This proposed of the development

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  • General Design Concept
  • This proposed of the development is an office building will comprise overall 9 floor from ground to the attic floor. Overall building size is 60m x 57m and the gross floor area is about 11,097m2. The building central atrium is designed to provide a natural light for light effect and green concept propose. (Appendix 1)

  • Client Requirement
  • This project is planned to commence to construction works in Nov 2010 and will be fully rented to separate tenants. So, the building design must be concerned the rental space as required by client. Besides, the building is located in urban area means high technology building material to be applied to attract the public.

  • Site Location / Existing Site Condition
  • The proposed of development site is located in city centre where it may be disturbing by weak traffic flow. All safety requirement and method of construction should be concerned to archive all construction requirements.

  • Design Criteria/ Guide

This building is develop for commercial and office usage where located in city center. Some criteria for design or the function where related to the building design is necessary to evaluate based on the below:-

  • Cost
  • To meet "best value for money"

  • Speed of construction progress
  • Construction period can be completed as short as possible to get early benefit from investment.

  • Ability to standardize
  • Simply design even advantage to both requirement for method of construction and esthetic value.

  • Size and natural of site
  • To make sure all the proposed of building specification, design and method of construction should be suitable with the existing site condition where it can be avoided any interrupt within construction progress even less maintenance for future if the design make it properly.

  • The availability of material and labour
  • Flexible to the basic design requirement means all the material, labour as well as machineries related must be easily to source and high applicability in used.

  • Fire protection

Safety requirement for building is very important especially when the Architect or Engineer to make alternative for building material to apply into the proposed of development item. However, fire protection is to main issue to be concerned where it is play the role to avoid major failure of the building.


The developer is appointed a team of consultant to join into design works. Consultants is play the role to provide strongly technical information to recommend these building element for further construction works as below :-

  1. Advanced Structural Frame
  2. Advanced Foundation System
  3. Double Skin Facades

1.0 Unit 1 - Advanced Structural Frames

1.1 Alternative of Frame Material

Building frame is defining an element to transfer all dead load, life load and lateral load from the top of the building to foundation. It is the combination of column, beam, rafter, bracing, rafter, trusses as well. Basically this element can be built as steel frame, vibrated reinforced concrete frame and pre-cast concrete frame. All of them can be performing as excellent or weak in different requirement of the design. The below schedule shown the comparison of the material inherent:-

This section is describe regarding the application of building material for the frame element and to evaluate function ability to the proposed of building. Based on the detail evaluation to the above alternative of frame material, strongly recommended steel frame is most appropriate material to be used for the proposed development as the reason below :-

  • Cost Effective
  • This concept for frame structure is designed to support building up to 40 storeys. However 30 storeys are the best achieved. In this case, 10 storey office building is latest confirmation to develop, so steel material is consider lighter than concrete material in term of self load means the load will be transferred to foundation will be reduced.
  • Steel consumption increase when global economies growing, however recently the global steel material supply is over demand value is means the material cost is much cheaper than before. Therefore, steel structure is the best value for money can applicable within this proposed construction period.
  • Majority steel structure members is factory produced material where is passed and certified in terms of Quality Control. Therefore, no defect works such as cracking, honey comb, twist of structure, and unfixable shape of frame as well where all this will be costly to client for making good defect and maintenance.
  • Speed of Construction
  • Based on the client's planned that the construction work will be started on November 2010. In this way, time allow for planning stage is undisturbed. However, speed of construction stage in play the role to get back the time value to the developer. Thus, steel frame is most appropriate system where all the steel component is ready product and can be installed straightforward.
  • Existing Site Condition
  • The proposed development site is located in city center mean the limited site compound is allowed. Steel structure frame is one of the most effective and simple Industry Building System (IBS) where the construction process is straightforward and convenience to construct in limited working space. Unlike the concrete frame structure construction, a large fabrication yard is needed to erect the reinforcement bar and formwork as well. The entire interference conditions is leading the frame alternative goes to steel frame system. Additional, the proposed site in urban area may be facing interruption to traffic and it directly disturb to site progress especially in concreting process.

1.2 Proposal for Building Frame Layout

Based on the preliminaries concept provided by client, a new structure layout is prepared to identify all the size and location of the beam, column and floor component as shown in Appendix 1.

1.3 Alternative of Frame Solution

This proposed building supposing that to be increased in height to 30 storeys; it means the building is considered as a tall building. Thus, selecting of frames solution must to ensure that the frame is able to support both significant vertical and gravity load as the same time to support significant horizontal, lateral or 'sway' forces caused by wind as shown in Figure 1.3.1.

Three type of frame solution is considered that appropriate to apply for this proposed of building as below stated:-

  • Structural Steel Shear Truss Frame

This approach of frame system involve of the center core area is built main vertically column with bracing trusses from the ground level to top level where it is play the role to support the lateral and safely transfer the gravity loads from top level to foundation. For this system the truss takes advantage of triangulation and essentially works like a vertical cantilevered lightweight beam spanning from foundation level to top level. Additional bracing beam is formed to each critical frame bay to build the stability condition to whole frame system. The "K" bracing form allows the truss to simply resist the laterals forces imposed on the building and allows the rest of the frame to resist the gravity loads The bracing frame can be made by 2 pattern either in 'X' or "K' as shown in Figure 1.3.2. This bracing is play the role as sway support to reduce the lateral deflection movement and provide more rigid structure to the frame compare with unbraced frame system as shown in Figure 1.3.3.

  • Frame Using Vertical Trusses, Belt Trusses and Outrigger Trusses

This approach is a development of the Shear Trusses System where the similar character of gravity and lateral load are support by the vertical column, beam and perimeter columns. Rigid connection between the perimeter column and the outrigger trusses and allow a much 'stiffer' structure to be formed and this enables greater wind forces to be efficiently resisted. The addition of outrigger trusses and belt trusses (Figure 1.3.4) can enable a structure to be approximately 25% stiffer than a structure solely relying on a shear truss or shear wall system. This approach frame system are used large trusses to tie with center core frame / shear wall to built a better stability condition to support lateral load and gravity load. While this approach is perhaps most suitable for steel skyscrapers, it is appropriate for composite frames which use both concrete and steel. One of the best skyscrapers in Shanghai namely as Shanghai World Financial Center is designed with combination of outrigger trusses, center concrete core and mega column are achieved to 492 meter height as shown in Figure 1.3.5. The outrigger truss or belt trusses is connected between the center core and perimeter mega column to form a rigid connection for the whole building structure to support significant horizontal, lateral or 'sway' forces as shown in Figure 1.3.6

  • Tube System

This approach frame system creates "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation .A 'tube' system can be created by moving the external columns around the perimeter of the building much closer together than they would ordinarily be placed in a conventional frame system. The closely spaced columns are then tied together robustly with short beams, that may be welded to the columns. This arrangement allows the placement of windows between columns and beams. The 'Tube' Structure. The Tube offers elevations or walls in the tube support gravity loads 'E' and transfers these to foundations. Walls in the plane of 'D' act as a vertical beam to resist the wind loads imposed from direction 'A' and walls in the plane 'C' resist wind forces imposed from direction 'B' as shown in Figure1.3.7. Corners are critical to maintaining the stability of the 'tube' structure. The beams connect the columns around the corners of the four building facades. For improvement from the initial concept, "tube in tube" and "bundled tube as shown in Figure 1.3.8 has designed to enhance the capacity of lateral support system.

For "tube in tube" method or trussed tube, the external tube structure is connected to internal tube structure both are playing the role to support lateral load and gravity load. Besides, this approach also advantage in term of space planning where all the column between internal tube and external tube can be removed to allows a greater flexibility in the building use. John Hancock Center, Chicago is one of the skyscraper in applied with this structure system with additional bracing component to provide greater loads support for frame structure the as shown in Figure 1.3.9. Meanwhile, the tube system has designed with combination more than one tube frame as namely "Bundle Tube". This structure frame is built by more than one of tubes are placed side by side to create a combined resistance to lateral forces. This type of technique sample can be referred to Sears Tower in Chicago where nine tubes are 'bundled' together and these are staggered in terms of the height to which they are built. Only two of the nine tubes extend to the full 110 storey height of the building as shown in Figure 1.3.10.

2.2 Foundation Proposal

This section is discussing the selection of the most appropriate foundation structure to apply in this frame structure building. Although the proposed of building is recently will be built up to 10 storey, but it is supposing that to building was to be increased in height to 30 storey. Despite all that, the foundation design shall be consider as deep foundation structure. However, the basic consideration for selection of the most appropriate method for the particular site shall be based on the below stated:-

  • Cost effectiveness

The ground condition in the particular site proposed is reported that exists as contained with the high water level at 2.85m from the ground level. According this borehole log, low framed foundation such as pad foundation, raft foundation and slab foundation as well those are unsuitable to apply for this building because the larger section of foundation to be formed for enable the ability of bearing pressure.

The larger foundation construction is required a large area for working space especially bulk pit excavation and also required a lot of temporary support both is resulted to create disadvantages for best value.

Unlike the deep foundation especially piled foundation, it can be performed to allow more bearing pressure at deep subsoil level. This type of approaches is suitable for all various depth of foundation system especially for low bearing capacity soil condition. Besides, this also appropriate to apply to support buildings which have very uneven loading.

However, in terms of economic issue, there is not all deep foundation can be simply employed to the particular building design. It is depends on the necessary building requirement, for example deep shaft foundation is required a lot of complicated work such as hand excavation and temporary support even a larger working space is needed as well. All this will be very costly for this proposal of building (only for 30 storey building and the maximum load to be transfer for the heaviest column is less than 20,000kN.).

For the best alternative for the particular of the proposed building, piled foundation system is most appropriate to employ where is considered it could be built in deeper subsoil level to allow higher soil bearing pressure. (based on Appendix for borehole log schedule, there are only required for maximum 4 numbers grouping piles of 450mm diameter for the heaviest column and is count up that each pile can carry around 2000kN or 200 tonnes.

  • Method of construction and the natural existing site condition.

In view of the economic issue as discuss before, piled foundations are considered as the best alternative in used. However, in terms of the site condition, friction pile system is not appropriate in used in city centre because of this method of construction will be caused noise pollution is generated by the driving process and the vibration caused may damage finishing and fittings in adjacent buildings.

Besides of that, this approach is required a larger working space to setup the plant for driving pile, as it is no well applicable for the site with a limitation of working space especially in city center.

For this case study, the best alternative of the foundation system should be bored pile system. In terms of nature of location, this approach is significantly to apply in this proposed office building where is located in city centre. The existing site location are constrained by adjoining building or by other considerations that may limit the noise and vibration pollution that is typically associated with driven pile system.

In view of the subsoil condition, majority of the existing site area are tested with contain hard layer begin at 29 meter from the ground level which are allow end-bearing action to the pile system. End-bearing action can be considered to spread imposed load at the pile base is means that there it can creates benefit in associated with enlarging the toe of end bearing. This well innovation allows the piles to be sunk to lesser depths mean it can be performed to large variable soil condition.

3.0 Unit 6 -Double Skin Facades

In this section, we are required to carry out the discussion and prepare for a report in particularly of the double skin facades system for this office building. The below issue has been taken in discussion task as described:-

  • The benefits for application of double skin facades for this proposed office building.
  • Firstly, we should introduce the basic information for double skin facades system. This building element in simple terms described as a building employing a double façade has two separate (but interconnected) cladding layers or skins and having significant air gap between two. This cladding approach sometime can be referred to as building-in- building. The double skin facade treatment is typically used on the wall with greatest insulation but can potentially be used on all walls. This advance approach cladding system is popular in used particularly for office building and it gives evident to show the advantage as stated below:-

  • Natural Ventilation
  • The gap between the inner skin and outer skin will be the area for vertical air circulation. This approaches are allow the natural ventilation process when the inner air (cool air is heavier than warm air) from the office will move to lower space in the gap and push the warm air out from the top level mean roof ventilation outlet. The selection of Double Skin Façade type can be crucial for temperatures, the air velocity, and the quality of the introduced air inside the building. This process can be applied in the whole day and night as we as in various climatic conditions such as wind, rain etc.

  • Better acoustic insulation - improve noise protection
  • With employing double skin façade is significant for the purpose to build the greater working environment especially for the building is located in city center where is constrained with the weak vehicles noise. The double skin facades mean double protection function for cladding system and it shown the evidence in many particular building like GAP 15, Graf Adolf Platz 15, Düsseldorf in Germany stated that employed with this system, sound control for three different sound attenuation classes between Rw 35 and 45 dB.

  • Thermal Insulation
  • There are tow situation should be concerned in terms of thermal control. Firstly, during summer period, the warm air inside the cavity can be extracted by mechanical, fan supported or natural ventilation. Secondly thermal insulation perform during the winter period, the external additional skin provides improved insulation. The reduced speed of the air flow and the increased temperature of the air inside the cavity lower the heat transfer rate on the surface of the glass which leads to reduction of heat losses

  • Energy Savings
  • Most of the double skin façades has designed as transparency cladding such as glass material will function to allow natural daylight transfer from external to internal space, In term of day lighting issue, glass wall system is very good day lighting transmitting to the building internally. This will reduce the energy consumption especially in day time. Besides, this approaches is benefit in terms of reducing of energy for heating and cooling are related to thermal insulation as described before (item iii) .

  • Environmental Friendly with Exploiting of Solar Energy
  • Mechanical's energy generation will cause the environment pollution means that more harmful heating capacity will affect to the environment. In order to build the greater solution to protect the environment, solar system will bring the benefit for this purpose where in application of photovoltaic glass for outer skin and complete set of accessories and fitting for this system. Solar energy from sun's ray will be stored in the particular system's component and utilize it to reduce energy consumption and overhead cost.

  • Highlight the technical challenges that would need to be overcome to produce a double skin façades for this building
  • The used of Double Skin Facades has grown in popularity in recent years is particularly for office building in many large European cities. However, the application of this method has brings some technical challenges that would need to overcome to build a high quality system for the building.

    • Fire Protection
    • There is not yet very clear whether this system can be positive nor not, concerning the fire protection of a building. However, it may be problems caused by the room to room transmission of smoke in case of fire.

    • Reduction of Rental Office Space
    • The gap between inner and outer skin can be allowed from 20cm to 2 meter where this intermediate cavity will be reduced the internal useful space. Often the width of the cavity influences the properties inside it (i.e. the deeper the cavity is, the less heat is transmitted by convection when the cavity is closed) and sometimes the deeper the cavity is, the more improved thermal comfort conditions are next to the external walls. Thus, it is quite important to find the optimum depth of the façade in order to be narrow enough so as not to loose space and deep enough so as to be able to use the space close to the façade.

    • Additional Maintenance and Operational
    • In terms of maintenance works, the use of double skin facades is complicated compared with single skin cladding where all the cleaning works, operation, inspection, servicing and maintenance as well are need to be carried out twice.

    • Overheating Problems
    • This problem will refer to the appropriate design for the system. The significant air velocity capacity must be well considered to avoid the air in the cavity may increase the overheating of the interior space. Inlet and outlet gap for air transmission should not be interrupted by debris because of this will disturb the stability of air velocity.

    • Increased of Building Dead Load
    • This approach is required for additional skin unlike that normal cladding system. Thus, the overall building load will be increased and this also affected to the budget of construction cost.

    • Increased of Building Dead Load
    • This approach is required for additional skin unlike that normal cladding system. Thus, the overall building load will be increased and this also affected to the budget of construction cost.

    • Natural of Site
    • This method application must be concerned regarding the climate for the proposed location of development. Even though this method can be employed to all building if client willing to pay for extra money, however it maybe no functional value for money if the proposed location is remained with good climatically condition by previous record.

    • A construction detail for the proposed of the double skin façade suitable for this building


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