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Facilities Management, an integrated process to support and improve the effectiveness of the primary activities of an organization by the management and delivery of agreed support services for the appropriate environment that is needed to achieve its changing objectives.( A Brief Introduction to Facilities Management, http://www.actionfm.org)
It is mainly about the maintenance and care of buildings. It is managing all support system which includes a range of activities from strategic operational planning to daily physical maintenance, janitorial services, production support system to staffing solution, the management of environmental performance issues and creating esuriently healthy work environment to maintain aesthetic ergonomics of the organization. It can maximize value and provide efficient management services at lower operating cost and maintaining high service level.
There are three main stages for FM, analysing requirements, developing solutions and implementing solutions. The aim of analysing requirements is to establish a deep understanding for the present condition of the organisation's real estate and FM. After the information of analysis stage has been collected, a structured approach on generating options, assembly of criteria for judging options, evaluating options and a preferred option of the organisation's actual FM strategy will be adopted with the interpretation of information. Operational plans with policy statements will then be carried out through a process which is able to manage changing. The change management process shall be able to attempt the best outcome in human resources management. The plan will be including programmes, milestones, performance measurement and risk analysis with identified risks and responsibilities for managing shall be assigned.
Traditional Maintenance Management (TMM)
Maintenance management is "an operating practice that allows department heads and manufacturing supervisors to ensure that an organization's long term assets remain in good condition" (Marquis Codjia, What is Maintenance Management).
It includes the use of tools, technologies and methodologies for repairing and maintenance activities in a company, which is an important components in increasing corporate productivity in short and long term and maximizing the availability of the operating activities for corporate tangible assets like equipment, machinery and plants. It mainly focuses on troubleshooting, repair and mechanical review concepts by carrying out periodic mechanical test, routine troubleshooting, component replacement and scheduled repair with an information management system. Manufacturers usually use this to reduce cost and improve labour efficiency in the past. However, traditional paper records were too costly to prepare
There are different types of maintenance in the TMM system, the most famous ones are planned maintenance and unplanned maintenance. Planned maintenance is organized maintenance and performed with forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan. It usually comes with preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance. Preventive maintenance is carried out in a certain period or a prescribed criteria, this can reduce the probability of failure or the degradation of an item. For unplanned maintenance, it is carried out with no predetermined plan. Corrective maintenance and emergency maintenance is included since both of them are carried out when failure occurs and either restoring an item back to a stage that it can perform well or put in hand immediately to avoid serious consequences.
Facilities Management VS Traditional Maintenance Management
TMM was used to be a choice of increasing the life of a machine and labour efficiency with cost reducing in the past. Since facility management starts to appear in the market, it includes a wide range of different service and management to help companies in a lot more different ways to reduce cost and increase production. They cover multiple disciplines to ensure functionally of built environment by integrating people, process, place, technology and politics while TMM just focus on the condition of the facility. FM appears in real estate property, workplace, facilities and even business performance while TMM mostly work for workplaces and facilities. FM also puts security, health and safety and environment together in order to make sure workers or residences to stay in a safe and comfy place while increasing facilities' usability and sustainability. Mostly FM will also participant in the designing stage of buying facilities, deciding stage of quality of facilities, maintenance stage of facilities until it is sold to others or demolished.
In contrast, maintaining a predictive maintenance program doesn't mean it will tell you the reason a machine is degrading, it helps on reducing the number of unexpected failure and producing a reliable scheduling tool for preventive maintenance. We can only know the condition of facility remains good during the planned maintenance or it has finish its own life during emergency maintenance. TMM mostly rely on a routine of servicing all machinery and fast response to unexpected failure in order to decrease the wasted time that used for production, but it will have a outcome of lower reliability, lower availability and lower safety.
There is also one big disadvantage in the TMM system. Since it is a standalone and plant-focused system, it will have many different systems for each facility which lead to overlapping of data, which creates enormous burden for management system and the IT staff, spending more on significant management system, give training and more IT support for saving data, resulting in considerable waste and unnecessary expenses. While at the same time there are few systems that specially designed for FM which can reduce data redundancy and extra expenses for training and saving data. Since TMM is mainly focus on achieving the target,
Life Cost cycle
Life Cost Cycle, the total cost of the conception stage to the construction stage and the operational and maintenance stage then to a point where it reaches the end of its useful life. It is all about time, estimates and cost. With life cost cycle, the investment options of the buildings can be more effectively evaluated, making consideration on the impact of all costs instead of only initial capital cost, assisting in effective management of completed buildings and projects and facilitating choices between competing alternative.
Facilities Management is an area which involves every assets facility with participating and affecting the most in the life cost cycle. Their work usually includes with organisation management, strategic long term planning, configuration and management, lease management, construction planning on transformation, innovation, system operation and maintenances, telecommunications and network management, security to health and safety issue, etc. A better FM can improve the life of buildings, increase the economic benefits and decrease the excess expenses for fixing defects and failures that occurs. A longer life of buildings can increase the retaliation for investors.
Facility management will be participating in different stage of the life cycle costing.
During the preparation stage, they will be helping on the feasibility of the market positioning in the project, configuration of potential customers, consumption levels around for commercial services, traffic analysis, etc.
In the planning and design stage, designing of FM in the place will firstly be depended on the overall layout, the surrounding environment, working space and supporting facilities, distribution and trends of pipes and electricity, are the building materials leak-proof and anti-corrosion, whether the facilities and equipment are durable, the maintenance and replacement cost are reasonable or not. Secondly is daily management, like central control room, space management, setting up of security guards, fire exits, entering and leaving of vehicles, alarm systems, stacking of rubbish, designing of windows and balcony safety etc.
For the construction stage, they will be mainly assisting the on-site construction work, like familiar with how the pipeline will lay towards, installations and debugging on the mechanical and electrical equipment and rectification with consultants when there is problem.
Daily operations and maintenance mainly involves in cleaning, daily operating and service maintenance. Facility managers will usually give some tasks to other professional contractors to work on and they mainly focus on the selection of contractor and the service quality control.
Assets processing stage is mainly focus on the dealing with rent, lease, sell, buy, self-build and transformation of all real estates and facilities owned or leased by the enterprise. They mainly will choose the most optimized way for the real estate in order to fulfil the business development needs while increasing their maximum economic benefits.
Recommendations for Facilities Management
Inappropriate allocation of funds may result in overspends and commitments
being made where no monies are available, contrary to Financial Regulations.
We recommend that budgets are reviewed to ensure allocations are in line with