A Comparison Of Child Protection

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The opening of everything leads mostly to understand the content till to reach to the end. Some poets among history, the reader knows the purpose of their poems when reading the opening of that poem immediately. John Donne is unlike from any other poet either he is a metaphysical or not. Therefore, The openings in Donne's poetry is sudden and unexpected thing; they are known abrupt openings. Donne discovers this element as one of the qualities of the metaphysical poetry ,he stated: "sudden, colloquial openings in the midst of a pre-conceived dramatic situation" (Naresh Chandra, 1991:34). In fact, the abrupt openings start with a surprising dramatic line (Ian Mackean:2005). Furthermore, they are very helpful characteristic in the poem to show how the conceit plays a prominent role in heating the argument of the poem.

As a result, An abrupt opening is a very essential feature in Donne's poetry that when we start reading the poem, many questions come to our minds. Thus the audience try to follow and read the poem for the couplet in the end. In this paper, this feature is going to be discussed with explanatory of the conceit and its role in the argument showing the poetic value of the opening of the given example. In these openings the man or the poet either sets a scene ,or addressed his God, or speaks to his beloved, or calls us to mark this or that. Those can be applied on The Broken Heart, Batter My Heart , The Good Morrow and The sun rising.

In Donne's The Broken Heart, the poet describes how the cruel and unfair love causes troubles to man leading him to death after experiencing it . He makes an analogy between this experience and the plague disease affects on the human body then dies.

In the first stanza, the poet claims that love can cross from safe and happiness to the danger and evil in less than an hour after-effect of the frustration happened and experienced by love.

He is stark mad, whoever says,

    That he hath been in love an hour,

Yet not that love so soon decays,

    But that it can ten in less space devour ; (1-4)

Therefore, the poet reminds the plague which killed millions of European peoples in numbered days. The poet says:

Who will believe me, if I swear

That I have had the plague a year?

Donne questions who can believe him when he swears that he had a plague for a year. In fact, it is a rhetorical question is asked without expecting an answer. Another rhetorical question in line 8:

I saw a flash of powder burn a day?

In this line the poet claims that he saw the flash of powder burn for a day and one would believe him also. The both questions had been asked when the poet was in a state of being seriously mentally ill.

Referring to drama in the opening of this stanza, the poet employs the description of the character state and how he is full of depression and frustration of the bad experience he had. In addition, he employs the monologue when he asks questions in the last lines of the first stanza in order to make the reader questioning for finding a certain answer for these deep and abnormal questions.

Employing the abrupt opening here is to explain the main idea of the poem that the man becomes mad after being in love for an hour is similar to having a plague for a year or seeing a flash of powder burn for an entire day. Thus love is instant like the explosion of the flask.

Furthermore, the poet employs the five senses in the stanza is a sign of vital and dramatic action. He questions and says:

Who will believe me, if I swear

In addition, he employs the ear and eye senses when he says:

I saw a flash of powder burn a day?

Also, the poet mentions the setting when he says:

That he hath been in love an hour,

And also he says:

That I have had the plague a year?

In shore, from the beginning, it is a clear that Donne sets a scene of a play. Thus he can be considered as a scenarist.

Another way of beginning the poems of Donne is addressing the God strictly. The Holy Sonnet "Batter my Heart" opening is an example supports this idea , Donne says:

Batter my heart, three person'd God

In this Holy Sonnet, the poet uses metaphors and imagery in the sonnet. Regarding the opening, he asks God to create him again by battering his heart then put another one instead of it. In that case, Donne refers to his own soul wishing God to give him pure soul.

Helen (1976) states that "Batter My Heart" is about struggle to maintain faith in God. He also says: " Donne's 'Batter My Heart' shows the poet involved in a deep-rooted and desperate struggle with his own soul".

Moreover, he said that Donne almost seems to doubt whether God exists at all, and the power of the diction and imagery is indicative of serious turmoil.

About the conceit, Donne talks to his God directly telling him to damage and destruct his heart.

Helen (1976) says about the opening is :"evoking dramatic action" and also it is " delivered in a personal and colloquial manner"

This way of addressing God is not used in the prayers when people pray to Him. In fact, nice and respecting way is more polite and acceptable in religious aspect for the reason human being needs his God to give and support him whatever he wants.

Donne does not accept/follow this approach but opens his poem commanding the God. Therefore, he thinks that way makes him to earn God by deserving his attention using logical way.

For that reason Helen claims that poems: "takes the form of argument, using to logic to make the reasoning convincing and persuasive". He also said that " Donne's thinking is more intellectual, his line of reasoning reflecting a rigorously disciplined mind".

In the usual life, the way of speaking and asking others ought to be respectful, nice, and polite to show the people to achieve whatever they want. But how if the man asks his God?!

Donne here considers talking to God roughly causes effective results by making God is closed and also paying attention to him. In that case, the purpose of paradox is fulfilled when the mind is farfetched and questioned about the way Donne use in talking to his God.

In the other side, Donne talks to his mistress in many of his poems openings. In most of his poems the beloved does not have any prominent role either in speaking or doing at least one thing refers to her existence in the situation. An example of these poems is "The Flee". He says:



In contrast to this idea what (Ahmad in ………), says:" looking at a number of songs and sonnets and several Elegies, notes that in his love poetry Donne rarely comments on the mistress's physical looks but instead focuses on her evocative powers". He also adds that this case allowing her to be a more concrete and lively participant in the poems.

Although the woman is an absent voice in most of Donne's poetry, she has a role in some of them but this role is related to the psychological state of the poet.

In "The Good Morrow" Donne