This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The research method has proven successful, producing a wide range of literature on the subject. Analysis of the literature has provided a means to meet the aims and objectives of the paper by evolving the issues. The resultant piece of work has thus been found to be relevant and original.
The central research question posed for this dissertation was: “How significant are the drivers and potential barriers to an increased adoption of Modern Methods of Construction?”
Fundamentally, the study has shown that the drivers and barriers to increasing the adoption of modern methods of construction vary widely. The significance of the issue is largely dependent upon the person's location within the industry and the size of the organisation. Many of the issues are closely related and dependent upon one another and, due to a lack of consensus around a large proportion of the issues, there is much confusion within the industry, as to whether MMC's are advantageous.
It was found that the construction industry is still lacking in a number of key areas and had failed to meet the goals set out in the Barker Report of 1998, for example time and cost certainty on projects. Another industry short fall where established in the form of the lack of new housing which it was found is failing to meet demand by a significant margin (Market Transformation Programme, 2008).
Work produced by Goodier (2006), ODPM (2003) and Pan (2006), amongst others; indicate that increasing the adoption of MMC's is necessary to combat the issues facing the construction industry, due to the associated advantages of the methods. These advantages include improved quality, a shorter duration on site and fewer defects.
It was established that MMC's have been a historical part of the construction industry with many historical precedents of past forms of Innovation and use of methods of construction which are now deemed modern. Due to heavily publicised past failures, such as the post war prefab, a negative opinion within the industry has formed. The research has found that the largest barrier to increasing the usage of MMC's in the UK is this negative image, however work produced by Pan (2006) found that this negative perception is less of an issue for the public than was first suspected. It has been found that actors for within the industry, housebuilders, designers and contractors for example, are important in eliminating the negative annotations which have been attributed to many as a fear of the unknown. The solution has been found to be increasing knowledge within the industry, with the use of education and more published, unbiased, literature.
Work performed by Venables (2004) has shown that the industry has displayed growth in the early part of the 2000's, with much of the literature forecasting growth in areas of the MMC industry in the near future. Many of the studies, for example Goodier (2006), Pan (2006) and Venables (2004) have found enthusiasm within the industry to adopt MMC's, however actors, such as suppliers, within the industry have emphasised that barriers, such as increased cost compared to traditional methods, are limiting the up-take. Although this may be the case, it has been discussed that this is due to the risk adverse nature of the industry.
As mentioned earlier, the primary barrier to the industry adoption of MMC's has been established as negative perceptions. Other barriers however, have also been suggested to contribute to the currently low levels of use in the UK. The skills shortage has been identified by nearly all of the literature as a major barrier, and is having a significant impact on MMC'S usage, however there is much debate as to whether increasing the adoption of MMC's would actually ease this problem or exacerbate it. Education has again been posed as a means by which the problem can be eased along with challenging people perceptions.
It has been found that as a consequence of addressing one of the barriers, such as changing people perceptions, other barriers are lessened. For example if people perceptions change, than it has been suggested that there will be a larger volume of people interested in entering work in an MMC factory. This is likely to result in an exponential increase in the adoption of MMC's, because once one issue is addressed, such as the negative perception and the take-up increases, so will effects of the issue of higher cost be reduced.
It has been found that the drivers and barriers to an increased adoption of Modern Methods of Construction are incredibly significant. The potential advantages to be gained by the industry are far reaching, directly addressing many of the goals set out by 'The Egan Report 1998' and the low output of new housing. Notwithstanding this, there is still a large prejudice against MMC's, which is due to not only the physical barriers, such as increased cost, but also the psychological barriers, in the form of negative perceptions and the fear of the unknown. The nature of the construction industry itself can also be attributed to the lack of MMC uptake despite the apparent advantages, due to the risk adverse disposition of the sector.
References and Bibliography
Books and Journals
- Blayse, A. Manley, K. (2004). Key Influences on Construction Innovation. Construction Innovation. 4 (1), p.143-154.
- Diekmann, J. (2007). Past Perfect: Historical Antecedents of Modern construction Practices. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 133 (9), p.652-660.
- Edge, M. (2002). Overcoming Client and Market Resistance to Prefabrication and Standardisation in Housing. Place of publication unknown: DTI.
- Edge, M. Laing, R. Craig, A. Abbott, L. Hargreaves, A. (2003). Housing in the UK: the challenge. Aberdeen: Robert Gordon University. p.1-14.
- Gates, C. (2004). Minister Backtracks on Modern Methods. Building Design. p.2.
- Goodier, C. Gibb, A.. (2006). Future opportunities for offsite in the UK. Construction Management and Economics. 25 (1), p.585-595.
- Goodier, C. Soetanto, R. Dainty, A. Austin, S. Price, A. Harty, C. (2008). A Competitive Future for UK Construction? Construction Information Quarterly. 9 (4), p.169-174.
- Grey, D (2004). Doing Research in the Real World. London: SAGE Publications.
- Lusby-Taylor, P., Morrison, S., Ainger, C. and Ogden, R. (2004) Design and Modern Methods of Construction, Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), London.
- Market Transformation Programme (2008). BNMMC01: Modern Methods of Construction - Industry, product and market overview. London: Market Transformation Programme.
- Naoum, S. (2007) Dissertation Writing and Research for Construction Students. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
- NHBC Foundation (2006). A Guide to Modern Methods of Construction. London: IHS BRE Press.
- Pan, W. Gibb, A, Dainty, A. (2006). Offsite Modern Methods of Construction in Housebuilding. Construction Management and Economics. 25 (1), p.183-194.
- Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003). Modern Methods of House Building. London: POST.
- Pasquire, C. Gibb, A. Blismas, N. (2004). Off-site Production: evaluating the drivers and constraints. Loughborough: Loughborough University. p.1-8.
- Rosenfeld, Y. (1994). Innovative Construction Methods. Construction Management and Economics. 12 (1), p.521-541.
- Samuelsson Brown, G., Parry, T. and Howlett, C. (2003) Offsite Fabrication: UK Attitudes and potential, BSRIA, Bracknell.
- Seaden, G. Manseau, A. (2001). Public Policy and Construction Innovation. Building Research and Information. 29 (3), p.182-196.
- Sexton, M. Barrett, P. (2005). Performance-based building and innovation: balancing client and industry needs. Building Research and Information. 33 (2), p.142-148.
- Taylor, S (2009). Offsite Production in the UK Construction Industry. Place of publication unknown: HSE.
- The National Audit Office (2005). Using modern methods of construction to build homes more quickly and efficiently. London: NAO.
- Venables, T. Barlow, J. Gann, D (2004). The Housing forum, Manufacturing Excellence, UK Capacity in Offsite Manufacturing. London: DTI.
- Clarke, L. (2002) Standardisation and skills: a transnational study of skills, education and training for prefabrication in housing. Internal Report, London, University of Westminster Business School.
- Constructing Excellence (2009). Constructing Excellence Annual report 2009. London: Constructing Excellence.
- Egan, J. (1998) Rethinking Construction, Construction Task Force Report for Department of the environment, Transport and the Regions, HMSO, London.
- Latham, M. (1994) Constructing The Team, Final Report of the Government / Industry Review of Procurement and Contractual Arrangements In The UK Construction Industry. London: HMSO.
- Office of the deputy Prime Minister (2003). CIH Submission to the Barker review of housing supply. London: ODPM. p.3-13.
- Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2003). Sustainable Communities, Modern Construction Methods. London: ODPM.
- Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2003). Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future. Wetherby: ODPM.
- Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government (2009). Communities and Local Government Autumn Performance Report 2009. London: HMSO
- Basely, S. (2009). Number of households in England 'to increase by 250,000 a year'. Available: http://www.24dash.com/news/Housing/2009-03-11-Number-of-households-in-England-to-increase-by-250-000-a-year. Last accessed 20 January 2010.
- Egan, J. (2008). Egan 10 years on. Available: http://www.building.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=3113047. Last accessed 5 January 2010.
- National Housing Federation. (2010). House-building to hit lowest levels since 1923 as housing waiting lists hit record high. Available: http://www.housing.org.uk/default.aspx?tabid=212&mid=828&ctl=Details&ArticleID=2747. Last accessed 14 February 2010.
- Office of National Statistics. (2008). Construction statistics annual 2007. Available: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/release-calendar/index.html?newquery=*&uday=0&umonth=0&uyear=0&title=Construction+Statistics&pagetype=calendar-entry+. Last accessed 14 March 2010.
- Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. (2008). Modern Methods of House Building. Available: http://www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/resources/publications/. Last accessed 23 February 2010.
- RGU (2002) Overcoming client and market resistance to prefabrication and standardisation in housing. LINK Research Report for DTI & EPSRC, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, available at www.rgu.ac.uk/sss/research/page.cfm?pge52541 (accessed 8 December 2006).
Books and Journals
- Hofman, E. Voordijk, H. Halman, J.. (2009). Matching supply networks to a modular product architecture in the Housebuilding industry. Building Research and Information. 37 (1), p.31-42.
- Davidson, N. Goodier, C. Gibb, A. Austin, S. Saker, J. Gregory, C (2006). Factors influencing the market for branded mass customised buildings. London: Publisher unknown. p.1-10.
- Koebel, T. (2008). Innovation in homebuilding and the future of housing. American Planning Association. 74 (1), p.45-58.
- Johnsson, H. Meiling, J, H. (2009). Defects in Offsite Construction. Construction Management and Economics. 27 (1), p.667-681.
- Larsson, B. Sundqvist, J. Emmitt, S.. (2006). Component manufacturers' perceptions of managing innovation. Building Research and Information. 34 (6), p.552-564.
- Grey, C. Davies, R. (2007). Perspectives on experiences of innovation: the development of an assessment methodology appropriate to construction project organizations. Construction Management and Economics. 25 (1), p.1251-1268.
- Harty, C. (2005). Innovation in construction: sociology of technology approach. Building Research and Information. 33 (6), p.512-522.
- Author Unknown. (2007). Editorial. Construction Management and Economics. 25 (1), p.109-110.
- Hartmann, A. Reymen, I. Oosteron, G. (2008). Factors constituting the innovation adoption environment of public clients. Building Research and Information. 36 (5), p.436-449.
- Blismas, N, Pasquire, C. Gibb, A. (2005). Benefit evaluation for off-site production in construction. Construction Management and Economics. 24 (1), p.121-130.
- Stirling, R. (2004). ODPM shouldn't meddle in building specification. Contract Journal. 6505 (426), p.1.
- Author Unknown. (2007). Bringing building innovations to life at offsite2007. Contract Journal. 6623 (438), p.1-3.
- Stagg, J. (2007). Modern Methods under scrutiny over efficiency. Contract Journal. 6620 (438), p.1-5.
- Homes and Communities Agency. (2010). Kickstart housing delivery. Available: http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk/kickstart_housing. Last accessed 3 March 2010.
- Milligan, B. (2010). Housing Shortage ‘risk crowding'. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/business/8501479.stm. Last accessed 6 February 2010.
- BRE. (2010). BeAware - Research project to reduce waste and improve efficiency. Available: http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=707. Last accessed 20 January 2010.