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This essay is going to deal with three separate but related issues. Firstly, it is going summarize the problems associated with children's witnessing domestic violence. Secondly, it is going to throw more light on the understanding of predatory nature of sexual violence, and lastly, it will focus on stalking and issues surrounding it.
Nowadays, children who happen to witness acts of violence involving adults have increasingly drawn attention from the public. Firstly, we are going to take a look on children's problems that are linked with their experiencing of domestic violence. The problems being referred to here have been categorized into three groups which are: behavioral and emotional problems, problems related to cognitive functioning and attitudes and longer-term problems.
Concerning behavioral and emotional problems, children who witnessed domestic violence have been found to portray more anxiety, ire, temper related problems and dejection than children who did not experience such violence at home. Studies showed that children whose mothers were abused had minimal skills in comprehending how others feel, as well as, in examining situations from the perspectives of others as compared to children who had no such experiences. For boys who experienced intense violence; their general competence and self-control have also been reported to be considerably lower.
Another effect of domestic violence on children who experience this, it is on its impact on their own use of violence. According to Edleson, social theory has suggested children who experience domestic violence among adults may likely learn to wield it. Such is an important factor in foretelling violent behavior in a child.
On the other hand, relationships have been established between cognitive development problems and the witnessing, by children, of domestic violence. One direct effect of witnessing violence is on the attitudes children develop regarding the use of aggression and conflict resolution. Studies indicates that exposure of children to domestic violence may foster attitudes that validate their own use of aggression. However, boys and girls have shown differences in what they learn from such violence.
Longer-term problems have been reported by adults in retrospection. Cases of depression, low self-esteem and trauma-related symptoms have been reported among women. Similarly, trauma-related symptoms have been reported among men who experienced domestic violence as children.
There are a number of factors which have been identified as having influence on the degree to which problems linked with witnessing violence are experienced. Children who were both abused and witnessed violence exhibited the most problem behaviors. Gender characteristic of a child is also a factor. Generally, boys tend to show external problems such as aggression whereas girls show more internalized problems such as depression. The time since aggressive event is a factor. Effects that a child experiences are fewer as the time of experiencing violence gets longer.
Now we turn at the predatory nature of sexual violence. Research on sex offenders has been conducted over a very long period of time and has helped in throwing light on the behaviors and attributes of rapists. This has also included special emphasis on their motivations and the developmental backgrounds of sex offence perpetration. One of the major limitations of this research has been its overemphasis on the imprisoned offenders. However, recent studies have started focusing on non-imprisoned rapists, which has brought convergence of findings between the two sets of literature.
Nonetheless, the study of imprisoned rapists has brought forth enduring literature regarding perpetrators of sexual aggression.
The study on incarcerated offenders has made clear the contribution of sexuality in rape offences. The fact that rape constitutes sexual behavior leads to the conclusion that the primary motive behind rape is sexual impulse.
Groth identified anger and power as the fundamental motivations behind rape. His findings have lasted for long and have become the foundation of attempts at establishing more polished taxonomies of rape. Consequently, the endeavors have produced modest findings and have concentrated on establishing blends of ire and power motivations and differentiating the developmental backgrounds for the different types. One of the most significant developmental antecedents has been traced to a history of childhood abuse. General abuse and neglect have been shown to be prevalent in the history of rapists than in the history of non-rapist men.
Many rapists who are charged are convicted on a single charge of rape. However, researchers have- on interrogating convicts- found that convicts have more than one victim. Rape criminals have lengthy offending history, commencing at adolescence and persisting across several decades. Therefore; when they are captured, they have already victimized a large number of people.
From 1980s, social scientists began to scientifically expose the truth about interpersonal violence in America. This bred a new kind of victimization research that disclosed three primary realities. Firstly, that most of rape is perpetrated by persons known to the victims. Secondly, much of such crime is not reported to the law enforcers. Lastly, most offenders go unpunished.
In sexual violence involving adults, terms such as "date rape" emerged. Such research was done on college populations. This was not a factor of convenience but a factor of general vulnerability of college students to sexual violence.
A lot of the motivation factors identified in imprisoned offenders have also equally applied to rapists who are still free. In comparison to men who are non-rapists, the free rapists tend to be angrier at women and have a motivation towards dominating and controlling women and are generally anti-social.
The inference of the research on the rapists who are still free pointed at similar trends with those who are imprisoned. They have the same motivations. They incline towards serial offending and most commit a wide range of varying interpersonal offences and thus they are labeled "predators"
On the last issue, stalking is a crime. In the United States, about 3.4 million people are stalked yearly. A stalker can be a person well known to the victim or unknown to the victim. In most of the cases, the persons involved had dated at some point. Majority of stalking cases involve men stalking their female counterparts. However, women also do stalk other women as well as men.
Stalking cannot be predicted and is dangerous. Two cases involving stalking are hardly the same. What one should not do is ignoring the potential danger posed by stalkers.
Therefore, if one perceive of the danger of stalking, they should contact a victim service agency or a domestic violence or program dealing with rape crisis.
However, victims should design a safety plan which includes changing of routine or having a friend accompanying them. The victim should also decide beforehand on what to do if a stalker showed up.