A Crime Free Society And The Countrys Achievements Criminology Essay

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A crime-free society is what any country in the world would want to achieve. Numerous countries and communities around the world are working together to fight crime and maintain public safety. Probably, one of the most effective and comprehensive systems in preventing crime, keeping peace and order, and maintaining public safety is found in the Criminal Justice System (CSJ) of England and Wales (Davies et al, 2004; 8).

One of the main functions of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) of England and Wales is to ensure the safety of the public and protect them from direct and indirect threats to their persons and property (Marsh et al, 2004). In order to do this, CSJ needs to collaborate with various departments, government agencies, and communities so that their moves and actions would become more efficient in the long run. According to Davies et al (2004; 26), the effectiveness of CSJ lies in its ability to work closely with various agencies in order to achieve its goals and objectives. Because of the large volume of data, information, and action plans CSJ needs to sort out and manage in order to implement plans or monitor activities, it requires the help and support of the whole system through collaborative efforts. CSJ works with various government and non-government agencies through MAPPA (multi agency public protection arrangement) where information is shared and distributed throughout the involved organizations so that they can perform coherent and efficient action plans (Ashworth & Redmayne, 2005).

One of the key areas under which MAPPA operates is the monitoring of offenders and drawing up the risk management plans involved in containing such offenders (Gibson & Cavadino, 2008; 225). MAPPA brings together different organizations like the Police, Probation and Prison Services, social care, health and housing services, and education services to provide for the social need of the offenders outside the prison walls. Offenders under parole, or those released with license, are monitored closely by CJS through MAPPA and any breach on the conditions set by the license ideally prompts immediate recall (McLaughlin & Muncie, 2001).

The following are the facts of the case: Dawn Williams (age 19) has been violently assaulted by Barry Irons (age 23) who, unbeknownst to Williams, was serving a parole under licence contract for assault occasioning bodily harm. Irons’ assault to Williams left her with a fractured cheek, a broken arm, and some cuts and bruises. There are a couple of CSJ-related issues that can be identified in the case. The first and the most important of these issues is the security of Dawn Williams from the threats posed by Irons as well as helping her find medical attention and her removal from her current location to a safer area; the second issue is the possible containment and prison recall of Barry Irons. With Irons’ record, it is highly probable that he is a grave threat to the welfare and safety of Williams. So, it is the primary responsibility of CSJ to have Williams undergo through medical attention and relocate her to a safer place away from Irons or possibly away from the high-risk neighbourhood she currently is located.

Irons is a category two offender or offenders with history of violence. The behaviour manifested by Irons to Williams constitutes a breach of license conditions which restrict Irons to harm or assault persons and properties while under the license (Davies et al, 2004; 116). The authorities will have strong and valid grounds to arrest him and put him back in prison as the potential threat posed by Irons to the public is highly probable. For this reason, it is necessary that the Police authorities as well as the Probation and Prison Services be informed of his recent offences to contain him. Typical processing of prisoner recall occurs immediately upon the establishment of evidence which is typically upheld by the Parole Board (Joyce, 2006; 98).

Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangement (MAPPA)

As one of the most efficient and thorough justice system in the whole world, Dawn Williams can expect the following from CSJ: (a) get the medical attention she needs for her bruises; (b) be safely relocated to low-risk settlement while processing the arrest and prison recall of Irons; and (c) see Irons safely locked out in prison with new charges for grieve assault resulting to bodily harm. CSJ through MAPPA in Greater Manchester is working closely with various government agencies like the Social Service Departments, Local Authority Housing, Health Services PCTs, and Registered Social Landlords among others in order to promote the general goals and objectives of CSJ which mainly involve public safety and containment of offenders. One of the local government agencies Williams can go to is the Manchester Safeguarding Adults Board (MSAB).

Manchester Safeguarding Adults Board (MSAB)

In theory, the health, safety and medical condition of the victims must be the first priority of the criminal justice system (Jones & Sedwick, 2002). In this regard, it is necessary for Dawn Williams to be seen by a doctor who, at the same time, could provide or assure her safety from Irons. The most efficient way to access this level of medical attention and personal safety is to consult with CJS MAPPA through a local organization specifically tasked to handle such issues which is the MSAB.

The primary roles of MSAB are divided into three main categories which are (a) to prevent the occurrence of abuse and neglect in the community, (b) to promote the well-being and safety of the vulnerable adults concerned, and (c) to respond consistently and effectively to abuse and neglects. One of the key roles of MSAB is to coordinate a multi-agency response to allegations and reports of adult abuse. Some of the members of the Board include the Adult & Community Service, Greater Manchester Police, Primary Care Trust, Boston Hospital NHS Trust, and Community Voluntary Service. The Board ensures that all adults are safeguarded and protected from reported abuse in such a way that their intervention would have a net positive impact to the lives of all concerned adults in Manchester area. In the case of Williams, MSAB through Primary Care Trust can help her with the medical attention she needs. Moreover, MSAB can also assure her safety since it works closely with other MAPPA agencies particularly with the Greater Manchester Police.

Greater Manchester Police

The freedom enjoyed by Irons is of great concern to Williams. Williams have strong grounds to believe that Irons is capable of doing the threats he has made to her if she will tell the authorities about any knowledge he has of the offender. In this regard, police visibility becomes necessary. Theory suggests that the mere presence of police elements in the vicinity could discourage criminal activity, or prevent one from occurring (Ashworth & Redmayne, 2005; 19). In fact, police visibility do not only provides a sense of security to victims or potential victims but also ward off the presence of bad elements (McLaughlin & Muncie, 2001) knowing that the police force is legally capable of subduing any threats. Because of the serious threat to the safety of Williams from Irons, the need to assign a police escort to her while she is under medication becomes very important. Since CJS works closely with the English police force, Williams can be assured of her safety from the threats posed by Irons.

Probation and Prison Services

In order to totally secure Williams from the threats posed by Barry Irons, there is a need to have Irons back in the prison cells. The Greater Manchester Probation Trust (GMPT) serves as the community’s government agency that controls and monitors the activities of probationary offenders (or offenders under license) by enforcing community punishments in effective manners, reduce the probability of offenders reverting back to their previous lives or activities, and protect persons and properties in the communities where offenders are integrated with. GMPT is the agency that assigns the security level (or category) for each offender and is the one that determines the community where the offenders will be assigned.

In the case of Williams, she can make a report to GMPT in order for the agency to perform the appropriate actions towards the breach of probationary licence exhibited by Irons. Normal process typically takes less than a day as long as the evidences that would implicate Irons are strongly established. But because MSAB, GMPT, and Greater Manchester Police are under one government wing (which is the MAPPA) and they share information with each other, Williams’ actions to seek medical attention could lead to the arrest of Irons because each agency associated with MAPPA are keeping a close eye on the activities of the offenders. In other words, the whole process could take less than 24 hours and Dawn Williams can be assured of her safety from the hands of Barry Irons.