Analytical Affect Of Left Wing Extremism In CRZ Criminology Essay

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1. Approximately 40 among the 100 plus Left parties/groups in India repose faith in Maoism. Among them, 15-20 groups have armed wings apart from political wings. A list of known left parties/groups is given out alongwith their area of operation in paras below [15] .

2. Predominant Groups. Prominent among the Left Wing Extremism groups in India are CPIML (PW), MCC (I), CPIML (Liberation), and CPIML (Jana Shakti). However, CPIML (PW) and MCC (I) activities account for 88 per cent of violence and 91 per cent of resultant deaths. Predominance of CPIML (PW) can be seen from the diagrammatic representation of Left Wing Extremism violence (election violence of Apr 04 and subsequent skewed pattern on account of talks in Andhra Pradesh need to be discounted) at para 4 below. Strength of CPIML (PW) is attributable to the following [16] : -

(a) Historical legacy of Telengana Uprising.

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Strong ideological base in Andhra Pradesh.

Committed leadership.

Effective front organizations.

Relentless pursuit of Left Wing Extremism.

3. Notes on CPIML (PW) and MCC (I) are at Appendices A and B respectively [17] .

4. Pattern of Violence [18] . The pattern of violence from 1996 onwards when Left Wing Extremism has demonstrated its resurgence is indicated in the chart given below: -

Affected Areas [19] 

5. A total of 125 districts in 13 states are today affected by Left Wing Extremism influence in varying degrees. Out of these, 52 districts are highly affected, 16 moderately and balance 57 districts are marginally affected. Further, 25 -27 districts are being targeted by Left Wing Extremism groups for expansion. Refer Appendix Q for growth and expansion of Left Wing Extremism in India. The No of districts affected state wise is as given below: -

(a) Andhra Pradesh - 23 (g) Orissa - 07

(b) Bihar - 26 (h) Maharashtra - 06

(c) Jharkhand - 17 (j) Madhya Pradesh - 03

(d) Chhattisgarh - 08 (k) Uttar Pradesh - 04

(e) West Bengal - 15 (l) Karnataka - 10

(f) Tamil Nadu - 04 (m) Kerala - 01

(n) Uttaranchal - 01

State-Wise Violence and Influence [20] 

6. The Naxal movement though ideologically driven with the CPI(Maoist) being the dominant group pan India, varies considerably from State to State [21] . This dichotomy is due to a host of factors, the prominent being the different backdrops to the problem, socio-economic parameters, cultural ethos, State Policy, terrain etc to name a few. The State wise profile is covered highlighting these issues to give a broader perspective/vista of the vexed problem. State wise areas under Left Wing Extremism influence & violence level in major states affected by Left Wing Extremism in 2005/2006 are highlited below [22] .

Andhra Pradesh

7. AP is the traditional bastion of the Naxal movement since the late forties and continues to be the worst Naxal affected State accounting for 36% of all Naxal related violent incidents reported in the country. The problem has now engulfed the entire State with 70% of the State being highly affected. Consequent to the breakdown of the peace talks on 17 Jan 05, the Naxals unleashed a series of violent attacks with the advantage accrued due to the extensive consolidation carried out by them during the ceasefire period. The Naxals continued to maintain a proactive stance (except in Warangal) with 197 incidents of violence as compared to 120 operations undertaken by the Central Police Organisations (CPOs) during the year.

8. Violent Incidents. 26 CPOs and 148 civilian fatalities were reported during 2005. Suspected police informers (34), surrendered dalam members, liquor contractors and political activists were the main targets. A total of 149 Naxals were killed in action, 122 surrendered and 83 were apprehended by the Police/CPOs.

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9. Worst Affected Areas. During 2006, maximum number of violent incidents initiated by the Naxals were reported in the District(s) of Karimnagar (26), Mahabubnagar (20), Nalgonda (20), Prakasam (16) and Anantapur (14). Higher level of violence in Karimnagar and Mahabubnagar is in conformity with the past trends as these are the traditional Naxal strongholds along with the districts of Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Srikakulam and Vizianagaram. Karimnagar is also under tremendous influence of Naxal front organisations of Telangana region and is the hometown of the General Secretary of CPI(Maoist), Muppala Laxmana Rao.

10. Attempts by Naxals to make their presence felt in the vicinity of the State Capital probably led to heightened violence in the neighbouring district of Nalgonda. Stepped up SF operations in Warangal and Khammam also probably forced the Naxals to shift their bases to Nalgonda (Warangal is the only district where the SF had been proactive in the State in 2005).

11. Prakasam is home to the Naxal ideological outfits; Revolutionary Writers Association (RWA)/ VIRASAM and Socialist Writers Association (SARASM) with majority of their ideologues belonging to the district.

12. High level of violence in Anantapur District was on account of the efforts by the Naxals to spread their activities in the Nallamalla Forest region. The region comprising of Anantapur, Kurnool and Cuddapah alongwith Bellary District of Karnataka were termed as the 'Back Districts' and have been traditionally very backward and underdeveloped. The Naxals have been making concerted efforts to establish their supremacy in the Telangana and Nalla Malla Forest Areas for which they have allegedly formed a Nalla Malla Special Zonal Committee which has been given the status of a State Committee.

13. Naxal Activities. The Naxals indulged in numerous violent incidents in order to establish their writ and also intimidate the locals. Nature of Naxal initiated violent incidents reported during 2005 are analysed as shown :-

NAXAL VIOLENT INCIDENTS : 2005

Month

Killings

Blasts

Arson

Attack

Encounter

Kidnapping

Jan

8

1

4

6

8

1

Feb

12

1

1

-

4

-

Mar

17

-

3

3

6

1

Apr

13

6

5

-

10

-

May

13

2

-

-

6

2

Jun

12

2

1

2

5

1

Jul

4

4

2

1

14

3

Aug

10

2

1

-

6

-

Sep

6

1

1

-

2

2

Oct

4

-

-

-

3

-

Nov

6

2

-

-

8

5

Dec

11

2

-

2

9

-

Total

116

23

18

14

81

15

14. Police Actions. Post breakdown of peace talks, the SFs launched a series of intelligence driven operations in the Naxal heartland as they had consolidated their intelligence machinery in the interregnum. The details of the operations carried out by the SFs are as follows:-

(a) Encounters. The SFs launched 81 successful encounters accounting for 142 Naxal cadres killed in action. 27% of these incidents and 31% of the Naxal fatalities were reported from Warangal District indicating the focused strikes at the very nerve centre of the movement.

(b) Surrenders. The SFs motivated 122 Naxal cadres to surrender to the SFs/ Civilian Administration. 41 Naxal cadres each surrendered at Warangal and Karimnagar. Maximum surrenders took place in May (27) and Jul (48) accounting for 61% of total surrenders. Reports indicate that Naxals have been adopting this methodology to convert their underground cadres to OGWs.

15. Force Accretion. Presently, five IRP battalions and 18 CRPF companies are deployed in the State for anti-Naxal operations. In addition, the State has also raised a specialised anti-Naxal force called the "Greyhounds" to tackle the menace. Two additional battalions of Greyhounds were raised for deployment at Vishakhapatanam and Rayalseema Region(s). The State is also in the process of establishing two new Greyhound training centres at Kurnool and Vishakhapatanam. Recently, the State raised the 15th Battalion of the Armed Police with the recruits drawn from the weaker sections of the society. The unit is slated for deployment at Khammam. 10 armoured vehicles were procured by the State to counter the IED threat. In order to constantly improve upon the tactics and review the methodology employed to tackle the security situation in the state, expertise of US Anti terror specialists was also solicited. In this connection, an interaction cum training capsule for senior officers was held at the National Industrial Security Academy (NISA) Shamirpet, Hyderabad from 20 Nov to 19 Dec 05.

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16. Politico - Naxal Nexus. The nexus between the Naxals and some of the mainstream political parties is well entrenched. The Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS) is known to be sympathetic to the Naxal cause. TRS has been espousing the demand for a separate Telangana State in consonance with the Naxals. Telangana Jagrana Sena (TJS), the grassroots radical arm of TRS, is known to have Naxal sympathisers in its ranks. In addition, politicians of various hues have also been reportedly seeking Naxal support, especially, during elections.

17. Funding. It is estimated that extortion is the main source of funding for the Naxalite organisations. Estimates indicate that Rs 40-50 crores were collected in the State during the year from the following sources:-

Civilian contractors, Liquor contractors and Tendu (beedi) leaf contractors.

Industrial houses,Important trade and other associations.

Landlords, Transporters and Protection money from rich individuals.

Political parties.

18. Weapon Holding. It is estimated that the Naxals are in possession of approximately 650 weapons (excluding country made versions). This stockpile reportedly includes 30 AK Rifles and few LMGs. Approximately 40% of these weapons were snatched from the SFs. In addition, the Naxals have a Technical Committee entrusted with the task of fabrication of weapons. Recent inputs indicate that the technical committee has managed to fabricate an indigenous RL with an estimated range of 400m and has been used in a few incidents. Inputs also indicate that Naxals have evinced keen interest in fabrication of area weapons and reportedly trials are on of a locally fabricated mortar.

19. Front Organisations. A large number of front organisations are active in the State and are involved in espousing the Naxal ideologies. These frontal organizations encompass the length and breadth of the socio-politico firmament of the State with trade unions, NGOs, liberal left leaning intelligentsia, student/ youth forums and women empowerment wings. The prominent front organisations in the State are as follows:-

(a) AP Civil Liberties Committee (APCLC).

(b) All India Peoples Resistance Forum (AIPRF).

(c) AP Chaitanya Mahila Samakhya (APCMS).

(d) All India Revolutionary Students Federation (AIRSF).

(e) Socialist Writers Association (SARASAM).

(f) Ryot Coolie Sangam (RCS).

(g) Singareni Karmika Samakhya (SIKASA).

(h) Viplava Karmika Samakhya (VIKASA).

(j) Radical Students Union (RSU).

(k) Radical Youth League (RYL).

(l) Revolutionary Writers Association (RWA/ VIRASAM).

20. Naxal Strength. The Naxals draw their strength from the underprivileged sections of the society and as such the entire populace of the area is involved in their activities in some form or the other. However the assessed strength of the armed wing reportedly comprises of approximately 750 hardcore underground cadres. It has also a large and well entrenched network of Over Ground Workers (OGWs)/ Sangam members.

Chhattisgarh

21. Chhathisgarh continues to be one of the worst Naxal affected State with 63% of the state under their influence. 81% of the violent incidents by the Naxals were reported from the Bastar Region comprising of Bastar, Kanker and Dantewara Districts, which has been declared by the Naxals as a 'Liberated Area'. The Naxals have also been making attempts to strengthen their hold in the Northern parts of the State astride the Jharkhand-Chhattisgarh border.

22. Violent Incidents. A total of 113 violent incidents resulting in 41 SF personnel and 59 civilian fatalities were reported. In comparison, only 15 Naxal cadres were killed in action during the year.

23. Worst Affected Areas. Bastar Region is one of the most under developed regions inhabited mostly by the tribals. The Naxals have managed to establish a vice like grip in the region and have declared this region as a 'Liberated Area'. Dantewada assumed the dubious distinction of being the worst Naxal affected district accounting for 07% of all Naxal related violent incidents in the country. Bastar (15 incidents), Kanker (13 incidents) and Rajnandgaon (07 incidents) also recorded high level of violence as a spill over from Dantewada.

24. Attempts by Naxals to consolidate along the Jharkhand-Chhathisgarh border (Chota Nagpur Plateau) saw heightened violence levels in Surguja.

25. Naxal Activities. The Naxals maintained an aggressive profile indulging in 95 violent incidents in the State. A total of 39 SFs and 59 civilian fatalities were reported. Nature of Naxal initiated violent incidents reported during 2005 are analysed as under :-

NAXAL VIOLENT INCIDENTS : 2005

Month

Killings

Jan Adalat

Blasts

Arson

Attack

Encounter

Kidnapping

Jan

1

1

2

-

3

3

1

Feb

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Mar

1

-

-

1

-

1

1

Apr

3

2

2

1

1

-

-

May

4

-

5

2

1

1

2

Jun

5

1

1

-

3

-

-

Jul

5

-

-

-

2

1

1

Aug

4

1

2

1

1

3

1

Sep

2

-

2

3

-

2

-

Oct

5

-

-

1

-

1

2

Nov

3

1

-

-

-

6

-

Dec

1

2

-

3

2

4

1

Total

34

8

14

12

13

22

10

26. Populist Measures by Naxalites. The Naxalites have been carrying out the following activities to garner local support : -

Educational Activities. There are reports to indicate that the Naxalites were trying to re-open schools that were non-functional. They had also planned to appoint teachers by paying them a salary of Rs 500/-. This move could be to brainwash the children at a very young age and prepare a large pool of potential cadres/ supporters.

Jan Adalats. Naxals have also held Jan Adalats to resolve problems of the locals.

Incidents were reported wherein civilians indulging in extortion in the name of Naxalites were killed / assaulted.

27. Nexus With Coal Mafia. Interrogation of apprehended Naxalite cadres has revealed its nexus with the coal mafia in North Chhattisgarh.

28. Undermining the Government's Writ. Reports indicate that the Naxals are sparing no efforts to undermine the writ of the Government in their areas of interest. Some of the incidents were as follows:-

(a) Boycott of Elections. The Naxals had given a call to boycott the Assembly elections in Jan 05 and also indulged in a number of violent incidents during the polling process. However, during the Panchayat elections, certain Naxal sympathisers and supporters had managed to win the elections, which needs to be monitored.

(b) Hindrance to Development Activities. The Naxals have managed to stall 16 road construction projects undertaken under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). Naxals have also been targeting the camps/ equipment of Border Roads Organisation (BRO) presently involved in the construction of roads under aegis of 'Project Hirak'.

29. Force Deployment. As per reports available, the State Government has deployed six CRPF battalions (five in South Chhattisgarh and one in North Chhattisgarh), one battalion of Naga Special Armed Police (Dantewara) and one battalion of Gujarat Armed Police (Raipur) in addition to the State Police. The Centre has also sanctioned the raising of two Indian Reserve Battalions (IRB) in the State. A Special Police Team under an Additional Director General of Police has been constituted to coordinate the anti- Naxal movement in South Chhattisgarh.

30. Recruitment into CRPF. CRPF had planned to hold recruitment rallies in the State during the first week of Sep 05. The State Govt had requested 530 vacancies to be reserved for the Naxalite affected Districts of Surguja, Jashpurnagar, Rajnandgaon, Kawardha, Kanker, Bastar and Dantewada in addition to the 335 general vacancies. The recruitment of the personnel from this area is not only likely to provide more employment opportunities but also aid in better intelligence acquisition.

31. Surrender Policy. The State Govt put into effect the surrender policy and rehabilitation package. The Govt also offered employment in Home Guards to the surrendered Naxals.

32. Development Works. The District Collectors of Koria, Kanker and Surguja have been asked to identify two locations measuring 1500 acres and 100 acres for establishing an Air Force and an Army station respectively. At present, there are no military stations in the State. Establishment of an Army/Air Force station is likely to usher in economic development and also provide employment opportunities in the region.

33. Additional Forces. During the Conference of CM's of Naxal Affected States on 19 Sep 05, Chhattisgarh Government demanded the following from the Centre:-

(a) Six battalions trained in guerrilla warfare.

(b) Army assistance for de-mining.

(c) Sanction of Rs 44 crores to modernise the Counter Terrorism and Jungle Warfare College in District Kanker.

(d) Two MI 17 helicopters.

(e) Assistance to equip SFs with latest communication equipment.

(f) Setting up of a research and development wing to assist in aerial survey, communication surveillance, mine detection, fingerprinting of terrorists etc.

(g) Two additional battalions of SFs and additional IAF helicopters.

34. Anti - Naxal Campaign. A positive trend - Anti-Naxal movement started from the Bastar Region (Bastar, Kanker and Dantewara) since 18 Jun 05 probably due to prolonged hardships and the lack of development activities in the Naxal affected areas. Approximately 30 rallies had been reported with participation of upto 14000 persons in the rallies and the surrender of large number of Sangham members (OGWs). The movement, however, has run out of steam due to Naxal retaliation and the failure of the security agencies to provide adequate security to the participants. Simultaneously, efforts are being made by the civil administration and the local political leaders to spread the movement further to hithertofore unaffected areas West of the Indravati River (Abujhmad Area), a stronghold of the Naxals. The movement is likely to pose serious strain on the SFs deployed in the region against probable retaliation by the Naxals. A copy of the study carried out by some civil rights groups to verify the facts of the anti-Naxal movement is at Appendix B.

35. Constitution Of Village Defence Committees (VDC). 177 VDCs have been formed by the villagers of Dantewara District. In order to project the effort as a local uprising, no elements of SFs have been incorporated in these groups. The committees have not been armed yet, except for their traditional weapons like bows and arrows, fearing that the weapons may fall into the hands of the Naxals due to inadequate security provided to the villagers at present.

Bihar

36. Bihar is one of the four highly affected States by Naxalite movement covering approximately 65 % of the State. The movement has now spread to 24 districts of the State (eight highly affected, four moderately and 12 marginally). Three border Districts

(Madhubani, Supaul and Araria) along the Indo-Nepal border have been targeted probably to facilitate the Nepalese CPN (Maoist). The problem is compounded due to a strong nexus between the Naxals, organised criminals, communal forces and political parties. A large number of internecine clashes were reported between various factions of Naxal groups and as also with the upper caste private armies like Ranvir Sena, Sunlight Sena, Sawarna Sena and Kisan Sangh.

37. Violent Incidents. 24 CPOs and 42 civilian fatalities were reported during 2005. Most of the fatalities were suffered by village Mukhiyas, suspected police informers and political party workers. A total of 40 Naxals were killed in action, 54 surrendered and 175 were apprehended by the SFs. Intra group clashes between the grassroots level cadres of the erstwhile PWG and MCCI were reported on account of differences on the issue of levy collection and sharing of funds. Difference of opinion has also seeped in between the CPI (Maoist) and the CPML- Liberation faction, the latter leaning towards 'Revisionism' (ideology of gaining power through the ballot).

38. Worst Affected Areas. A total of 83 incidents perpetuated by the Naxals were reported from the State. Maximum number of incidents were reported from the Southern half of the State, namely, Gaya (14 incidents) Jehanabad (11 incidents), Rohtas (08 incidents) and Patna (07 incidents). These areas are also the traditional Naxal strongholds, being the tribal belt. The Naxals indulged in a number of violent activities against civilians in the form of killings (27), arson (09) and blasts (08).

39. Attempts by the Naxals to consolidate their hold over the tribals over the issue of 'Jal, Jungle and Jameen' saw heightened activities in the tribal regions along the Jharkhand - Bihar border encompassing the districts of Gaya and Jehanabad. The Naxals, as part of their strategy to declare The Kaimur Hills (Rohtas and Bhabhua Districts) as a liberated Area, have been carrying out intensive propaganda and consolidation in the region.

40. Naxal Activities. The violence perpetuated by the Naxals in the State during the year are analysed as follows:-

NAXAL VIOLENT INCIDENTS : 2005

Month

Killings

Blasts

Arson

Attack

Encounter

Kidnapping

Jan

4

1

3

2

-

1

Feb

1

-

-

-

4

-

Mar

4

-

1

1

3

1

Apr

4

-

1

-

1

-

May

2

-

-

-

1

2

Jun

2

3

-

2

1

-

Jul

2

-

-

1

1

1

Aug

2

-

-

-

-

1

Sep

3

4

-

-

1

-

Oct

1

-

-

-

1

1

Nov

4

-

-

-

1

-

Dec

2

1

2

2

3

1

Total

31

9

10

8

17

8

41. Police Actions.

(a) Encounters. 17 incidents of encounters by the SFs were reported resulting in 10 Naxals killed, three injured and 26 apprehended. The SF personnel also suffered five fatal and eight non-fatal injuries indicating a need for better trained/ equipped force.

(b) Surrenders. A total of 50 Naxal cadres surrendered at two occasions in Muzaffarapur District to the Civil Administration/ Police authorities. A major motivation for the surrenders were the heavy incentives offered by the State (Rs 2,00,000/- for starting business, housing unit under Indira Awas Yojna and Rs 3,000/- per month as an interim measure).

42. Private Caste Armies. The security situation in the State has worsened due to the existence of approximately 11 private caste armies raised to tackle the Naxal menace by vested interests. These armies were created and financed primarily by landowners to protect their land and properties. One important feature of these private armies is that they are all formed on caste lines. Initially these private armies confined themselves to protecting the land and properties of the particular castes, however, recently Ranvir Sena has been seeking to expand its base by looking after the interests of land lords belonging to backward castes as well. These groups have also been imposing levies. The details of these private armies are at Appendix C.

Jharkhand

43. The entire State has been engulfed by the Naxalite movement as compared to only 60% in 2001 (Ref Map). Reports indicate movement of large armed groups in the State. In the absence of effective State administrative machinery, the Naxals have been carrying out a number of populist measures like opening of schools, initiating development projects and holding of 'Jan Adalats' and more or less have established a parallel government in the highly affected districts.

44. Worst Affected Areas. Latehar, Ranchi and Gumla have been traditional Naxal stronghold in the tribal regions of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Naxals managed to establish their grip in the Districts of Hazaribagh, Giridih and Palamu by espousing the cause of rights of the tribals over forest produce in these areas. Latehar, Hazaribagh, Gumla, Giridih, Palamu and Ranchi were the worst Naxal affected Districts in the State during the year 2005 .

45. Naxal Activities. A total of 91 incidents of violence were perpetrated by the Naxals resulting in 25 CPOs and 63 civ fatalities during 2005. Nature of Naxal initiated violent incidents reported during 2005 are analysed as under :-

NAXAL VIOLENT INCIDENTS : 2005

Month

Killings

Jan Adalat

Blasts

Arson

Attack

Encounter

Kidnapping

Jan

3

-

1

1

3

1

-

Feb

1

-

4

-

1

2

-

Mar

4

-

-

-

-

1

-

Apr

2

-

-

1

-

-

2

May

6

-

-

-

-

5

2

Jun

1

1

-

-

1

1

-

Jul

7

-

-

-

-

1

-

Aug

3

1

2

-

1

3

-

Sep

1

2

2

1

1

4

1

Oct

1

2

1

-

-

1

1

Nov

3

-

-

-

-

3

-

Dec

1

-

-

1

-

3

-

Total

33

6

10

4

7

25

6

46. Involvement in Opium Trade. According to media inputs the Naxals are sheltering the farmers engaged in opium cultivation and aiding them in getting assured returns in the Districts of Chatra, Palamu and Hazribagh. The Naxals have been involved in the trans-shipment of drugs via Bihar en route to Nepal. The Naxals are also reportedly collecting levy from the drug peddlers.

47. Populist Measures. The Naxals have been running a parallel administration and have been undertaking development works to further their hold in the region. In one such incident, Naxal cadres constructed a seven km unmetalled road connecting seven villages in District Hazaribagh. During the unprecented cold wave in the winter of 2005-06, they distributed blankets and relief material to the affected persons.

48. Indoctrination of Students. The Naxals in the State have been distributing booklets through their front organization, Krantikari Kisan Morcha, containing views and history of Leftist leaders like Mao Tse Tung, Charu Mazumdar, Kanhai Chatterjee, Kanu Sanyal and other leaders in the schools and to the teachers of rural schools in Palamu and Chatra ostensibly to motivate the children to join their Bal Dasta (children squad). The booklet also contains the benefits of joining the outfit and asks them not to participate in the parliamentary system. The Naxals have also directed the Principals of the private schools of Hazaribagh, Koderma, Chatra and Palamu to introduce the book in their schools or face dire consequences. The move is likely to have serious long term implications due to likely subversion of the young and impressionable minds.

49. Police Actions. The SFs carried out 73 successful operations resulting in nine Naxals killed in action, six injured, 18 surrendered and 92 apprehended. An effective police response has been hampered with the Police being ill equipped, low morale, divisions within the force on caste lines and ineffective leadership. The major operations under taken are analysed as under :-

(a) Encounters. A total of 25 incidents of encounters resulting in nine cadres killed in action and 22 apprehended indicates the need to undertake more intelligence driven operations. Maximum number of these incidents were reported from Chatra (06), Palamu (03) and Giridih (03) due to the increased efforts by the Naxals to establish their hold astride the Bihar- Jharkhand Border.

(b) Apprehensions. 32 incidents of apprehensions were reported wherein a total of 68 Naxal cadres were apprehended. Maximum number of these incidents were reported from the districts of Palamu and Ranchi (seven incidents each) being the traditional bastion of Naxals in the State.

50. State Police Personnel to Undergo Training in Nagaland. Consequent to the IED attack by the Naxals on 08 Oct 05 resulting in 12 fatal and 12 non fatal injuries, the State Government is contemplating to train the nucleus of personnel in Nagaland in batches of approximately 100 personnel.

51. Establishment of Joint Task Force(TF). On 11 Aug 05, DGP Jharkhand constituted the first Joint TF comprising Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh Police. The TF comprising of 20 companys was constituted on the guidelines issued by the Centre. The TF has a ready mandate for trans-border hot pursuit and crackdown on the Naxalites without seeking prior permission

of the concerned State. The main aim to constitute TF is to eliminate chances of Naxalite crossing over to a neighbouring State, when the drive against them is on at the other side of the border. The force would be assisted by the IB and would focus on intelligence sharing and coordinated action. The border areas of six Naxal hit States will be divided into eight zones for better management of the anti-naxal drive.

52. Cash Incentives. State Home Department has announced cash rewards to informants for recovery of munitions as follows:-

(a) Landmine - Rs 1,00,000/-.

(b) Country made bombs - Rs 25,000/-.

(c) Bomb assembling material - Rs10,000/-.

(d) Detonator - Rs 5,000/-.

(e) Rounds of pistol/ revolver - Rs 50/-.

(f) Rifle rounds - Rs 100/-.

(g) 12 bore cartridges - Rs 70/-.

53. Accretion in Force Strength. In Oct 05, the Centre approved the raising of the second India Reserve Battalion (IRB) with its HQ at Saraikela (West Singhbhum) with preference accorded to the locals for recruitment. The Cabinet has also directed the Home Department to initiate a proposal for raising seven additional IRBs to be deployed in the Naxal affected Districts. In Nov 05, 10 additional companys of CPOs were provided to State Government by the Centre. This is in addition to the 30 companys already deployed.

54. Rural Roads Planned to Counter Naxal Menace. The State Government has plans to set up a Road Construction Organisation on the lines of the BRO to construct roads in the remote hinterland where the writ of the Naxals runs large. The step is to facilitate the movement of the SFs involved in anti-Naxal operations as also to usher an economic boom in the region.

Maharashtra

55. Maharashtra is moderately affected by the Naxal movement with five Districts in the Eastern region bordering Chhattisgarh and MP under the influence of Marxist ideology (two highly affected and three marginally affected). The Naxals have been making attempts to further their influence in the Districts of Nanded and Nashik. Nanded is being targeted as a result of the spillover from the already affected areas and also due to its proximity to the highly affected regions of AP and Chhattisgarh. Naxals' attempts to establish a foothold in Nashik is aimed to take advantage of the presence of large number of labourers in the industrial belt of Nashik and adjoining regions of Gujarat. The details are given below :-

56. Violent Incidents. A total of 34 incidents were reported with 21 CPOs, 18 civilians and 12 Naxalite fatalities. 90% of the incidents were reported from Gadchiroli District.

57. Naxal Activities. 29 incidents of violence initiated by the Naxals were reported during the year. Most of these incidents were targeted against Police/PMF personnel, suspected police informers, local government bodies and other elements of administration functioning in the region. The incidents are analysed as under :-

NAXAL VIOLENT INCIDENTS : 2005

Month

Killings

Blasts

Arson

Attack

Encounter

Kidnapping

Jan

2

1

-

-

-

1

Feb

-

1

-

-

-

-

Mar

1

-

-

-

-

-

Apr

1

-

-

-

-

-

May

3

1

1

-

-

2

Jun

2

1

-

-

1

-

Jul

3

-

-

1

3

-

Aug

2

-

1

-

-

-

Sep

2

-

-

-

-

-

Oct

2

-

-

-

-

-

Nov

1

-

-

-

-

-

Dec

-

-

-

-

1

-

Total

19

4

2

1

5

3

58. Police Actions. Five successful operations carried out by the SFs were reported during the year (five encounters and one apprehension) in Gadchiroli resulting in nine Naxals killed, one injured and 18 apprehended. The trend clearly indicates the need for the SFs deployed in the region to be more proactive and also revitalise their intelligence machinery.

59. Activities of Nepalese Maoists in the State. Inputs reveal that some Nepalese Maoists had visited Mumbai for arms shopping.

60. Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy. In a major policy initiative to curb Naxalite activities in the Eastern parts of Maharashtra, the State Government in Aug 05 announced a comprehensive incentive based surrender scheme for Naxalites who have been disillusioned by the movement. The scheme involves cash incentives to those surrendering and provision of self employment and education. The cash will be handed over within one month and additional rewards have been promised for weapons. The scheme also envisages allotment of arable land free of cost and provision of cash assistance to the tune of Rs 50,000/- for construction of a house. The scheme is proposed to be put in force in coming financial year. The cash incentives announced are as follows:-

(a) Gramraksa teams/ regional members - Rs 40,000/-

(b) Dalam member - Rs 75,000/-

(c) Deputy Dalam Commander - Rs 1,00,000/-

d) Dalam Commander - Rs 2,00,000/-

(e) Regional Commander - Rs 4-6 lakhs.

(g) Husband -wife dalam members - Rs 50,000/-

(h) Weapons

(i) LMG - Rs 1,00,000/-

(ii) Carbine - Rs 75,000/-

(iii) Pistol/revolver - Rs 25,000/-

Orissa

61. Orissa continues to be one of the moderately affected States with seven districts under the Naxal influence (four highly and three marginally affected). The Naxals after having established their influence in the hilly areas of Kondhar Hills in the Southern region

of the State and Garhjat region in the North are now actively trying to spread their influence in the impoverished region in the central part of the State. This move is also likely to fill in the voids in their efforts to carve out the `Red Corridor' termed as the Compact Revolutionary Zone (CRZ). Refer Appendix R.

62. Violent Incidents. 18 incidents of violence were reported from the State (12 Naxal initiated and six SF initiated). Maximum Naxal initiated incidents were reported from Malkhangiri (04) and Sambalpur (05). Reports also indicate large scale influx of cadres from AP and Chhattisgarh into Malkhangiri with the District emerging as an important base.

63. Naxal Strength. Seven Naxal groups are reportedly active in the State with approximately 300 hardcore cadres and 200 supporters. In addition, six front organisations are also active in espousing the Naxal cause. The front organisations active in the state are as follows:-

(a) Pro CPI (Maoist).

Revolutionary Democratic Front.

Daman Pradirodh Manch.

Janawadi Sahitya Sanskritik Manch.

(iv) Samrajyabadi Birodhi Manch.

(b) Pro CPML Jana Shakti/Kurra Rajanna. Jana Pratirodh Manch.

(c) Pro CPML-New Democracy. Lok Sangram Manch.

64. Force Accretion. In Aug 06, the State Government had proposed the raising of a new IR Battalion with approximately 1000 recruits from the tribal areas. The battalion is proposed to be deployed in the Naxal affected areas. Centre has already released Rs 6.50 crores for the new raising.

West Bengal

65. Though Naxalism had its genesis in the State, the movement at present is at low key. However, inputs indicate that CPI (Maoist) is endeavouring to revive the movement in the State. Presently three Districts (Purulia, Bankura and West Midnapore) bordering Jharkhand and Orissa are moderately affected and 13 districts are marginally affected. Reports indicate Naxals linkages with Kamthapur Liberation Org (KLO) and CPN ( Maoist) in North Bengal.

66. Violence Profile. During the year 2005, the State reported five violent incidents resulting in one CPO personnel killed and 21 injured. Three Naxal cadres and six civilian fatalities were also reported. The main targets of Naxals were CPI (M) cadres and the Police. The Communist parties in the State are targeted because the CPI (Maoist) considers them to be the ruling class and not just revisionists. Reports also indicate extensive consolidation activities in the Northern parts of the State including recruitment activities and extortions.

67. Naxal Activities. Naxal threat may assume dimensions similar to AP, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand in the next few years due to the following reasons:-

(a) Establishment of Bases. The Naxals are in the process of establishing bases in the North Bengal region in Siliguri and Jalpaiguri Districts in addition to the consolidation of the already existing bases along the West Bengal - Jharkhand - Orissa tri junction.

(b) Recruitment. Naxals have been making efforts to recruit cadres from North Bengal region in addition to the traditional areas along the Jharkhand - Orissa border. Recruitment of the locals of Nepalese origin by CPN (Maoist) in North Bengal is also a possibility.

(c) Targeting Political Workers and Leaders. In majority of the violent incidents, CPI (M) workers have been the targets, clearly indicating the lack of faith in democratic process. A case in point is the burning alive of CPM Zonal Committee Secretary of Purulia, Mr Rabi Kar alongwith his wife at Bhomragora (Purulia) on 30 Dec 05.

Karnataka

68. Karnataka is a marginally affected State with constant efforts by Naxals ostensibly to spread their influence mainly along the Andhra border, coastal region and the hilly areas in the South.

69. A total of five incidents (three Naxal initiated and two SF initiated) were reported from the State mainly as a spillover from the neighbouring high intensity District of Anantapur in AP.

70. Naxal Activities. Two incidents of IED blasts (one each in Tumkur and Chikmangalur) were reported resulting in six SF personnel killed and 12 injured. One incident of killing of a suspected Police informer was also reported from Chikmangalur.

71. Police Actions. In a major encounter (total two incidents reported) with Naxals in Chikmangalur on 06 Feb 05, the SFs eliminated Saketh Rajan @ Prem @ Gangadhar, Karnataka State Secretary of CPI (Maoist) alongwith another Naxal cadre.

72. Ban on Naxal Organisations. In Aug 05, the State Government banned CPI (Maoist) and 32 associated organisations.

Madhya Pradesh

73. Naxal activities in the State remained on a low key during the year. Two incidents of killing of civilians were reported from the State. The influence of the Naxals in the State continues to be limited to Balaghat (Danda Karamya Region) at present, though efforts are on to expand to the neighbouring Districts of Seoni, Mandla, Dindori and Betul. Some handwritten posters supporting Naxal cause and opposing Independence Day Celebrations were found pasted in Bhopal on 15 and 16 Aug 05 indicating the existence of Naxal sympathisers in the State Capital as well.

74. State Government Response. The State has put into action a three pronged Integrated Action Plan supported by the Central Government including purchase of modern weapons, communication equipment, security devices, enhancement of forces and establishment of Police Stations. The Special Action Plan will cost a sum of Rs 48.37 crores to be funded through the Ministry of Home Affairs. A sub plan of Rs 12.37 crores was again forwarded in May 05 for construction of Police stations, residential houses and firing ranges.

75. Ban on Naxal Organisations. The MP Vishesh Kshetra Suraksha Adhiniyam (Special Area Security Act) was enforced in Naxalite affected districts in November 2001. Consequently, PWG {CPI (Maoist)} and its front organisations like Adivasi Majdoor Sangh, Krantikari Aadivasi Mahila Sangathan, Krantikari Kisan Majdoor Sangh, Aadivasi Balak Sangh, Gram Raksha Dal and Gram Rajya Committees were also banned.

76. Force Accretion. The State Government has raised a special force to tackle the Naxals christened `Hawks' in Jun 2004.

Uttar Pradesh

77. The movement has spread moderately in three Districts of Sonebhadra, Mirzapur and Chandauli along the border with the highly affected States of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Bihar (Kaimur Hills). The Naxals have also been trying to spread their influence to three additional adjoining districts. Reports also indicate efforts by fringe Naxal groups to spread to the Districts of Allahabad, Varansai, Ambedkar Nagar, Faizabad, Amroha, Badauni, Aligarh, Kanpur, Sitapur, Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri, Bareilly and Jalaun. Reports indicate that the Naxals have decided to make Balia a new zone with a view to give a boost to their expansionist activities.

78. Naxal Strength. Approximately 80 hardcore cadres (40 armed cadres) are reportedly active in the State.

TAMIL NADU

79. Tamil Nadu is the only State which has witnessed a decline in the area of influence of Naxalites in the country. The State has not witnessed any major incident of Naxal violence during the last four years except for some arrests of the suspected remnants by the State police. However, possibility of Naxal groups moving into Dharmapuri-Krishnagiri region due to the pressure of SF operations in the neighbouring affected regions of AP and Karnataka cannot be ruled out. This has been corroborated by some inputs indicating that Naxals are spreading to the MM Hills and Satyamangalam Forest area of TN - Kerala and Karnataka border and are also probably indulging in smuggling of sandalwood to fund their activities.

80. Force Deployment. Three companies of TN Special Police have been deployed in Dharmapuri District to keep a check on the Naxal activities in the region. In addition, two teams of the Special Task Force (STF) created to eliminate the forest brigand Veerappan, have been tasked to monitor the Naxal activities in Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Tiruvallur and Vellore Districts. The STF teams have been tasked to undertake development work by collecting information on the needs of the people. The Inspector General of Police, Intelligence, has been appointed as the nodal officer for coordinating the programme.

81. State Policy on Naxalism. The State Government has adopted the twin policy of tackling the security threat and simultaneously implementing development programmes. The State banned the CPI(Maoist) on 12 Jul 05 as the previous ban imposed was applicable only to CPML (PW). This move is likely to facilitate the elimination of the remnant elements of the Naxal organisations as also keep a check on the activities of the front organisaations to spread their ideologies.

Kerala

82. Naxalism has its roots in the State dating back to heydays of movement in the late sixties when the States' groups were in the forefront of spreading the movement in the country. The State today has only the 'moderate' Naxalite groups namely The CPI (ML) Red Flag and the CPI(ML) (Unnichekkan Group). The groups are active among farmers, tribals and labourers. In recent times, its actions were mainly targeted against the MNCs/International agencies aimed mostly at drawing media attention through symbolic acts of protests.

83. Some groups propounding violence as the means of annihilating class enemies are nominally active, with the notable groups being the CPI(ML) Naxalbari and its virulent front organizations, the 'Ayyamkalipada' (an action wing for covert operations) and 'Porattam' (an ideological wing for overt operations). The groups are active in parts of Wayanad District, mainly amongst the poor farmers and efforts are on to spread their influence in the Malabar region (Northern Kerala).

Uttaranchal

84. Naxalism is a relatively new phenomenon to the State. However, the close proximity of the State to the Maoist affected regions of Nepal, the relative under development of the border areas, scanty State machinery and the difficult terrain poses a lucrative breeding ground for the Naxal ideology. No incident of violence was reported from the State during the year, however, reports indicate concerted efforts by the CPI (Maoist) to establish a foothold in the Districts of Champawat, Nainital, Almora and Pithoragarh.

Formation of Communist Party of India (Maoist). [23] 

85. In a signed statement released on 14 Oct 04 at New Delhi and Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh State Committee Secretary Akkiraju Haragopal @ Ramakrishna @ Pantulu announced merger of CPIML (PW) and MCC (I), which was reported to have taken place on 21 Sep 04 in Jharkhand/Chattisgarh. The following details of the merger were given: -

(a) Muppala Laxmana Rao, hitherto General Secretary of CPIML (PW) has been elected as the new General Secretary of CPI (Maoist).

(b) Armed wings of both the groups, i.e. PGA and PGLA will merge with effect from 02 Dec 04. The new-armed wing has been given the name of PLGA.

(c) Reaffirmed faith in continuation of "Armed Revolution".

Pledged support for CPN (Maoist).

Commenced talks with AP Government as CPI (Maoist) on 14 Oct 04,however talks collapsed later.