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The Road Layout Design blueprint has been prepared for the Iskandar Malaysia area that covers 221,634.10 hectares of land area within the southernmost part of Johor. It covers the entire district of Johor Bahru, Mukim Jeram Batu, Mukim Sungai Karang, Mukim Serkat and Pulau Kukup in Mukim Ayer Masin and all within the district of Pontian.
Existing Land Use
The existing land use within Iskandar Malaysia is clearly shown in the table 1.2-1 below: (TABLE)
Iskandar Malaysia had a good accessibility for connectivity to other districts or states such as Plus Highway, Second Link and others. Based on CDP 2006-2025, there are 25 projects were identify as road infrastructure that cover 423.96 km length of road. The total cost was estimate around RM4,772.80 million and the projects implementation will be divided into 2 phases by 2004-2010 and 2016-2020.
Existing population of Iskandar Malaysia is estimated at 1,624,453 people or approximately 49% of the Johor state population which stood at 3,317,381 in 2008.
Overall manual goals are:
1. Land Use Context
The layout design process will respond to the land use context and accommodate the needs of individual places and neighbourhoods, such as the modes of transport and different activities among the users.
Iskandar Malaysia roads will be safe for all users with a particular emphasis on children, older adults and disabled people. Safety will be achieved by targeting speed, network design and prioritization of users, promoting educational campaigns, monitoring enforcement of existing laws and introducing the strengthened laws and regulations.
Iskandar Malaysia roads will be designed for the efficient movement of all modes of transport.Efficiency can be achieved through investment in the capacity of transport networks and the connectivity between superblocks.
Iskandar Malaysia will be designed to achieve thriving natural/environmental, economic and social system.
5. Public Health
Iskandar Malaysia will be designed to accommodate walking and bicycling for the residents and to decrease obesity, heart disease and diabetes.
6. Public Enjoyment
Iskandar Malaysia will be a pleasure for all users especially pedestrians by providing good road design for it will increase tourism and rates of non-utilitarian walking.
2. Issues of Road Layout Design
2.1 Road Issue
â€¢ Motorcyclist had to share lane with other vehicle.
â€¢ Motorcycle land, bicycle lane and pedestrian walkway were not provided
â€¢ Illegal parking
â€¢Most of the industrial zone does not have setback, vehicle parking at road edge.
â€¢ For commercial zone, pedestrian walk only provided along five-foot way at the building frontage.
â€¢ Residential and commercial area shares the same access road.
3. Design Approach
ii. Arterial: It is a continuous road with partial access control for through traffic within urban areas. Smooth traffic flow is essential since it carries large traffic volume
iii. Major Collector: It forms the basic network of the road transportation system within a District or Regional Development Area. They serve intermediate trip lengths with partial access control and link up the arterial road to town
iv. Minor Collector: It is a road with partial access control designed to serve on a collector or distributor or traffic between major collector and the local road system. It penetrates and serves identifiable neighbourhoods, commercial areas and industrial areas,
v. Local Road: It is the basic road network within a neighbourhood and a local slow movement that provides frontages for higher density buildings. It has only one lane in each direction and could be the only one lane shared road, e.g.: Jalan Dhoby, road within the residential area, service road at commercial area.
i. Enhance pedestrian and cyclist spaces and develop comprehensive networks of facilities by improving existing spaces and introducing new one to connect key locations in the City.
ii. Create a city center that safe for pedestrian and cyclist and easy to navigate with coordinated signage.
4. Design Priorities and Parameters
4.1 Design Considerations
The establishment of standard design criteria for all users is important to produce a successful, attractive and safe road to all modes of transport. The following design dimensions and parameters shall be considered and used where appropriate for road design.
4.2 Design Methods
4.2.1 Universal Design
Universal Design accommodates all potential users in the design process by promoting approaches and solutions that can benefit everyone. Among examples from the universal design are the provision of urban Braille for impaired users and understandable signage for all users, local and international.
5. Master Planning Procedure
6. Master Design Elements
Road Layout Design Blueprint Based On Adjacent Use
The typical section of residential road can be divided into five types:
â€¢ Major collector road with BRT - 40 m ROW.
â€¢ Minor collector road - 30 m ROW.
â€¢ Minor collector road - 20 m ROW.
â€¢ Local road - 15 m ROW.
â€¢ Local road - 12 m ROW.
The typical section of industrial road can be divided into four types:
â€¢ Major collector road with BRT - 40 m ROW.
â€¢ Major collector road without BRT - 40 m ROW.
â€¢ Minor collector road with BRT - 30 m ROW.
â€¢ Local road - 20 m ROW.
Due to safety matters, location of street lighting and type of material has a great influence to avoid any accidents and all their materials shall be approved by SIRIM Malaysia. There are different decorations of lighting as follow:
â€¢ Decorative double arm street lighting: It shall be used at median of roads.
â€¢ Decorative single arm street lighting: It shall be used at roadside of roads.
â€¢ Decorative pole lighting: It shall be provided at pedestrian and cycle lane.
Landscaping has significant influence on the safety performance of roadway. It can be divided into two types:
â€¢ Soft landscape (planting trees). The criteria of good soft landscape are:
Not obstruct all sight lines in the roadside.
Landscape tree size of the trunk shall not more than 100 mm.
Can be used as barrier to headlight glare from opposing traffic.
Shall have minimum 1.0 m clear distance from edge of road. Requirement for planting trees shall be referred according to "Garis Panduan Landskap Negara" published by Jabatan perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
â€¢ Hard landscape (bollard).
Bollard shall be from concrete type and 1.0 m of height.
Bollard design for development within Iskandar Malaysia shall be as Figure 8.5-3.
Landscaping Tree Pattern at Roundabout
Landscaping Tree Pattern at Intersection
Drainage is one of the most important aspects on designing road layout, which comprising several components based on 'Manual Saliran Mesra Alam' (MaSMA). The components are:
â€¢ Roadside drain.
â€¢ Median drain.
â€¢ Water inlet. Two types of water inlet used in IM:
Type A: Precast concrete water inlet.
Type B: Combination of kerb opening and grating.
WHO, WHEN, WHY, WHERE, HOW
Ignorance of local authority at northern part of the Langkawi Island. The blueprint focuses more on tourist zone of Pantai Cenang and Pantai Tengah.
Pekan Padang Lalang is located at a close proximity to exclusive hotels such as Four Seasons Hotel (7 Star) and the Tanjung Rhu Resort (5 Star)
Sustainability in Housing
Based on Sustainable Housing Design Guide to Scotland (Stevenson and Williams, 2000), there are 8 basis of design for residential units. From holistic approach, disintegrated design is preferable as one is connected to everything, everything is connected to one. The existing site context must be considered in design approach. Additionally, it is more sustainable to reduce energy use than generate energy for household users. However, for the construction material, we are advised to choose the materials which are high durability or re-use materials, since the maintenance requirement is low and the material's lifespan will be longer. In this context, we prefer to have re-use materials but not recycling products and materials. Moreover, a healthy environment is sustainable in the aspect of social-cultural, socioeconomic and sense of the site settlement. We should go for simple solutions or design which are better than rely on technical fixes to solve complicated and over-designed buildings. The equality of efficiency and sustainability meant that from one feature, it produces diverse advantages or functions. Last but not least, if we could involve the user at all stages of development, then it can only be called as sustainable design. Design as what the user wants.
To be socially sustainable, we should supply the accommodation based on the social demand on housing now and in the future. Design a house that people want to buy, to live in it.
The first initiative that we need to consider is the satisfaction of people in their homes. If local people no longer wanted to live in, there is no use to regenerate the existing house which is not satisfied by occupants, it is better to supply them with new and better housing scheme.
Why mixed use buildings?
Provide opportunity for people to work locally and easy access to local amenities
Reduce the need for travel and travel distance
Encourage the interaction of neighborhood
Offer local social and economic opportunities
Form various activities throughout the day
What to improve?
To improve the road design, motorcycle lane, pedestrian and cyclist
To increase safety for entire residents of Pekan Kampung Lalang