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The construction industry in considered to be one of the highly hazardous fields in the UK, a lot of people involved in this industry have either lost their lives on a weekly basis or suffered from a chronic diseases, like Musculoskeletal disorder and Asbestosis and deafness etc. Moreover, some public passing through or driving nearby a construction sites has been also killed due to inappropriate health and safety standards performed on such sites.(Introduction to Health and Safety in construction by Phil Hughes, Ed Ferrett Third Edition2008 p1&p17)
In the UK, it's a law for construction companies to have regulations regarding health and safetyIn order to be followed by everyone working for those companies so that fatality and injuries can be minimised. (p24)
After winning the bid to host the Olympic and Paralympics games seven years ago, London had to be prepared for the one of the biggest sports event across the globe, this was the spark to build the Olympic park. One of the tremendous projects to convert ---deprived and left areas of --Eastern London to a modern spots, on the other hand, it would bring prosperity a massive advantages to the people of East London.
The concerned firm who was responsible for ensuring that everything from stadiums to water networks were in the right place not only for the Olympic Games but for the future use as well is called The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA).ICE (2012) ( http://www.ice.org.uk/topics/Learning-Legacy/london-2012-Olympic-Park-map/Olympic-Park)
The Park has numerous facilities such as, London Aquatics Centre, Basketball and water polo Arena, stadium and a media centre (London Town).
The Olympic Delivery Authority is a public firm that is in charge of improvement and construction projects for the Olympic Games.
Construction and planning such a big project requires a lot of workforce and money as there were almost 12000 personnel participated in this magnificent project.
It was the biggest planting scheme in the history of the United Kingdom as over 4,000 trees, 74000 plants, 60,000 bulbs and around 300,000 wetlands plants were planted along the Park and the village.( Tyers, C, Institute for Employment Studies 2012) http://www.hse.gov.uk/aboutus/london-2012-games/research-reports.htm
Anyone looking at the Olympic Park now wouldn't imagine that the land that it was built on had been waste land before as it was left for chemical waste, industrial waste, groundwater and other waste, in additions to it was a --neglected-land. Because of that contamination and pollution which had been the feature of the mentioned above land.
In regards to that, a major and a significant step had to be taken prior to the beginning of the construction work, this is a big health and safety issue, as if the structure was built without treating the soil it would have been an extremely hazardous in regards to not only human being health but also animal life because of the bacteria and the viruses and all sort of germs already present on the site. So for that reason a soil hospital had been put up on the Olympic Park fully equipped with specialised machineries that treated the soil from the contamination making contamination free materials for future use on the land.
For this purpose, Bioremediation had been used in the process of soil cleaning; Bioremediation means that; using Biological Organisms to get rid of the pollutants on the land, the mechanism of such organism is similar to what human being do daily by getting energy from food, they analyze pollutant for energy, they take what they need of the soil and throw back what they don't benefit of it, making the soil safer, that operation had helped to clean a million and a half tonnes of soil for future use, these Organisms are usually found in the soil and can be stimulated by fertilization or can be added to the wanted place. (Bristol Natural History, Meet the Species p2) http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0CEoQFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bnhc.org.uk%2Fassets%2Ffiles%2FMeet%2520the%2520Species%2FMeet%2520the%2520Species%2520Olympic%2520Park%2520Pages.pdf&ei=prB1UNvZI8ix0AWzzYGACw&usg=AFQjCNFGz2NWww28ORYuva3-ZfYQD1Jopw&sig2=dcarAqzfpAtRtqe8rpL-eg
In respect of aquifer,
The land cleaning and treatment process was the accountability of ODA not only for the Olympics and Paralympics Games but also for the future legacy according to what had been agreed on between London Development Agency (LDA) the land owner on which the Olympic Park was built and the ODA.(Health and Safety International)
The ODA has fulfilled the Construction Design and Management( CDM) 2007 regulations on the Olympic Park throughout the following;
Health and Safety Management
One of the highly risky sectors in the country is the construction industry, because of that strict health and safety has been implemented specially on the Olympic park building plan as it's considered to be one of the large constructions plans across Great Britain. Lessons have been taken from previous projects; thus; the health and Safety Executive had an important role to ensure that health and safety regulations were massively met throughout working with the ODA (Safety Culture on the Olympic Park p13)
Not only The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) were in charge of making sure that health and safety were met by the contractors but it was also the Delivery Partner's (DP) accountability which has been offered the opportunity to execute the majority of the work. The construction programme was also assigned to the Delivery Partner by the ODL, the latter was obliged to ODA to make sure that the building process was finished on schedule, not only that, the DP had been assigned as a primary contractor for specific areas of the Olympic Park. (Occupational health provision on the Olympic Park and athletes' village final report)
Health and safety were meant to meet extraordinary performance on site as announced by the ODA, as well as making sure that the contractors follow health and safety requirements. Health and safety guidance and health advice programmes for contractors and people working for them were also set as requested by the ODA (Occupational Health Provision on the Olympic Park and athletes' village p14).
Food Health and Safety
Food is considered to be a core factor of the health and safety on big construction plans, meeting London 2012 Olympic and Paralympics Games was the responsibility of (ODA), concerning this issue the minimum standards were met by ODA, although at wasn't at optimal level as each contractor was taking care of his own welfare.(p1)
Food health and safety can be looked at through the following two points:
Not a lot was seen through a contractor perspective as there were no outside food and safety ---expertise-to go through the catering procedures, however, contractor's own safety experts were appointed to see through the canteen -facilities.
According to a survey performed on three canteens on site, the majority of workers were buying their food off the canteen every day; it appeared that the canteen was an area where everyone communicated to each other. The contactors dictated that workers should only use the canteens available on site or bringing their own food in as it makes it really hard going out to eat out due to the massively big site (bigger than Hyde Park). More than 90% evaluated the range and variety of food to average.
In regards to eating healthy, the workers were advised to have five fruits and vegetables a day in a form of menus which met the NHS advice on healthy eating.
Workers who ere surveyed also stated that, the had been given talks concerning the Tool Box, also the advices given had a god influence in changing worker's food options in a healthy way.(Learning Legacy P 11,13,15 Food safety)
The use of Temporary Bridges
The design of bridges had been reassessed and adjusted to minimise the Occupational health hazard. One contractor had been appointed to build five temporary bridges to access the construction site and the nearby locations, these bridges were made of wood instead of asphalt, in fact it had to be a wooden decking as they were meant to be temporary, nevertheless, some of those bridges were to be solidly powerful in order to carry heavy vehicles such as fire engine in case a fire happened, consequently, almost 16,000 holes were made on the decking base, this will surely involved a lot of drilling action as well as vibrating tools, here we can identify the risk as using such tools can lead to probable hand-arm vibration, thus, leading to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome whom two workers suffered and had to report to the Physician on site.(Learning Legacy Temporary Bridge p1) http://learninglegacy.london2012.com/themes/health-and-safety/micro-reports.php
The use of free standing pins
Installing kerb lines normally means the use of drilling steel pins into the ground, however, such approach incorporates a fundamental danger because of the buried services, because of this, the free standing pins can help to minimise the health risk.
Using this technique has many positive factors in terms of minimising health and safety hazards such as;
It can be simply and rapidly installed
It is economically effective method
It has no potential cable strikes
(Learning Legacy, free standing pins)
Although there had been a lot of --concerns -- regarding transport and security issues at the beginning of the project , the careful planning and health and safety measures used before , during the construction period had washed away all the worrying.
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) states that no one had died and over £7 millions had been saved because of the fantastic Occupational hygiene performed by the ODA. (IOSH) http://www.iosh.co.uk/news/latest_member_news/olympic_hs_successes_praised.aspx
On the other hand, concerns have been raised regarding the radioactive waste (including Uranium) which was detected on the Olympic Park site, according to health experts such waste considered to be highly dangerous, then the waste were put in special radioactive containers but then again not far from the Olympic Park and Stratford Station, according to ODA these containers can store safely the radioactive waste for more than 900 years . Studying the earth underneath had not been perfectly done by the ODA due to the need of meeting the strict construction time schedules.
Moreover, many residents who live close to where the work was taken place had expressed their resentments of dust and this proves the unsuitable dust control requirements. (Mike J Wells 2009)