Types of Building and Soil Investigation

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Task 1

AP Land Berhad has an excellent track record of high quality building in South East Asia with the attractive and innovation designs. AP Land Berhad is planning to build a mix development planning in Pajam, Negeri Sembilan. As Junior Quantity Surveyor you are instructed to do some research on the type of building that can be built in the proposed project.

  1. Different types of building

Table 1.1: Common types of building


Residential building

Commercial building

Industrial building


A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.

Acommercial buildingis abuildingthat is used forcommercialuse.

Industrial architecture is the design and construction of buildings serving industry. Such buildings rose in importance with the industrial revolution, and were some of the pioneering structure of modern architecture.


Source: Afsar, (2014)

  1. Two component of superstructure of Residential Building

Table 1.2: Superstructure of Residential Building





Floor is that parts of a building on which furniture, household, commercial, industrial or any other type of items are stored. Floor is used for walking around. Floor separates the different levels of a building. Building is also named with reference to floor. Like Ground floor, first floor, or a floor that is below ground level like basement floor

Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in building depending on the location and weather. Sloping roofs are generally considered better in mountain areas. While, in plan areas flat roofs are preferred.



Figure 1: Floor


Figure 2: Roof

Source: Afsar, (2014)

  1. Characteristic for both components in order to improve the building quality in construction industry.

Table 1.3: Characteristic for floor and Roof





Flooring is made of different materials, using different production techniques and in accordance with the type of room it is intended for

  • high traffic need flooring which is wear-resistant
  • Human protection
  • Protection of possessions
  • Water protection
  • Thermal insulation
  • Sound resistant
  • Ventilation
  • Structure to carry load from weather


The design is also adapted to the type of the room for which a certain type of flooring is intended, and it is very important to provide the buyer with a large selection of different shades and patterns.

The design is adapted to the type of building and environment. Common type:

  • Pitch roof(suitable for tropical country)
  • Flat roof (suitable for less rain country)


Practical and environmentally friendly solutions for every room, whether it is public, commercial, residential, sports facilities or solutions for the new build and renovations.

Practical and environmentally friendly solutions for every building, whether it is public, commercial, residential and etc.


The quality of the product which guarantees that it last and save money in the long run.

The quality of the product which guarantees that it last and save money in the long run.

Source: Tarkett See, (2012)

Task 2

FOSTA Pte Ltd has been appointed by the JTC Corporation to provide soil investigation work and Laboratory Testing Services for their proposed 5 storey laboratory project at Woodlands Industrial Park E9, Tunas Bay, and Johor. The main purpose of this soil investigation work is to determine the suitability of the site for the proposed project and to propose an adequate and economic foundation design.

Soil Survey

The soil survey is safe and economically suitable type of foundation for design performance, should have enough information about the layout of the physical properties and the basic material designer. (Faaishah, 2011)

How to help your future projects or) soil survey

You can find chemical properties, the physical, the bearing capacity of the soil and soil water level changes in the soil survey.

I am. May vary depending on the location and chemical properties, of the soil in the physical arrangement, the scope of the proposed structure, even within, the layers in the layer. Can be changed in a quite small area of soil characteristics, if not properly designed the bearing capacity of foundation soils that when failure in the future, it is possible to influence the bearing quality of the soil, so the building weather, climate change, and sites are . (Famepyramids, 2013)

II. Determining the capacity of the soil bearing:

Load capacity of livelihood  Land,

 this precipitate is placed on the structure of the soil affected any speed fixing speed,

The type and depth of the underlying selection ,

Select the appropriate construction technology ,

 foundation for predicting and solving the problem is likely

If the cause of the sinking of the building that can be done chimhaeul  land

III. Significantly affecting the humidity in the foundation, influences the characteristics of the soil water content, or chemical composition of the mineral soil significant difference that may affect the choice of construction materials, soil moisture levels. (Famepyramids, 2013)

method suitable for collecting c) the sample

Must be based on the testing of the material obtained from the Site, including the Land Report:

. The bearing capacity of the soil.

B. Refer to the recommended foundation design.

The. Packing your design recommendations.

LA. Compaction of the soil.

Electronics. Transverse strength (active, passive and friction coefficient).

Bar. Pitcher.

g. Frost depth.

You are using a rotary drill boreholes appropriate way to collect the sample. Rotary rock drilling boreholes, are expected to be used on a hard surface or void. The land is to be so hard to support the building load forecast for the proposed five-layer laboratory project rock your tuna Bay, E9, and Woodland Industrial Park Johor. (Geonamics, 2012)

If necessary, the borehole soil or rock rotary drilling techniques are used. Use the drill holes in the earth rotation to proceed. Is collected from the core unit from the center of the drill stem soil samples. Depends on the selection status of the drilling equipment is ground. Depends on a small (2m X 1m X 2m high) self-powered equipment is relatively equipment. This ring is particularly useful in difficult conditions need rock core or rotary drilling floor. (Geonamics, 2012)

Task 3

Is used as a building material for the filling material for building and building structures in general purpose concrete. Due to the purpose and a wide range of the intensity, is selected in the concrete construction industry now is one of economic materials.

) Concrete

The composite material consisting of water, aggregate and cement concrete is mainly Is included to achieve a desired physical property of the finished material and additives are usually reinforcement. When these components are mixed together, they form a lump in the image forming solution easily. Over time, to combine the remaining ingredients to form a material, such as stones, and with a lot of hard use and durable cement matrix. (Singh, 2007)

  1. Compare concrete with two others material that have been used in construction industry.

Table 2.1: Comparison between Concrete, Steel and Wood.





























Thermal Conductivity




Chemical Resistant




Surface Finish




Source: Singh , (2007)

C) the type of concrete test

Table 2.1: Type of concrete test

The type of rebound hammer test slump test

Is used to determine the workability of the fresh concrete the slump test is defined. Taken to find the compressive strength of the concrete test hammer rebound

Fully cleaning the interior surface of the mold, and the oil is applied a light coat treatment.

Placed gentle horizontal solid and the â…±) mold, non-absorbent surface.

Each is filled with freshly mixed concrete and four layers in the quarter of the height of the mold â…²) mold is approximately

Is uniformly distributed (stroke) in section 25 round, and the tamping tamping rod ends â…³) each layer.

After the top layer rodded V), and hit the dirt level concrete.

Is removed from the concrete in the vertical direction immediately rises slowly â…µ) mold.

â…¦) the said measurement of the difference in level between the highest point of the concrete and take the height of the mold.

The slump of the concrete in the high VIII) of the difference is mm. Must be tested against the test anvil in order to obtain a reliable measure to indicate the scope of the anvil suitable for different types of manufacturers rebound hammer rebound hammer rebound hammer results, before starting the °) test.

Apply light pressure to â…±) Plunger - can be extended to prepare for separation from the locked position to the test position.

Holding mechanism vertically â…²) to the test surface, and press the plunger with respect to the surface of the concrete. The gradual increase in the pressure applied to the impact on the hammer. (Do not touch the button while holding down the plunger you press the button after impact, it will not be noted in that location is convenient when reading rebound.)

â…£) Take the average of 15 readings.

Shall be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during the test measurement results downturn. In this case, collapse or lateral shears off Any slump material, and provide incorrect results, the test sample is another repeat. In addition to measuring the slump in the repeated test if the sample is to be shear fact, the above test piece should be recorded, to indicate the protruding compressive strength read the display scale, with respect to the vertical surface, that is, the influence on the level has been adjusted by the manufacturer of the rebound hammer. When used in any other position, it should be noted that an appropriate correction as specified by the manufacturer.


Figure 3: Slump test

Figure 4: The hammer rebound

Source: Singh (2007)

Task 4

Select the appropriate size of the building until the roof system of the 20m X 15m is to be completed on one floor bungalow.

discuss a) description and selection of roof system

It is suitable in construction until the dimensions of 20m X 15m of the complete system on one floor bungalow roof hip roof. The shape of the roof hip roof is usually quite gentle slope down walls everywhere. (QuinStreet, 2014)

Was chosen for the floor of the bungalow dimensions of 20m X 15m is because of too much rain drainage is a tropical country on this year has the biggest advantage over other roof design hip roof hip roof is because Malaysia weather to be considered. Because of the angle nemyeon, anywhere on the surface of the water on the roof there is little opportunity for the stand. The design encourages rainwater runoff and prevent the collapse of the roof. Were less vulnerable to high winds, so it can be used in all types of weather, the last advantage hip style roof. (QuinStreet, 2014)

Or after the roof system selected) philosophy

In addition, the HIP process called hip roof roof, sides slope downwards to the walls and roof usually in the form of a relatively gentle slope with. Therefore, without a roof or gable side and the other perpendicular with the house. A hip roof is a square pyramid shape. The triangular sides and two trapezoidal get his butt in the house roof. Has a rectangular plan nemyeon hip roof. They are almost always the same pitch or in a symmetric tilt them to the center line. The band is a consistent level of meaning that can be mounted on all roof gutters around the hips. The hip roof dormer slanted jinmyeon this often. (QuinStreet, 2014)


You must be over the other roof hip roof design, the biggest advantage is the water drainage. Because of the angle nemyeon, anywhere on the surface of the water on the roof there is little opportunity for the stand. Where there tend to have a lot of rain is a good choice for this type of roof; You encourage off and prevent the collapse of the roof - it is the design of non-execution. The functions that can be integrated into existing structures and other features that make this style more popular than others. Has over hip style roof gable roof so that it can be used in all types of weather, the last advantage is that it is less vulnerable to high winds . (QuinStreet, 2014)


All the roof design, there are several disadvantages to hop style. One of them is more than making a gable roof, and is also more complex requiring that the material; You will work with the data than the gable to pay more money. In addition, because more than any other disadvantage is the gable roof beams, is that there will be more opportunities for leaks. You must avoid minor issues that are important geotdeulga proper maintenance. (QuinStreet, 2014)

  1. Sketch the section of the foundation, ground beam, and floor of the building, and also roof beam and roof system of the building.


[1] Famepyramids. (July 18, 2013) Why Soil Investigation Is Necessary For Your Building Project. Available at: http://www.nairaland.com/1364248/why-soil-investigation-necessary-building (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[2]Faaishah, S. (January 23, 2011) Soil Investigation. Available at: http://bfp4043soilinvestigation.blogspot.com/ (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[3]Singh, K. (2007) Rebound Hammer. Available at: http://www.engineeringcivil.com/rebound-hammer-test.html (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[4] Singh, K. (2007) Slump test. Available at: http://www.engineeringcivil.com/workability-of-fresh-concrete-by-slump-test.html (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[5]Afsar, J. (February 09, 2014) Component of Building: Superstructure. Available at: http://www.engineeringintro.com/uncategorized/building-components-sub-structure-super/ (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[6] Geonamics. (2012) Soil Investigation Available at: http://geonamics.com.sg/geotechnical-division/soil-investigation/ (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[7] Tarkett See, (November 14, 2012) What are the characteristic of good floor? Available at: http://www.timetosee.tarkett.rs/en/analyses-and-trends/what-are-the-characteristics-of-a-good-floor(Accessed on 06 October 2014)

[8] QuinStreet, Inc. ,(2014) Hip Roof Available at: http://www.selfhelpandmore.com/building/roofing/designs/index.php (Accessed on 06 October 2014)


[1]Frog, C. (2014)Floor. [Online image]. Available at: http://www.steysonconcretefloors.co.uk/shot-blasted-concrete-floors-gagosian-gallery/ (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[2] Hanson. (2014) Roof Tile. [Online image]. Available at: http://www.hansonrooftile.com/ (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[3]Singh, K. (2007) Rebound Hammer. [Online image]. Available at: http://www.engineeringcivil.com/rebound-hammer-test.html (Accessed on 30 September 2014)

[4]Singh, K. (2007) Slump test. [Online image]. Available at: http://www.engineeringcivil.com/workability-of-fresh-concrete-by-slump-test.html (Accessed on 30 September 2014)