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What causes some neighborhoods to have low crimes rates if any, while others neighborhood are in decay? It's a question that criminalists, police and its citizens are constantly asking. To aid in answering this question, three policing policies have been developed: Broken Windows Policing, Community Oriented Policing (COP) and Problem Oriented Policing (POP).These consist of a set of theories and strategies aimed at achieving and implementing effective and crime prevention and crime control programs and policies, to reduce fear of crime and improve the quality of life its citizens experience.
The Broken Windows theory is a policing strategy based on the basic principles, which holds that ignoring the little problems such as graffiti, loitering, houses and building with broken windows then to add up and end up destroying a neighborhood life. The term Broken Windows come from the term used in 1982 article in The Atlantic Monthly by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. Broken Window s theories, propose that in addition to ignoring minor crimes and the minor sings of disorder the results will be additional disorder and ultimately lead to serious crimes to be committed.
The Broken Windows theory created a positive environment were people who feared becoming crime victims would no longer want to abandon their communities. Instead it promoted community members to stay active in programs focused on prevention and reduction of criminal activity. In addition Broken Window policies sparked a revolutionary change in policing. In trouble neighborhoods were home foreclosures were the highest, the police worked with the community to improve the foreclosed homes physical appearance in turn improving the appearance of the community. If a window was broken the owner had to immediately replace it, if an owner was not found then the community replaced the broken windows. If the front yarn needed maintenance once again the owner was contacted if the owner could not be contacted the community would set up volunteer to help clean the yard. If there was graffiti on the walls they would immediately get painted over or scrubbed, then establish tough zero tolerance policy to deal with graffiti artist. If there were abandoned cars then immediately haul them out.
The "Broken Windows" theory can be applied to almost every other city or county where one resides. There is always that one part of a city where it's known to fit into this theory. For example in some phoenix neighborhood that had drinking bars and liquor stores, customers were not allowed to drink outside. The business in collaboration with local police would make sure that there wouldn't be any homeless and drunks on the sidewalls. The residents would also establish community programs to help the homeless and individual dealing with alcoholism.
Another example would apply to the growing problems the Buckeye police had to deal with, due to the high rates of foreclosed homes. The "Broken Windows" theory has implied that crime is more likely to occur in areas that are abandoned and not well taken care of. "Broken Windows" theory as explained by James Q. Wilson and George Kelling in 1982 (Peak and Glensor 99), they describe how not only "physical signs that an area is unattended" is where crime will more likely take place, but also the type of "public" it is attracting to those areas. When home owners abandon their homes, criminals would tend to hide or be out of the public's sight on foreclosed homes. The homes are also a loitered and frequented by drug users. Foreclosed homes will then tend to become "hanging out spots" for the local youths. The abandoned homes will then tend to get vandalized and have possible property damaged. Eventually these homes will deter potentially home buyers. However, Broken Windows Policing is not an answer to eradicate all crime, instead policies are intended to be proactive and preventive in working with the community and the local police to prevent and deter crime.
The evolution and refinement of" Community Oriented Policing "its philosophy and practice have had a significant positive impact on the attitudes and behaviors of citizens in previous high crime communities at every level by improving the quality of its residents. Community oriented Policing has allowed communities to take ownership of the communities and making it a socially healthy environment to raise kids and establish long lasting friendships. Every community oriented policing program should seek to meet the textbook goal, to establish "A pattern of attitudes and behaviors directed both at reducing the threat of a crime and enhancing the sense of safety and security to positively influence the quality of life and to help develop environments were crime cannot flourish(Peak and Glender. 2004)".
Â In Community Policing and Problem Solving, "Community policing is a philosophy of full-service, personalized policing where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems (Trojanowicz, 1992) ". These the goals that have been established through police and community input and how they can be enable Community Partnership Programs to establishing; suspicious crime activity hot lines, School Resource Officers, establish faith and non-faith drug prevention and education programs and forming Neighborhood Crime Watch associations are the building blocks of community policing.
These types of community oriented police programs, Community Partnership programs, suspicious crime activity hot lines, School Resource Officers, establish faith and non-faith drug prevention and education programs and forming Neighborhood Crime Watch associations are of no cost, they are free programs that mostly involved neighbors working together and by getting acquainted with police enforcement and community organization leaders. Community oriented policing is building block a sure way of making sure all neighbors are looking out for one's property's yours and your neighbors and safe wellbeing. But, most importantly is a great method of getting the opportunity to learn more about effective crime prevention and learning more about crime prevention. Community Oriented Policing polices goal is to reduce crime, as well as to prevent and deter crime from happening. These goal can only be accomplished though community partnerships between the police agency and the local community.
Problem Oriented Policing theories have an emphasis of trying and preventing crimes from occurring. To accomplish this, this type of policing model will have detective's tract and watch for specific patterns in the crimes. Though crime analysis the detectives try to understand when and how the crimes are being committed. This type of policing model places more focus on preventing crime from occurring by analyzing and discovering crime patterns. Once a crime pattern has been discovered and analyzed, the detectives will then search methods that will aid in preventing that type of crime from happening .Problem Oriented Policing focus on the recurring crimes by taking a proactive stance by organizing preventive patrols to prevent specific crimes to occur.
Within this model there is an emphasis on trying and prevent crime from continuing to happen rather in an specific area than tending to rely on responding to crimes as they occur. For example: in the television series "Criminal Minds: Once the detective have a pattern from the type of crime committed they set up a crime (criminal) profile. The detectives then search for ways in which the criminal and crimes fit into the developed profile to capture the criminal and prevent crimes from continuing to happen.
This model has more of a proactive stance than the two policing methods Broken Windows and Community Policing. Problem Oriented Policing is a reactive approach in that the police detectives respond to crime after it has been committed. The main goal of problem oriented policing is logically to decrease criminal actively and maintain social order. Unlike broken windows and community oriented policing, problem oriented policies the works relies on a crime to be committed rather than try and prevent a crime to occur. Problems oriented policing use tools as the S.A.R.A models, and happen to be much centralized that community oriented policies. In this type of policing the police detectives don't really interact with the community members instead detectives must deal with the condition that caused the problem.
These policing methods, Broken Windows Policing, Community Oriented Policing (COP) and Problem Oriented Policing (POP) polices require a substantial amount of trust on the police officer's part as well as commitment for the citizen's part. The methods of policing allow citizens to collaborate with community leaders and police and develop a sense of thrust. All participants will have to trust each other and know that each other is looking out for them to help everyone stay safe...
Buckeye Police Department, Crime Statistics,http://www.buckeyeaz.gov/index.aspx?NID=576&ART=1804&admin=1
Law. J rank .org. <a href="http://law.jrank.org/pages/1649/Police-Community-Policing-Origins-evolution-community-policing.html">Police: Community Policing - Origins and Evolution of Community Policing</a>
Lt.Â Dave Hubalik,Buckeye Police Department, Community partnership programs 2011.
Peak, Kenneth J., and Ronald W. Glensor. "Chapter 2: COPPS, Chapter 4: Crime Prevention." Community Policing and Problem Solving Fifth Edition. Ed. Vernon R. Anthony. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2008. 39-101.