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Civil engineering is a term of planning, designing, building, and management of the facilities that are essential to civilization. As a part of controlling to reduce wastes in it's all shapes (time, money, effort…etc), management is necessary for the technological advances due to human health and well-being and the protection of earth's ecosystems. The planning, design and construction of large, one-of-a-kind systems and structures is a hallmark of civil engineering.
Civil engineers normally apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, and industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction. Also they may work in research, design, construction supervision, maintenance, or even in sales or management. Each of these areas involves different duties, different emphases, and different uses of the engineer's knowledge and experience. Much of the work of civil engineers is carried on outdoors, often in rough and difficult landscape or under risky conditions.
Safety management systems can be defined as the specific application of quality management to safety. It gives an effective way to figure and identify hazards and risks. SMS involves that the company should consider each risk or hazard within its departments as a particularly single system rather that several. If safety is not seen entirely, it can interfere with the priorities of developments or lead to holes at the safety system willing to build. An effective implementation of SMS is to have a clear evaluation at hazards as whole.
Construction occupational health and safety management system constitutes a set of measures concerning health and safety management that are implemented and operated continually and completely, performed in conjunction with other management systems, such as construction management system. The system includes the following:
Safety planning includes identifying all potential hazards and hazardous operations and safety measures. This safety planning can be enhanced into safety risk management system by adding more tasks: identifying safety hazards, classifying risks, controlling the risks and monitoring the implementation. Among these tasks, safety hazard identification is the most important, since failure to identify safety hazards means safety measures are not adequately investigated.
Health and safety in projects is a policy that aims to make the management of health and safety risks an essential part of the project planning process. Managing health and safety is not only an obligation but is also often expected by our business and research partners. All projects require risk assessment and safe systems of work under the health and safety rules. This policy is designed for large or complex projects. It provides a means of combining health and safety documentation for the different aspects of the project into a clear management plan.
While construction contracts serves as a means of pricing construction, they also structure the allocation of risk to the various parties involved. The owner has the sole power to decide what type of contract should be used for a specific facility to be constructed and to set forth the terms in a contractual agreement. It is important to understand the risks of the contractors associated with different types of construction contracts.
Employment contract terms might be written or verbally agreed. If the employee has been working for a firm for longer than one month, he has the right to receive a written statement of employment. The rights that an employee has at the employment contract are in addition to the rights that are under labor law, such as the right to paid holidays. A contract is considered to be broken if employee or employer does not follow any term in the contract, It's called a breach of contract.