target Groups
Data Collection Methods
Identification of Variables
Chapter 2 Introduction
The Political Influence in Community Policing
The Impact of Community Policing Policy on Implementation
South Africa's Community Policing Policy
Definition of Concepts
Chapter 3 Introduction
Major Study Themes
The Study Population and Sampling
Data Collection Techniques used for the study
Analysis of Results and Discussion
Validity and Reliability
Scope and Limitations
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The status of policing in South Africa since the creation of the new democracy has been influence by a number of factors. The history of the police and their method of operation was characterized by a high level of atrocities due to divide and rule system of government of the past.
After the first democratic elections in South Africa, one of the most important aspects was to ensure that the police and the community has to work together in order to maintain and manage law and order. The constitution compelled the police to have structures that were going to enable the harmony of the relationship between them (police), and members of the society.
Community policing philosophy was then adopted from the British model of policing by the South African Police Service management and the government as a whole. This was to be the model to be followed and was considered to be the best for the new democracy. Politicians were very much aware of how the police were used by the past government, which was not in accordance with the human rights. Community policing became the new corporate strategy for the SAPS( Burger,2007:99).
According to Brogden and Nijhar (2005: 13) the concept of community policing is described as a very difficult borrowed concept or approach that still need to be internalized by the importers and exporters. This particular analysis holds water for Southern Africa as importers of the concept. It has been used by the politicians to enable the softening of the hostile views and feelings of the Southern African communities towards the police in general.
The concept at philosophical level is borrowed in order to address most communities' law and order concerns. From the views of Van Rooyen (1994:100) he looks at community policing demands in order to reach the objective of policing. Most important is the ability of members to interact with communities relating to the matters affects them. He also covered a lot of ground in chapter, of his book traditional policing approach. This he define around the issue of management and discipline which was core for para-military form of policing.
In the first five years of democracy the South African Police had to do away with the para-military style of policing and amalgamation process was encouraged all the eleven police agencies became one Service the South African Police Service in 1995. The management did away with two military ranks the Lieutenant and Major, there was also an initiation of new names of ranks which were more service orientated and public friendly.
According to the sentiments shared by Hughes et al (2006:102) he describe the principal duty of the police as prevention of crime which was the core of Peelian vision of policing in the early nineteenth century. This is what is very difficult and stereotype approach to policing which most country suffer from including South Africa.
The establishment of community policing in South Africa brought some of the most interesting challenges to the SAPS management. Burger (2007: 97) looks more on the impact of legislative and policy framework of the period 1994-1996 as far as this approach is concern. One will understand that the impact of this is very important for this study. He further looks at what drove the politicians to encourage the philosophy of community policing within SAPS.
For this study it is important to define community policing as a philosophy in order to draw a vivid departure point. According to Trojanowicz et al (2001:1) community policing is defined as a dramatic change in the philosophy that determines the way law enforcement agencies interact with the public. They further extent on their idealism of the philosophy as not only a merely means to address community concerns but as a philosophy that turns traditional policing on its head by empowering the community rather than dictating to it.
The other prominent view is that community policing is a grassroots form of participative democracy rather than a representative top down approach to addressing contemporary community life (Trojanowicz et al 2002:2). This view of the definition of the concept has the underlying foundation which will be important for the implementation of the philosophy of community policing.
Miller and Hess (2008:52) look at the concept community as specific geographic area served by a police department or law enforcement agency and the modus dual organizations and agencies within the area. The South African view on community will hold the same sentiments. When the focus is placed on how to implement it will be important to explore this specific view and its implications.
Since the conception of community policing as an approach within the SAPS there has been a number of official instructions given. The main issues relate to the fact that implementation keeps on changing. It seems as if any person who has authority determine how community policing must be implemented and applied in a given area of duristriction or station precinct.
For the countries that have been applying community policing it is rather difficult to draw comparative/comparison due to the nature of South African and the foundations of SAPS. We are the growing economy first; the vast land of our country is rural and per-rural. A small percentage is urbanized and all this have an influence in policing and social fiber of our country.
The objective of this research is to determine why or what is a course for community policing within South Africa to be a constant changing phenomenon.
The primary objective of this research is to find out, why is it that the application of community policing within the SAPS is never constant across the understanding of all the role players.
The secondary objective of the research is to come up with the correct measures of assisting in the establishment of a solution to the problem relating to constant changing phenomenon of the community policing.
CENTRAL THEORETIAL STATEMENT
The fact that one is not going to look into numbers of people who are applying community policing but the quality relating to the understanding of the philosophy and it validity of application that may lead to it being constant rather than the continuous changing.
In the literature review, more specific material relating to community policing will be consulted. Relevant authors who have written on the subject within the South African context will be consulted and their views are explored.
Official documents that are available within the South African Police Service relating to guidelines and rules for implementation of community policing will be scrutinized. The impact on practical implementation will be indicated and be explored.
The logical argument presentation will be followed and be enhanced by the articulation of views by the views expressed on the implementation and the understanding of community policing as a philosophy for contacting the activities relating to the core of policing.
The researcher will have structured interview with the management of two stations within Tshwane North Temba cluster, which will be Temba police station as well as Hammanskraal police station. For members of visible policing who are doing crime prevention within the sectors, there will be questionnaire, which will have close and open-ended questions. Some of the questions will have liked scale within which members can make choice on the vases of the questions asked for a specific category. My unit of analysis will be limited to the members within in the two stations who are hands on with respect to community policing.
The sample size will be based on 10% of the whole population target as indicated in the paragraph of unit of analysis.
The nature of this study is qualitative and the research design is characterized by the same method, it is therefore responsive to the context, which is an evaluation of community policing implementation within the two stations in Temba cluster Tshwane North, which are namely Temba and Hammanskraal. It is also imperative to mention that the geographical nature of the said location is both rural and per-urban in nature.
The study will involve within its planning the two most important phases in research which are data gathering and analysis of which the research will move to and from in the approach sequence. The focus of semi-structured interview will be conducted with managers of the stations then the members who are operational at both station on crime prevention or visible policing who are performing sector policing as a method of community policing implementation.
Due to diversity of the communities within which members are performing their duty, the continuous decision-making will form the core during the progress of the study in order to strengthen the data quality from the unit of analysis. Such concurrent control mostly is reliant on the strategic viewpoint chosen for the nature of the study. It must be understood that this is done in relation to the main research question and the context of the study or project. A specific methodology will then determine the strategies that are chosen for the study, in this case the qualitative methodology.
The main purpose of the study is to answer the research questions and its goals. Due to the nature of the study in order to guard against deviation, the research design will be treated as a problem that must be carefully considered throughout the study. In semi-structure interview for the fact that for qualitative research this are a sole source of information, care will be taken in scheduling the interviews due to the commitment of the subjects on daily basis due to the nature of their duty which should not be disturbed. The will be manageable question which will serve as the foundation for the interviews. The researcher will enhance some based on the developments for data quality occurring the interview.
SELECTING THE TARGET GROUPS
For this study the members of the police from the two stations who are responsible for community policing and are within visible policing have been identifies as the target group. In order the ensure similarities those that are performing their duties within the sectors as sector managers and or performing crime prevention will be added to the target group.
Of the utmost important, to consider will be the demographic data, which will have, and indication of experience, which may be the factor during the interviews. Most important to consider is that interviews will be conducted with the station managers as well as the sector managers together with their people or sub ordinates. Other technical aspects of the study regarding validity will be ensured by employing relevant methods to deal with instruments and their quality.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Data will be collected through the utilization of questionnaires that will be administered at the two police stations of the SAPS Temba cluster.
IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES
Variable will be identified and their influence on the results will be controlled in order to preserve the validity of the research results as well as that of the instruments used.
Most important for this part will be to see whether there is any relationship between dependant and independent variables. Due to the nature of my research questions, it is very important to recognize whether the third variable is present and what will be its influence of the research results if it is not controlled in order to ensure minimal influence or none. This is because a number of issues within the SAPS can influence implementation of community policing. The management view of the concept and their understanding. The policy and guidelines, and the knowledge of members who had to carry out the duties.
To control the known threats will be imperative in this study. The reaction of subjects is very important measure to be noticed or subject effects. Because the researcher works within the SAPS, experiments effects will also had to be monitored in order to exercise control and fairness.
Data analysis will be done on the raw data that would have been collected. The most important factors relating to data analysis will be to give clear indication of the significance relating to research question.
Due to the rise of the population, the statistical information will be limited.
Community policing introduction and practice has brought a number of issues within the South African Police Service (SAPS) since its introduction in the early 90's. the researcher looked at a series of features within policing that were influenced by the dawn of the democratic South Africa. The changes that needed to be in place due to the process that was followed by the country's political fraternity in setting the stage for the democratic election in South Africa.
The core issues that drove the idea within the researcher's sphere of influence has been the observation based on implementation of community policing. The philosophy of community policing, as a concept is not an African issue. This is the borrowed concept that had its own challenges. Besides the fact that it became a very attractive concept that was to among all address the past secretive practices of the apartheid police, almost people viewed it as the one aspect that would bring the community and the police closer.
The challenges that were brought by the philosophy cover legislative impact and policy framework. With the policy guidelines directives and implementation, some changes were undertaken by the SAPS to ensure compliance. The core of the problem statement emanated from the same state of affairs. As South Africa as a country is a growing economy, socio-economic status of communities have a great influence on policing and how such communities are to be policed.
For the police to find all relevant facts relating to the implementation and monitoring of community policing there are various factors to consider. The study communities that have been identified have some challenges that need to be confronted. The South African Police Service must ensure that there are clear guidelines to be followed in the practical and maintainenace of community policing. If these guidelines are not continually monitored, its sustainability will be to no avail.
The main challenge as far as the legitimacy of community policing and its success is always the reflection on the comparison on ability to work in partnership with the community and the crime being committed within the area of responsibility. If balance can be found in the harmony of the relationship or partnership, then high level of success in solving crime should be achieved. The main challenge in the problem statement is that community policing seem to be a constantly changing phenomenon within the two stations that have been identified.
The origin of community policing philosophical approach in South Africa is a very important era that brought about transformation and the total change in policing as an activity. Most important is the fact that South Africa is a very complex country with diverse people and infrastructure. The difference between the rural and urban areas as far as policing is concern has a very different complex on community policing implementation. It is therefore very important that in the approach to the topic all relevant discussion points are understood, and clarified. To be able to put the setting of this study the notion of comparison of policing practice style will serve as a point of reference. The developments that forced the country to adopt community policing as a foundational model of policing in South Africa will the foundation of the study focus. To bring the factual relevancy of the continual change in implementation of the philosophy of community policing the cumulative historical perspective will be the focus point.
Important writing relating to research on community policing will be articulated as a source for a case to be presented. The focus point will be on the South African Police Service as a unit of research within which only two stations within the Temba cluster were considered. The way in which rules and regulations affecting the organization and its members changed from their understanding, interpretation and application of community policing philosophy. The focus point will be in relation to the status of community policing and what authors are saying about its nature, application and its implementation. Even though some materials are written within the international context, the core focus will be on South African experience.
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
The orientation of community policing
The feeling that one has about the order of policing pre-democracy is that African people were more on the receiving end. The police in South Africa were ruthless to the people of color as compared to white people regardless of their orientation. The same type of treatment took place in Britain. According to Steven and Yach (1995:IX) on 10 April 1981, following an intensive street policing operation to combat robbery in Brixton, London, tension between police and the section of local community came to a head. There was an unrest that led to members of community damaging property but the core issue was the fragile relationship between police and in particular, the black section of the public. Racial disadvantages, discrimination, social deprivation and sense of powerlessness felt by black members of the community were very much at the heart of the disorders. It is easy now, as South Africa's democracy begins to grow and strengthen, to forget the pain of its birth. However, to form a coherent understanding of community policing in South Africa, it is necessary to look back on that experience. For it is here, in the vicious political violence that engulfed the country shortly after the unbanning of the liberation movements in February 1990 that the shape of South Africa 's community policing was championed (Pelser, 1999).
The same type of disorder characterized South Africa before the release of President Mandela from prison and other political prisoners. Issues of balancing the legitimate and sometimes apparently conflicting dual aims of law enforcement and maintenance of public tranquility is very important, Steven and Yach (1995:IX), the idea and the main facts is that in order to address concerns of the public, they need to be consulted and their opinions be taken into consideration. The idea of policing within communities was the issue of Ubuntu where members cared for one another. They also looked after one another's properties in the sense of animals, the lack of respect for others property was highly discouraged traditionally. Thieves were killed if found or sent out of the village and were not accommodated in societies.
In his monograph (Pelser, 1999) agree with the ideas shared by Steven and Yach in the sense that all illustrated relate for the experience of the people in Britain were the same as those experienced by the blacks during the old era in South Africa. The principle that the police have an obligation to 'preserve the fundamental and constitutional rights of each individual in South Africa, to 'secure the favor and approval of the public', to use the least possible degree of force, to 'be sensitive to the 'balance between individual freedom and collective security' and to act in a professional and honest way, as stated by the National Peace Accord and the code of conduct, has not been easy to the SAPS to practice. The police had a very stereotype way of dealing with the community that was by its nature and orientation against the Human Rights. The main issue was to implement a process of transformation to achieve a meaningful change
The current trends of community policing is based on the following, that
First, the community itself should be the primary focus not the police. The focus must be on community problems. Police are important resource in supporting community safety.
Secondly, the community is not a homogenous entity. It comprises a multitude of different groups whose views and problems are varied, not only by race but also by age, sex, religion, class, income and other variables.
Members of the community are themselves involved in a great deal of informal social control.
Fourthly, it is the community who should in the main determines whether police in the formal sense are to be involved in resolving community conflicts.
Fifthly, police need to understand the feelings and perceptions of different groups in the community and the extent to which certain sections of the community may suffer disproportionately from the effects of crime and disorder.
Sixthly, police need to reflect the society they police. They need to be more representative of the community. This is vital to improving communication with confidence in police and easy tension. The essence is that the public have right to be actively involved in determining how policing is developed, Steven and Yach (1995:X).
The above-mentioned foundation of community policing covers a series that adopted this particular model. The inclusion of communities in the approach to ensure that they become the integral part of decision making into how they must be policed is a very important part of the approach. The experiences in South Africa have the same kind of orientation. The police where operating far from the community and only came into the scene when there were lawlessness or infringements of the rules. It could be argued that policing was done in this manner emanated from the practice of apartheid system of government where members of the community were partial role players relating to how they were policed. The system will be referred to in the study to clarifying the why question. The SAPS mastered what one can refer to as policing by default.
2.3 THE POLITICAL INFLUENCE IN COMMUNITY POLICING
From the early day of democratic government in South Africa, there were many challenges that gave rise to complicated situations that the government had to deal with. There were very high expectations from black African people after the African National Congress (ANC) won the first democratic elections. The white African communities on the other hand, were faced with fears that emanated from the past because they were well aware of how black African people suffered in their hands. The core facts relate to the fact that communities are not necessarily stagnant in their way of life, they continuously change and adapt to the new ways.
According to Stevens and Yach (1995:2) this is how they see the picture of South Africa. They stated that it was characterized by diversity in income, employment, education, religion, experience, location, class, race, gender and sexuality age and culture. Power struggles, competition for limited resources and poverty remaining realities within the new democratic South Africa. Policing was the contested terrain and a site of struggle particularly during the apartheid years. It was one the strongest organization, armed and well managed besides being absolute loyal to the powers that were controlling the country and sustained them.
The manner in which the above observation was stated still has a very high relevancy level to the status of South Africa. The police are very important to the government and very instrumental in dealing with the events that may threaten the State. This is the 18th year since the first democratic elections were held and the new government took over but for most of the people, there are no real changes socially and economically. The sentiments that are shared by Stevens and Yach, 1995 are very prevalent and are taking a very different nature as they evolve. Poverty is part of our lives in South Africa within the nine (9) Provinces. The distribution of economic wealth is highly unbalanced. The work exposure and the real experience are very much in infancy stage in core areas that must boost the economy. The rule of law is in a very vulnerable but stable condition. Power struggle and competition, which is characterized by high levels of corruption, create a bleak future for the country. The political stability and the level of poverty of the countries neighboring South Africa are not helping any of the aspirations and expectations of the South Africans. In this completely changing environment, the most important aspect is still the transformation of the police from concepts and ideologies as well as the philosophies of the past to the progressive shared vision of democratic policing.
South Africa does not have a history or tradition of community oriented policing nor is there a legacy of policing by consent. There has, until recently been an absence of laws protecting civil liberties and basic freedom, Stevens and Yach (1995:2)
It is true because the generation that was always abused by the police and oppressed by apartheid government is alive and sharing the views and experiences of the past. As democracy dawned, communities are expecting the change and transformation realities through observable tangible changes, which are not pacing up with other organizational trends. When any wrong step is, taken by the police, members of the society are very nippy remembers what happened in the past and that is used as the yardstick they use to measure the police.
According the Stevens and Yach (1995: 2) there is still a legacy of mistrust and suspicion of the police and the public still regard the police as partisan. When any member of the service is found to be against, the law public is very quick to speculate on the service history of such a person. The fact relating to whether sheer buy in and a deeper understanding of community policing as a philosophy that needs to be followed in realizing democratic policing.
Van Rooyen (1994: 13-19) shares more specific points about what community policing is not. Some of the aspects include small programmes that are accepted, mutual trust between the police and community, delegation of responsibilities and the establishment of direct lines of communication. The fact is that such elements may be present in the implementation of community policing, but they are not community policing by themselves.
For the above discussed ideas and fact Stevens and Yach (1995:12) agrees with these facts by stating that police sometimes quite wrongly assume the monopoly of good ideas on good community relations and good policing. The essence is that the public have a right to be actively involved in determining how policing is supposes to be developed. Community policing as a philosophy should not be limited to the simple aspects of policing but must be deeply rooted and provide multiple solutions to a series of community solutions.
2.4 THE IMPACT OF COMMUNITY POLICING POLICY ON IMPLEMENTATION
SOUTH AFRICA'S COMMUNITY POLICING POLICY
According to Pelser (1999) in his monograph indicate that the first formal reference to 'community policing' as the prescribed approach, style or methodology for policing in a democratic South Africa is found in the Interim Constitution (Act No 200 of 1993). In Section 221(1) and (2), the Constitution directed that an Act of Parliament was to provide for the establishment of community-police forums in respect of police stations", which would include the following functions:
"a) the promotion of the accountability of the Service to local communities and co-operation of communities with the service:
b) the monitoring of the effectiveness and efficiency of the Service;
c) advising the Service regarding local policing priorities;
d) the evaluation of the provision of visible policing services, including -
the provision, siting and staffing of police stations
ii. the reception and processing of complaints and charges;
iii. the provision of protective services at gatherings;
iv. the patrolling of residential and business areas; and\
v. the prosecution of offenders; and
e) Requesting enquiries into policing matters in the locality concerned Pelser (1999).
The idea behind the above clarification that is very detailed is a clear indication of the foundation of community policing in a democratic South Africa. That this point was a constitutional matter, is entrenched, and was to enhance policing at station level. The main issues were also to ensure the inclusion of local communities.
Considering accountability for policing the facts that are brought to the fore by monograph covers the core issues in the Constitution and reflects heavily on the following. In Section 22, the Constitution directed that the Act was to provide for the establishment of an independent complaints mechanism to ensure that police misconduct could be independently investigated. Thus, the political prerogative informing community policing was one of democratic accountability. It was important to ensure that the police were to be democratized and legitimized by enhancing oversight and accountability generally, and particularly by enhancing interaction, consultation and accountability at local, or police station level. Informing this prerogative, of course, was the concern of the ANC regarding the politics of the police. Preparing to inherit an extremely powerful, organized and armed organization, hostile to democratization and, as had become clear, thoroughly implicated in the violence, the primary issue was neutralizing the potential of the police to destabilize the new democracy.
For the police to function well within the community the issues relating to legitimacy is of primary importance. This will always win the hearts of the local communities in enhancing one of the core pillars of community policing which is partnership. For politicians it was of the outmost importance to cover this cry area. It was very due to the historical aspects associated with the police. The most strong points of Pelser's viewpoint here is to show the origin of the concept and its adoption with the South African context.
According to Pelser (1999) the issue of accountability is very important not only for control but for validity and the legitimacy of the police. Pelser (1999) emphasized on accountability based on continued with the publication of the new government's first formal policy statement on safety and security in mid-1994 the minister's draft policy document entitled Change. It placed particular emphasis on the democratic control of the police service and community involvement in safety and security issues. In doing so, the policy statement contextualized the transformation of the police service within the ambit of community policing. As the new minister put it, community policing must be made to permeate every aspect and level of policing. This fact was always viewed as the core factor in enhancing community policing. It is a fact that in South Africa before 1994 the police were leaving a very hostile relationship with the community. From the political field the police protected the government of the past. The trust between the community members and the police was always going to be tested because of the history of policing in the country.
The temptation that comes from the above sentiments is that for democracy to prevail it was important for politicians to ensure that the police were fully controlled. The strong introduction of community policing was to be the vehicle that will let communities to take over their rightful place at the helm of policing.
All the facts discussed by Pelser (1999), are very relevant and still applicable within the SAPS. It will be difficult to talk about community policing without mentioning structures that are used to enhance it. He is again correct to state that establishment of the Community Police Forums (CPF) have been just symbolical. The establishment was used as the compliance window dressing because of the absence of the measuring and monitoring tool for implementation. The political will for most of the station managements was there to impress the powers that may have given the instruction but no true implementation of the concept. The management of the police is not consistent in the application of the rules relating to compliance with regard to implementation of the approach.
According to Pelser(1999) in order to legitimize his debate, he cover the police act and put more focus on the principles thereof. Such principles had a touch of the organizational internal politics.
These principles were subsequently entrenched in the South African Police Service Act (No 68 of 1995) which formalized the rationalization and amalgamation of the eleven existing police agencies into a unified national South African Police Service (SAPS) with a single budget and command structure. The Act formally established a civilian Secretariat for Safety and Security with oversight and monitoring functions and created an Independent Complaints Directorate to ensure independent investigation of complaints of police abuses. Furthermore, the Act formally established and detailed the functioning of Community Police Forums (CPFs). In terms of this Act, the functions of the CPFs remained those outlined in the Interim Constitution. It became the responsibility of the police, particularly station, area and provincial commissioners, to establish CPFs at police stations, and area and provincial boards. Community consultation and input were therefore structured throughout the command structure of the new SAPS.
There was no specific measuring tool that the policy prescript for measurement of the successful implementation of the model of community policing. The guidelines that were introduced did not really assist the implementers even though consultation took a reasonable period. The organization had a serious function of ensuring smooth amalgamation process of about 11 police agencies into one crime fighting machine, this machine was supposed to operate very smooth due to the vulnerability of our democracy at the time. One of the most challenging factors was the demography of the organization. It was not going to be a simple issue to change the organization that had its own internal politics to adjust to the new approach. On the other hand, the level of trust was not at the acceptable level between the political leaders and management of the police. There was internal covered struggle for power with white people thinking that they were not going to be lead by people with inferior policing knowledge. This is the observation that one made because even the advancement of previously disadvantaged members of the police were met with a huge resistance. This type of behavior is still very prevalent currently. The whole approach of who gets to be promoted it is always considered an issue of affirmative action if the promoted person is of colour. It is never proven to be merits because the internal attitudes is that most people of colour do not have the credentials for promotion so it is assumed that it is a measure to balance the imbalances of the past. The internal imbalances was a challenge that had to be confronted head on in order to implement some of the proposals that were to unite the communities that were very artificial in dealing with one another Pelser (1999).
One of the mile stone achieved was the formal publishing of the policy on community policing which was in April 1997 by the department of Safety and Security. As this was the first explicit expression of community policing as a methodology for reducing crime by improving the service provided by the police, the policy marked a watershed in the development of community policing in South Africa. The policy therefore articulated a drive towards the transformation of the SAPS into an effective organization, accountable at various levels and responsive to the needs of those it served. It was always going to be a difficult duty to achieve the remarkable working together without some vivid challenges. The other interesting challenge was the introduction of high-ranking officials from the liberation movements to direct the policing ideologies and strategies. The guidelines that were mainly it was also to bring the members of the community closer to the police. Written retroactively in response to developments on the ground, the policy document was mainly intended to provide direction for police managers. The document therefore provided detailed systematic guidelines for establishing CPFs, a guide on change management, guidelines for demographic and local level crime analysis, the development of partnerships and local level problem solving Pelser (1999). The above period must be considered infancy stage of community policing in South Africa.
The government in the past-applied laws that oppress the disadvantaged communities using police, it was important to ensure that the police will function democratically. As such, the code of conduct was imposed on them for it was contained with the National Peace Accord. Pelser (1999).
South African Police realized that the organisation must not only be attuned to the National Peace Accord and code of conduct. It was supposed to change, and improve its credibility within the country and its population/ citizens. The notion of more involvement of the community within the activities of the police was a bitter pill to swallow for the police as an organization in this regard there was no place to hide but to accept the change.
There was no quick fix for the South African citizens. Some families still were cooking and searching for their families that vanished in the hands of the police. They also have knowledge of the security branch and their deeds some of which were outlined during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. It was always going to affect community-policing philosophy.
This may well account for the willingness of the police to accept the provisions of the National Peace Accord and the code of conduct. Faced with a major and growing legitimacy and credibility crisis, senior officers had begun to see the need for change. Indeed, even before the Accord was signed, the police were arguing that a new approach had been adopted; some members of the top management of the South African Police (SAP) were in the position to agree with the stipulation of the National Peace Accord (NPA), (Pelser, 1999).
This should be one of the main factors behind the continuous change of community policing implementation strategy. The most important aspect of it is that it was informed by political provocative and the focus being democratic accountability. The foundational argument of Pelser (1999:3) hold water in this regard.
The sentiments of the content of Change Report which was the draft policy document drawn by the minister of police in 1994 among all emphasized the fact that there was to be change and transformation within the police. Transformation was to allow democratic control and community involvement in policing. This was enhancement of creation of community policing as philosophical approach to policing in South Africa.
No one definition of community policing can satisfy those who study in or practice it. The following definitions illustrate the various ways community policing has been described according to Miller and Hess (2008:4-8).
Community policing is a philosophy of full-service, personalized policing where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems attainder, 2004, pp. 18-19 quoted by Miller and Hess (2009:4).
Community policing is a collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and it involves the community in the search for solutions. It is founded on close mutually beneficiates between police and community members Mc Cathy (n.d.p.l) quoted by Miller and Hess (2009:4).
Four general principles define community policing: community engagement, problem solving, organizational transformation and crime prevention by citizens and police working together, Slogan, (2004:160) quoted by Miller and Hess (2009:4).
According to Miller and Hess (2009:5) define community policing as an organization-wide philosophy and management approach that promotes
Community, government and police partnership;
Provocative problem solving to prevent prime; and
Community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and other community issues.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
According to Friedmann (1996), community policing is defined as policy and a strategy aimed at achieving more effective and efficient crime control, reduced fear of crime, improved quality of life, improved police service and legitimacy, through a proactive reliance on community resources that seeks to change crime-causing conditions. This assumes a need for greater accountability of police, greater public share in decision making, and greater concern for civil rights and liberties.
The core factors within the above definition covers most of the concerns that Pelser (1999) shares in his monograph. The policy is extensively covered and the changes as well as the transformation within the South African Police Service. The issue of being pro-active in the approach is very important because it puts safety to the front rather than being re-active.
The aim of implementing Community Policing among all reflected the following but not limited to encouraging high police visibility and improving quality of service delivery by the police to the communities by the police. Using resources efficiently and effectively and applying the problem solving approaches.
Community Safety Portfolio Committee (2007)
According to Maroga (2004) sector policing is defined as a United Kingdom (UK) based policing model that can be traced back to the previous decade, initially known as neighborhood policing. Sector Policing adopts a far more decentralized approach to the policing intended to address root cause of crime at specific geographical locations in partnership with particular communities at local level. Thus sector policing approach created to suit specific local needs.
The same understanding used by Maroga (2004) above is the understanding that the researcher also depart from. The issue of sector policing is still considered to be one of the approaches to enhance community policing.
According to Kappeler and Gaines (2009:354) community policing is defined as a paradigm shift that challenges long standing conceptualization of the police and fundamental assumptions about doing police work. They further state that as a philosophy community policing is grounded in a defined set of values that to serve as it is ethical and moral foundation, values that sought to change both the nature and task police perform and the member of people responsible for determining the desired means and ends associated with policing.
The works that have been done on community policing philosophy by several scholars indicate several communities of the concept. Its basic conceptualization gives both positive and negative perspective relating to final judgment on its implementation. The most important point of departure is that, it is a borrowed concept, which means that its origin is out of South Africa.
The above fact brings in the issue of taking into consideration the diversity nature of the country within which the study is conducted which is the Republic of South Africa. It is difficult to discuss the philosophy of community policing within the South African context without bringing in the country's political change and the ushering of the new dispensation.
On its orientation, community policing is comparative in nature because of its originality. Steven and Yach (1993) present a very strong argument in this regard. It covers issues relating to racial disadvantages, discrimination, sense of powerlessness and social deprivation. These aspects are directly common between Britain and South Africa. The other aspects for South Africa are political violence.
The stereotypes of the South African Police in dealing with the community led to massive introduction of change and new measures that were political supported. The control and awareness of the community members became central to the objective of safety in society and they had to determine the way the wanted to be policed. This was enhanced by high level of political touch and interest in the fight to gain control of the police because its neutrality was core to new democratic dispensation.
Steven and Yach (1995) touch on the issue of in equality and the importance of how the implementation of community policing was to be very imperative to normal and acceptable policing in South Africa. The impact of policy on implementation of community policing shared by Pelser (1999) became a core to the study because it strengthening the research problem assumptions. The section 22 of the interim constitution and the comments by former President Mbeki and the role of African National Congress to legitimize the police. In implementation Pelser (1999) covers the structure that were to form the core including but not limited to the Community Police Forums(CPF).
The policy stipulations and ideas of Miller and Hess (2009) brought better views on the conceptualization and focused understanding.
The main purpose of this research was to explore why community policing as a philosophy that the South African Police Service chose to follow after the dawn of the new democratic South Africa, could stabilize in practice and implementation. This was the assumption made in order to be able to test it. It is imperative to mention that policing within the Republic of South Africa is highly influenced by the way in which the government of the day mould it. The change and political transformation that the country went through has had its fair share of influence on policing. Currently since 1994 most of the national commissioners of the police have been political appointees besides only one.
From our historical knowledge from 1910 in the Republic of South Africa, National Party won the election and has been in power up to April 1994. From 27 April 1994 to date, the African National Congress has been in power. In the above mentioned eras of the two political parties winning elections and ruling the country, their specific ministers has had to deal with policing from different perspectives. The Nationalist government was hands on and uses the police to ensure that apartheid system of rule was protected. The African National Congress wants democracy to be the foundation of its government guided by the constitution of the country. The constitutional democracy considers the constitution to be the supreme law of the country and all people are equal and are guided by the constitution.
The focuses of the study was the two stations in the Gauteng Province and are specifically located in Gauteng North. The two stations were Hammanskraal and Temba police stations. The core of the study was to explore the implementation of community policing as well as the understanding from those who were to carry out such implementation. Some critical questions to be answered were on rules application, policies, and the implementation on the way it changes or remain constant.
Negotiating entry into the environment that is protected was very difficult. As someone involved in training and development of the organization, the research or observed that subjects who knew who he was very much in their quest to answer questions were not very open. Those that wanted to report other issues went over board and showed an element of excitement.
The researcher had to ensure that all aspects relating to respect of the subject and maintaining individual confidentiality with regard to the fact of anonymity had to be respect. The subjects were ensured that such promise would never be broken. Prior to the interview due to the reflected feeling of the subjects, the research had to give a collective briefing to the entire subject at each of the identified stations. The following projections were made which gave an indication that there was not negativity about specifically focusing on community policing. That the ultimate purpose beside to reinforce the role of policing in the community, to demonstrate the advancement in policing through mobilizing of community and partnership policing, to show case innovation and excellence in policing, to recognize police community partnership against crime and continuously highlight transformation development in policing.
From the original topic presented during the phase of research proposal of the study, there has been a minimal deviation and adjustment that the researcher made. The initial topic covered a huge area that at this level it was going to be very difficult to the researcher to complete the study. The researcher then had to confine the research to the two identified stations in Gauteng North and not South Africa as a country. This is the minimal adjustment made after consultation with the study supervisor.
The study type:-
The study is exploratory in nature because it seeks to explore relatively under estimated area of knowledge. The concept of community policing may seem to be common in peoples mind but the implementation of the application and understanding within South African Police Service, specifically the two stations that serve as a focus area for the study is very different.
In order to ensure that the objective of the study is realized, an open and flexible research design was used for this research. This was to be very aware of the challenges that the area of study may present and to exercise control on these factors. The most important area was in the data collection methods.in this particular activities interviews were used and for the subject specific focus group which the members is working in visible policing within the sectors as sector manager including their subordinates were interviewed.
3.3.1 Major Study Themes:-
The focus of the study is based on community policing implementation. It is very important to mention the fact that consistency in the implementation of community policing philosophy is one of the focus points. The understanding of the rules and policies guiding the philosophy is very important.
The essential building blocks of the philosophy and the clarity on the roles of the community in the partnership. Embedded within the philosophy is also the strategic approach that is being employed by the two stations that are being explored in the study.
The consistency or non-consistency of the rule application had to come from what the respondents indicated during the interviews. It will also in a view test the success of the philosophy. The theme may have to also reflect all other approaches that are inherently based on community policing including but not limited to sector policing and other structures that are used to enhance practical implementation of the philosophy within the two stations in Gauteng North cluster.
The variables in the study mainly are based on the understanding and the knowledge of policies relating to community policing. The practical implementation thereof, this will either indicate one of the two points which is whether it is consistently changing or it is constant or not changing.
What may impact on the results which may need to be controlled is the experience of the respondents with regard to the rules and regulations for the practical implementation of the community policing. The knowledge of management and their ability to command the junior members within visible policing will also play a role.
3.3.2 The study population and sampling:-
The study population was limited to the two stations of Tshwane North cluster in Gauteng North. The two stations as indicated were Temba and Hammanskraal. The most important fact of the population was that only the members working within visible policing and has the responsibility of community policing and are working with the sectors were considered for the study. It is important to indicate that the magnitudes of the two stations are not the same. Temba is an accounting station while Hammanskraal police station is a junior station headed by a Lieutenant Colonel. The most important besides the magnitude of the two police stations is their strategic location which is also influenced by the historical reality of our country South Africa. The two stations share boundaries and they are not even a mere kilometer from one another. There is an element of a station within the station as far as the area of responsibility is concern, the reason being that Temba police station use to be in the former Bophuthatswana while Hammanskraal was in the Republic before the self-governing states were eradicated.
The method of policing used by the two stations is the same. They both use the visible policing that operates as a core and loving different sections. The structure of the station may show inaction of the head visible policing who then takes care of the overall supervision, command, and control of the community service center (CSC) and the holistic responsibility on crime prevention, which is sector policing based. There are specific sector managers who run their sectors as the main community policing approach. These members operate from station and are posted permanently within the sectors. The members are normally given vehicles, which are also supposed to be permanent within their specific sectors with the cellphone numbers vividly written or printed on the side of the vehicle for the community members to be able to call in times of need. It is important to mention that this was the instruction of the Provincial Commissioner of Gauteng for community policing.
The understanding that the research have was that the approach on reducing the impact of crime needs high numbers of personnel in order to be realized. From the experience of the organization in 2005 the decision was taken to increase the number of the recruited functional policing personnel in order to enable the new approach to take off. This particular fact made it very easy for identifying the target population for the study.
3.3.3 Data collection techniques used for the study:-
The study sample was drawn through systematic sampling from the specific population in the two stations. The officials who worked within visible policing and were specifically assigned to do community policing were the core population of the study. Participants were particularly selected based on the fact that community policing was their core responsibility within their stations. Specifically the two stations that were identifies due to the magnitude of the study they cannot be said to represent the South African Police Service, but only their own stature.
For the purpose of this study was a single population focus. During the phase while the researcher negotiate entry, the station commanders of the two stations were interviewed and agreements reached. These agreements related to the explanation of the intended research to be undertaken and also to assure the commanders that the purpose of the study was in no way malafide intentions. Police stations were visited and instruments were administered to the relevant target population as indicated above.
The data was collected by the researcher himself. Members were briefed about how to follow the process of completing the information on the questionnaires. In the event where there was an issue of clarity needed the researcher himself was in a position to clarify and a hand to all the concerns. The same process was followed with regard to station number two by the researcher.
3.3 Analysis of results and discussion
The analysis plan is focused on both the primary and secondary objectives of the study. This is because all relevant underlying issues relating to the questions must be described in details in order to give clarity to the core of the study.
The first research question looks at why and what is a course for community policing within Temba cluster to be a constantly changing phenomenon. The primary objective then looks at the application of the implementation of community policing to be changing or is never constant across the understanding of all role players.
The first question originates from the assumption that the researcher is making. The constantly changing phenomenon will bring the following variables to the fore. The first variable relates to the knowledge of the implementer of the philosophy of community policing. It brings with it the level of implementation of the knowledge of the implementer and the role players is at the higher level, and then the results yielded will affirm that in its implementation results when measured for success.
The independed variable within the same question will be the status of the community's level of acceptance of the approach because it must be applied within the community. In this approach, the core issue is the approachability of the community and the fact that with structures that are relevant if accepted the results will show in its implementation.
The secondary objective focusses on the solution depending on the results of the primary objective. The solution to the problem will focus on whether the assumption that community policing within that community policing within Temba cluster is a constantly changing phenomenon or not. It is so what is the cause of such change.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
The survey that the researcher used in the study were design by the researcher self. In order to establish the validity of the instrument, the sample were tested among the researchers colleagues who are working within Division HRD of the SAPS and are placed within Field Training section.
The members are experience police officials and have the station exposure through their respective careers in the SAPS. The most important was to test whether member will understand the questions with ease and to establish whether there were no double messages within the questions asked. The issue of face validity was a very important fact to the researcher due to standard of education of police officials of education of police officials at the stations.
The instruments that have been developed for the study will sufficiently cover the topic. There has been a very deep literature review on the basis of the topic. More direct have been the information obtained from the related topics which covered challenges and the implementation of community policing. The issues and facts relating to community policing orientation and the empowering acts which led to its adoption with South African context and its development.
The researcher also got the expert opinions through interviews with senior managers of stations relating to the implementation of community policing. The understanding of the implementers and whether it was constantly changing in its nature or rigid.
As there are