The Risk Management Coal Minings Construction Essay

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The subject coal mining is one of the most versatile and dangerous occupation in all over the world. Occurrence of accidents is a natural process which is very common in coal mine industry. At present in 2007, nine (9) West Virginia miners lost their lives and almost over 920 grievances with lost time were testimony (West Virginia Office of Miners' Health Safety and Training). The accidents happening in the coal mining industry happens to the workers who working as miners at surface mines (underground) in quarries and in grounding facilities, although statistically the underground mine has the best likelihood of being offended or killed on the job.

The risk management is a process of identifying, managing and quantifying those risks that an organization faces. The outcome of the business activities is always be uncertain and that's the reason there are multiple element of risks such as operational failures, financial failure, environmental disasters, strategic failures, market disruptions or other regulatory violations that a company or any industry have to compete (Jobb, 1994).

This coal mining risk assessment report is belongs for the site of two proposed wind turbines located at Greencort industrial Estate, Annfiled plain and Stanley Co Durham. The site has been discovered as being with in an area that are facing with coal mining legacy issues which are potentially developed with a lot of risks. The main objective of this report being as follow;

Reviewing the relevant and accurate coal mining data

Finding out the applications that how this data will affects the risk management tools or applications

To assess any kind of risk management measures in underground coal mining industry, which may be required

Information Sources:

This assessment report is based upon the information sources which are discussed below:

Survey plan of Historic Ordnance

Non residential coal as well as brine report which is sited at tower road, Annfiled plain.

Previous coal mining sites analytical reports etc

Coal Authority Mining Report:

In order to study the risk management analysis of the coal underground mining a coal authority report has been obtained whose summary is as follow:

Main Entries:

The coal authority has been confirmed that they don't have any data base of record of any mine entries present within the site or present within the site boundary at the distance of 20 meters.

Underground Coal Mining:

The coal was last time worked in that site in the timeline of 1976. It has been seamed that beneath the site there are other several coal mining's which are ranging from shallow depth to 190 meters below surface. At present there is no working of coal beneath or within influencing distance of the site. The coal mining site is located in that area where a license is not been granted legally to management to remove coal through underground techniques or principles (Jobb, 1994).


As mentioned above that the site is not located within the boundary of an open site through which coal has been removed by any of the opencast techniques, despite the fact that the coal mining site is located within 200 meters of that area. Within a distance of 800 meters of the site yet coal authority did not introduce any proposal for the future extraction of coal by using an opencast method.

Loss / Subsidence:

At present the coal authority is not fully aware of finding any evidence of loss or damage arising due to geological mistakes of other lines of limitation which have been affected by coal mining, but many healthy risky factors are came to observe that leaves so many negative impacts on the workers and for that the coal authority has not received any damage notice or other claim for the property of saving the lives of worker since 1 January 1984. This coal mining underground property has not been subject to remedial works by or on behalf of the authority with its emergency call out methods or various other procedures / techniques.

Mine Gas issue:

It has been observed from the evidence that there is no record find on the emission of mine gas by the coal authority within the property boundary.

Discussions of main findings on visiting the coal mining site and coal authority report:

The presence of old mine workings at shallow deepness beneath the site is the main element that the coal mining report and other survey has been highlighted. The presence of such workings capabilities indicated towards a risk factor to surface along with the future development of the site. The major cause of the risk that the workers in that coal mining underground has been faced is the collapse of roof strata above the workings as well as migrating upwards which results in the formation of a crown hole type damages as well as depression at the surface. Meanwhile the presence of the near surface workings also gives courage to the gas emissions equipments which leave hazardous effects on the workers health (US Department of Labour, 2007).

Reasons Behind Coal Mine Accidents:

There are multiple reasons behind the coal mining accidents, in which methane gas explosions are on of the most dramatic coal mining accident and that's the reason it receives most media coverage. Far more miners are injured or killed, on the other hand, in accidents concerning coal stockpile collapse, long wall shield collapse, falls, burns, electrocution, unbecomingly shipping out equipment and coal miner's pneumoconiosis or silicosis. In accumulation to the inherent dangers of mining, failure to make available or continue health and safety equipment and procedures, as well as not enough training, contribute to the number and strictness of injuries continuous by miners.

Analysis of the six (6) major accidents happening in different coal mining's sites:

1: Airly Coal Mine (Australia):

At emery country, Australia on March 6, 2005 the disaster was occurred in the Airly coal mine in which six (6) miners met with death in a catastrophic coal outburst due to the roof supporting pillars failure. After the ten days of happening this accident mine safety and health administrator (MSHA) along with the two mine employees decomposed in a coal outburst while rescue efforts. By the findings and investigations process of the MSHA investigation tem it is observed that the accident was a result of flawed engineering analysis by Agapito Associates Inc (AAI) and inadequate engineering administration by Genwal Resources Inc (GRI). Being as the mine operator GRI presents mining plan report to AAI, which due to the coal burst happening in March ad in the late of August GRI failed to revise its mining plan, which increases the geographical issues, stress levels in the vicinity of working coal miners (McMullan & McClung, 2006). The MSHA's team found no evidence that this coal collapse is not a natural earthquake. In order to get the complete picture of what happened on March 6, 2005 at Airly coal mine the GRI rescue team did personal attempt to remove the coal debris that blocked the miners way to visit the mine and underground conditions. The unexpected conditions in the mine result the damages of robust roof control system which ends with more three (3) deaths of the mine workers while observing the coal accident evidence. The GRI and MSHA investigations found that mine managers failed in order to meet the statutory requirements (30 CFR 50.10) to insure the safety measures of the mine.

The inquiry report affirmed that since 1984, GRI had put forward reports for 23 ground control which are relates to injuries, 4 non-injury accidents and 8 non-injury roof falls. On the other hand, only 2 of these roof falls were conspiring on the mines roof fall map. This should have been a set off to evaluation and embark on a current risk appraisal.

A self-governing review of this adversity criticizes MSHA's liberate procedures calling out the following inadequacies:

Failure in the establishment of a central and coordinating centre as well as in clear identification of the person in charge of the rescue;

Deficiencies and delay on order to obtain team workers to help in evaluation process of the ground support;

Failure of risk assess the rescue

Breakdown to put up with by mine set free protocol;

Crash to keep up rescue tackle

Failure to make available sufficient preparation to mine rescue personnel; and

Malfunction to act as the most important contact tip for families.

Key findings in Airly coal mine accident:

There are 3 key findings on the subject of the Airly coal mine accident:

Genwal Resources Inc. and Agapito Associated Inc. mine design was not well-matched with successful organize of petroleum bursts

Genwal Resources Inc. did not take satisfactory steps to put off recurrences of coal outburst

Genwal Resources Inc. did not go behind their commend roof control plan and support blueprint

2: Poplar River Coal Mine (Canada):

Between 14 November, 2000 to 19 November, 2000 four detonations attentive twenty nine (29) workers surrounded by the colliery, Rescuers stoppages ingoing the mine, due to the jeopardy of angry outbursts. As of January 1999 the mine has been controlled preserved and the mending challenge forsaken for the time being.

The primary step of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Poplar River Coal Mine misfortune exposed numerous flow causes. Robin Hughes, the former Chief inspector of mines, said its derivations lay in the repeal of the Coal mines act in 1993, from which time the mining inspectorate suddenly shrink to a single controller. Successfully mines became self synchronized. Several early words of warning signs were not acted upon by management. These comprise a geologist's report guidance of both an imperative need for further study into the stereographic involvedness of the coal seam and secondary education to be given to the drillers with high opinion to the risks bring in by building material.

A new report into the mines gas management, produced only 9 months prior to the accident, tinted concerns around its minimal data collection, too little drainage, high volumes of methane and poor workforce knowledge of risks. The known problems includes the need to upgrade the pipeline used to take out gas from the mine; the need to install a new gas riser machine to remove gas; geologist reports were being conducted by professionals with no local experience; and that the mine was recalcitrant with regulations as it had no emergency second exit. Mr. Whittall the mine CEO appeared to not be conscious of important safety systems in the mine. Under questioning by the commission Whittall could not affirm how many miners could be accommodated in the mine neither haven, nor what supplies it held. He could not bring to mind if a self rescue test had ever occurred nor how many gas warning detectors were working. He suspected he was unacquainted of the inadequate infrastructure to drain methane (a report which referred to the resulting high risk to workers) or that the urgent situation phone line in the mine was linked to an answering machine.

Supplementary blabbermouth signs that could have flagged the mine had inspector been present were: 6 mine managers resigned in a 2 year period; the CEO moved away from the mine site and mine costs had risen beyond budget by a factor of five. It would appear that the inherent conflict of interest referred to by the commissioner was decided in favor of the mine1. We see Ethical Risk factors playing a critical role in this disaster.

Key Findings in Poplar River Coal Mine:

We make 3 key findings regarding the poplar river coal mine case:

Severe under resourcing of the inspectorate was a significant causal factor in the poplar river coal mine accident

The poplar river coal miner's financial underperformance led to management cutting corners on safety and this significantly contributed to the accident.

The poplar river coal miner's management ignored key worker concerns about the hazardous stereographic complexity in the mines coal seams.

3: Boundary Dam Coal Mine (Canada):

The Boundary Dam Coal mine disaster occurred on October 18, 1997 on the eastern side of the state of Canada. There were twenty-one (21) persons working underground at the time. Ten (10) people from the Northern area of the mine runaway within thirty minutes of the explosion however eleven (11) people from the Southern area failed to return to the surface. A second and more violent angry outburst occurred which resulted in rescue/recover efforts being discarded. The mine was sealed and, at this time, the bodies have not been healthier. All coal mining operations in the Boundary Dam Coal mine area are owned by BHP Mitsui Coal Pty Ltd and operated by BHP Australia Coal Pty Ltd. It is important to note that two other mines in the Boundary Dam Coal mine area have been the area under discussion of major explosions.

In 1975 at Bienfat coal mine cost 13 lives and in 1986 Boundary Dam Coal mine (which is immediately adjacent to Boundary Dam Coal mine) exploded killing 12 men. The investigation found that the first explosion originated in the 512 Panel of the mine and resulted from a stoppage to recognize, and successfully treat, a heating of coal in that panel. This in turn ignites methane gas which had accumulated within the panel after sealing. The Inquiry did not reach a pronouncement regarding the cause of the second angry outburst. The inquiry found that the eleven persons who failed to return to the surface died in the mine as a direct or indirect result of the first explosion. No definite finding could be made regarding the precise cause of death of any of the victims. The confirmation provided to the inquiry concluded that sealing of the 512 Panel after the achievement of production, resulted in the build-up of methane to explosive concentrations within the panel. Heating arising from spontaneous combustion of coal was present in the panel for some time prior to sealing. The heating was of sufficient intensity to act as a source of ignition for gas in the panel, and this amalgamation was the instantaneous cause of the first blast.

Causal causes to the first explosion were recognized as a number of failures in responses, approaches or systems at the mine:

Disappointment to prevent the development of a heating within the 512 Panel;

Disappointment to acknowledge the presence of that heating;

Disappointment to effectively communicate and capture and evaluate numerous tell-tale signs over an extended period; and

Disappointment to identify and mitigate the potential impact of sealing thus allowing the panel to accumulate an explosive mixture of methane gas.

In the end, there was a Disappointment to withdraw persons from the mine while the probable existed for a blast.

Key Findings in Boundary Dam Coal Mine:

We make 4 key findings regarding the boundary dam coal mine accident:

Disappointment to acknowledge the presence of heating

Disappointment to effectively exchange a few words and capture and evaluate numerous tell-tale signs of over an extended period of time.

Disappointment to withdraw persons from the mine while probable for explosion continues living.

The mine's administration ignored key worker concerns about the dangerous stereographic involvedness in the mines coal line of stitching.

4: Anglesea Coal mine (Australia):

The Anglesea Coal Mine disaster was a coal mine outburst on March 6, 2008, in Australia. The blast and ensuing aftermath trapped thirteen (13) miners for nearly two (2) days with only one (1) miner surviving.

In March 6, 2008a large methane explosion in a sealed area of the Anglesea Coal Mine led to the death of 12 miners. Ten 40 inch thick seals designed to withstand 20psi could not enfold the angry outburst later predictable to be greater than 93psi. Toxic levels of carbon monoxide, a by-product of a methane explosion, filled an area of the mine contain workers who had just started their shift. One miner was quickly overcome while another 12 attempted to form an airtight barrier with curtains and materials they found designed for this task. When the rescue team found these miners only one remained alive. The other 11 succumbed to the carbon monoxide (Wardens, 1994).

In 2007 an exploration by the Australia Department of Labor (Coal Mine Safety & Health Administration) acknowledged the cause of the accident was a lightning smack involving with an abandoned pump cable in the sealed area. The resulting spark ignited the methane within the sealed area. The report found 3 root sources for the disaster and suggested 3 corrective actions. Firstly, the seals were not capable of withstanding the forces generated by the explosion. The simple solution is to enlarge the force seals are able to withstand. Secondly, the atmosphere within the sealed area was not monitored and it contained explosive methane/air mixtures. Regular monitoring of air in sealed sections was appropriate and if required neutralizing the mixture. Finally, lightning flowing down an abandoned pump cable in the sealed area likely initiated the explosion. All cables and conductors inside sealed areas need be removed prior to sealing. Though 149 citations/orders were issued as a result of the investigation, no violations were considered contributory. That is, this appears to be a true accident in a well run and maintained mine. Per row might call this a standard accident. This was the only example we found with no ethical risk infringements.

Key findings on Anglesea Coal Mine disaster:

We make 3 key findings regarding the Anglesea Coal Mine accident:

The risk estimation process was flawed with little contemplation given to the sealed off area.

The regulations on the subject of seal design were not enough and

The preserved area lacked adequate preparation prior to sealing.

5: Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine (Germany):

The Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine disaster occurred on April 5, 2010 at Germany. Twenty-nine (29) out of thirty-one (31) miners at the site were killed. High levels of methane gas were detected and before long thereafter an explosion occurred. This was a significant issue as worker suspicions and concerns regarding the ineffectiveness of the detection equipment designed to raise alarms should methane limits be breached had recently been brought to the attention of administration. More extensively an electrician functioning on the mine prior to the explosion later gave evidence that he was ordered to bypass the methane detector given serious rise to apprehensions held by the investigators that other like breaches had considerably impacted on the disaster occurring, making it almost expected (Mason & Reuters, 2010). The exploration concluded that serious management failures were evident and even the President of the Germany made comment that the disaster, "was trigger by a failure at the Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine, a failure first and foremost of management, but also a failure of failure to notice and a failure of laws so conundrum with loophole that they allow unsafe conditions to keep on." Such was the natural history of potential criminality that the reckless indifference of management was well thought-out so acute a criminal investigation was undertaken concurrent to the workplace investigation. The Germany investigative team conducted a criminal probe of the explosion. Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine also demonstrated the value (albeit retrospective) of whistleblowers and/or a whistle blower facility within the industry with a former employee citing his objection to the very same monitor bridging that had supply to this disaster as the very reason for his prior discharge.

Key Findings on Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine Blast:

There were substantial examples of ethical risk violations, on which 3 key findings regarding the Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine accident:

Critical warnings pre-commencement were ignored by management and Government;

The mine's financial necessity to the region and the company led to management cutting corners on safety and this significantly contributed to the accident); and

The mine's management ignored key worker concerns about the hazardous stereographic complexity in the mines coal closures.

6: Dodge Hill Coal Mine and Prep Plant, United States of America, (USA):

The Dodge Hill Coal Mine and prep plant in United States of America, (USA) was the site of an underground methane explosion on 9 May 1992 at 5:18am a large methane and coal dust explosion resulted in the deaths of all twenty six (26) miners who were working underground at the time. 11 of the 26 miner's bodies were never recovered. Curragh Resources were charged with 52 non-criminal offences relating to safety breaches of the work-related Health and safety Act. Later after 34 charges were stayed, criminal proceedings were commenced against two of the mine's managers for the manslaughter of each of the deceased men (Wardens, 1994). In unusual circumstances that may have been politically motivated, the Crown Prosecutors were for the most part stubborn during the trial and were reluctant on numerous occasions to disclose information to the Court regarding critical pieces of information. Seventeen (17) boxes of information were withheld under senior management direction displaying serious governance and compliance breach let alone a suspicious activity given the importance of the withheld documents. No person was wickedly convicted. The subsequent Royal Commission was diluted when two key witnesses, both senior Curragh employees refused to testify. The Royal Commission hit back with sweeping reform, finally after significant push-back resulting in Bill C-45 in 2003, a new bill outlining a framework of corporate liability which was as a direct result of Dodge Hill Coal Mine accident and the loss of 26 lives. In the USA, the Steelworkers Union was watching the experience very closely and through political lobbying won a key amendment to the Criminal Code at 217.1: Any person who undertake, or has a set of authority / responsibility in order to direct how one more person does work or carry out an assignment is under a legal duty to take levelheaded steps in order to avoid bodily harm to that person, or any other person, take place from that work or commission.

Key Findings on Dodge Hill Coal Mine and prep plant accident:

We make 3 key findings regarding the Dodge Hill Coal Mine and prep plant accident:

Severe under resourcing and/or poor testing and reporting was a significant causal factor in the accident

The financial and political importance of the mine led to management cutting corners on safety and this significantly contributed to the accident ;and

The mine's management committed serious ethical risk violations (if not Criminal) in the withholding of key information.

Reasons of failure in underground coal mining cases:

While visiting the coal mining sites and investigating the other coal mines accidents case studies consistent set of failures are observed which are appeared to be consistently relevant to either the direct cause of the incident or where the retrospective examination pointed to the failure as being critical in the chain of events leading up to the catastrophe.

Quinlan (Quinlan, 2011) essentially identifies these failures as a route - a pathway towards the event which falls within its own individual category but where collectively present is almost certainly the cause of catastrophe. These pathways are defined as follow;

Flaws in Design, engineering and maintenance of coal mining underground structure

The failure to heed forewarning signals

Poor relationships, trust and communication - management and worker

Economic considerations including productions pressure and reward

A failure in oversight, regulation and enforcement

Defective risk Assessment Analysis

Blemished management processes and the communication of hazard

Flawed audit and observance with audit findings

A failure to act - Worker concerns (Whistleblowers)

A flawed emergency response by agency or management; and

Ethical Failure

Outcomes of Coal Mine Accidents:

After the serious accidents and injuries occurring miners and their families face many challenges in which significance amount of medical bills is on the top of the list. The cost of surgical procedure hospital hang about, doctor visits, tablets, physical psychoanalysis and, in the case of working out, prostheses can accumulate into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Transportation to out-of-area professionals and housings once there can add up hurriedly and put supplementary strain on the wounded and family. If due to the serious injury condition the miner is no longer able to work in the mine but is competent of other types of work, retraining or further education is necessary. With grievance that are more somber, a miner may be disabling to a point that he or she will on no account work again.

This report identified the cost of troublesome production and management stress as the main reasons why miners, even when concerned about protection, would not go away the coal face unless the situation was dire. The study considers the execution of a anonymous reporting facility for coal mining companies operating in Australia, Germany, and south Africa essential and that each maintain a mandatory whistle blowing hotline external to the company for the following reasons:

It maximizes the possibility of an organization uncovering and dealing with issues, therefore defensive the organization's reputation and financial position is must.

Hotlines should be suggested by governments and regulators as part of an organization's fraud control plan;

Everyone should be respected and all levels of employees can openly share their view of points with each other.

Early detection can minimize potential loss of life;

By implementing and promoting a Whistleblower Hotline, the coal mining industry sends a clear message to all staff, management, contractors and clients that safe and ethical behavior is original to the long-term success of the organization.

Coal Mining Risky accidents Plan, manufacturing & safeguarding Issues:

The group found that on 6 occasions, flaws in design engineering or maintenance contributed in a straight line to the accident opportunity vector. In Dodge Hill Coal Mine and prep plant these flaws included inadequate seal design and a failure to removal of a lightning conductor from an area containing explosive methane mixture. At Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine flaws included faulty safety equipment, lack of water drainage, and not enough methane management infrastructures. At Anglesea Coal Mine it was a result of inadequate mine design that arose from flawed engineering analysis and inadequate engineering management. The boundary dam coal mine also raised questions about the design of the seals and finally at the poplar river coal mine case had failed to provide properly maintained and appropriate equipment with regard to ventilation, environmental monitoring and roof-bolting (Wardens, 1994). The study finds that in most cases where management deviates from accepted industry practice it failed to implement superior solutions. Where potent solutions to common hazards are tried and tested there is a strong case for making these solutions mandatory. The Group considers it appropriate for the Government to utilize specification type standards more widely in the mining industry for the following reasons:

Requirement standards allow for best practice to be implemented as standard practice;

Management energy need not be wasted reinventing the wheel‟;

The Job of inspectorates is far made easier and as a result likely to be more effective.

The study also recommends maintenance records are inspected regularly by inspectorates for the following reasons:

Maintenance failures are early indicators of accidents; and

Inadequate maintenance is an early indicator of financial pressure, critical as it was found that worker safety is one of the first expenses

Defective Risk & Management Coal Mining Assessment Analysis:

The study found that on 4 occasion's flaws in the risk assessment process contributed directly to misfortunes. The management of the Schwarze Pumpe Coal Mine failed to regard as the hazards enclosed within a sealed off constituency of the mine. These vulnerabilities included both an explosive methane/air mixture and an underground pipe that created an ignition source when struck by lightning. Risk assessment at Anglesea Coal Mine was given low priority. The mine manger is reported as stating he did not know the size or provisioning in the mine haven or if the mine antennas were working. He also did not bring to mind making the miners carry out self rescues. In fact at Dodge Hill Coal Mine and prep plant assessed risks were found to be actively ignored. Boundary dam coal mine identified 28 circumstances contributed to the explosion, and at least some of those should have been subjected to a risk assessment (Mine Safety and Health Administration, 2010). The deep study on the risk management coal mining study counsels that independent and competent consultants conduct risk assessments at all mines for the following reasons:

Worker safety and shareholder profitability are sometimes conflicting goals for management. Independent assessment removes the conflict of interest that may make a company blind to a hazard;

Hazard knowledge would be pooled and shared between mines in a more timely fashion when competitive forces are removed from information sharing.

Risk assessment is a task requiring highly trained assessors; who are in a better position to link hazards with risk controls and can build action plans when the risk does not meet the risk appetite.

In the study it has also been observed that in almost all of the coal mining cases poor management practices has been to seen. Imperfect management practices are somewhat unique in that the defect can actually cover so many areas of mine management so as to render a disaster, a management issue. The Group recommends that the following actions are undertaken to ensure defective management risks:

Senior coal mining managers & the board of directors be subjected to workplace safety training and accreditation;

Toolbox meetings regarding to making coal mining procedures effect must be electronically recorded.

Coal Mining Flawed Audit & conformity issue:

Insufficiency in auditing has contributed to a number of coal mining incidents. The lack of independence lead to Schwarze Pumpe mine disaster. The investigation identified as a causal factor the lack of auditing, monitoring and management of spontaneous combustion. The study believes that successful compliance within the industry requires five (5) key elements:

on a national scale consistent standard should be implement to all mining authorities;

A clear and overt benchmarking system is needed;

Bi-partisan federal legislative agreement; and

Destructive enforcement with a consistent national compliance framework; Considerable fiscal or operational deterrents to non-compliance.

Poor communication between employees:

Communication plays a very important role in our daily routine life. If it is passing through with all the trust then many problems can be solved automatically. With all the incidents referred to in this report, high levels of trust and communication were identified as significant for such a high risk workplace. Theoretically establishing unswerving communications is a very easier said than done task for underground mining due to the extreme ecological conditions. This was found to contribute to communications stop workings. The inquiry into the Anglesea Coal mine disaster identified the following as major issues:

It is the natural practice at the coal mine industry for successive deputies to not have spoken to during weekends; the absence of that contact in this instance was a lost opportunity for announcement regarding the state of the mine. This put into practice is detrimental in state of affairs such as when there has been recent sealing of a panel.

The working association between a manager and an under manager appears to have been less than co-operative and to not have supported effective communication to an extent indispensable between a manger and an under manager in charge of a mine.

In all, it must be said that there appeared a total absence of any coherent, disciplined system at the mine to deal with the spur-of-the-moment combustion hazard which they faced. A direct consequence of this absence of a system was that no one person or group of persons, at any time had all the facts available to them on which to base decisions.

Coal Mining Ethical Issues:

The coal mining risk management study considered another up-and-down in risk management, a new frontier ethical risk. Ethical risk extends past the risk management model more often than not associated with endeavor, operational, fiscal and manufacturing risks. Ethical risk considers the ethical obligations necessary in every project, particularly underground coal mining. The Group has identified that ethical risk is a promising observable fact in that corporate responsibility now underpins an increasing number of businesses.

The Law on Coal Mine Accidents:

Globally in several states, as well as West Virginia, managers that are enclosed by worker's recompense insurance are immune from accountability for most injuries that their employees receive at work. This imperviousness limits the injured worker to the level of assistances outlined by the worker's compensation system. In the case of premeditated intent, however, West Virginia law takes priority over's the usual immunity and approval to an injured worker to sue for delicate injury damages. For example in case of Mandolidis can be applied in this situation where an employer knowingly disregards wellbeing regulations and is aware of the probable for damage but does nothing to accurate the unsafe circumstances, Attorneys who concentrate in personal grievance cases have effectively correspond to injured coal miners and the families of coal miners who have pass on on the job to accumulate damages from mine owners above and beyond what worker's reimbursement allowed.

Coal Mining study Recommendations:

Pedestal on a measurement of the in sequence and our exploration to date, we make the following key commendations:

Government should implement a national mining compliance checklist in order to avoid systemic non-compliance of national and multi-national coal mining companies and better reflect the Australian safety standard in this industry;

Government should adopt a standardized model for national Emergency Management Procedures which relates to coal mining.

Governance training and accreditation should be mandatory for all Directors of coal mining companies operating in Australia;

Government must implement a compulsory national safety case regime.

National Coal Mining Inspectorate ("the Inspectorate") be established to enforce the Australian safety standards proposed for this industry;

Inspectorate be given the legislative power to covertly monitor the performance of coal mining companies operating in Australia;

That coal mining companies operating in Australia maintain a mandatory whistle blowing hotline external to the company; and

The practice of productivity incentive payments for employees of coal mining companies operating in Australia cease forthwith.

That coal mining companies operating in Australia record electronically toolbox meeting and workplace safety meetings and that these electronic records form an integral part of the compliance management system.

Government should also implement a mandatory national accreditation standard for risk managers working within the coal mining industry;


The Group has expanded an enhanced considerate of the financial realities of antiestablishment coal mining. The study's proposals are designed to harmonize the industry by value adding to the workers experience. By gaining a thoughtful of the workers need to feel safe in the workplace, the recommendations are designed to deliver a more effective, more transparent and a more vibrant workplace where inside conformity and governance and single-minded from the whole of the workforce and the Board. The recommendations arrive after a sober positive reception that failures or delays in implementation and improvement may mean further injury or loss of life.