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The redevelopment of the Isleworth campus involves a lot of people, and each one of them has his own role to it. This construction starts from the client (West Thames College) and ends at the company which do the construction (simple workers).
To complete the project of the construction successfully lot of professionals have to require a team. Except the construct, this team has to identify possible risk of Health and Safety, set some rules and ensure that everyone on the site followed them to minimise the risk of injuries and deaths.
1.Types of Employer
The main type of employer in this project is the public sector, which the role of this employer is similar with the client. The main duty of this employer is to pay amounts upon completion. Also has to attend meetings with engineers and architects to come to final decision hoe the design it will look like.
By West Thames College being the main employer it would also be required to have some kind of a partnership with other types of employers. The Quasi Government Organisation which comes from areas like English Heritage, National River Authorities. The Commercial which comes from banks and shops. The last one is the Private sector which is made up by different organisations like Railways Companies, Consultants and Developers
2. Construction Professionals
To redevelop successfully the Isleworth campus, a team of construction professionals must be work and each one of them will have his role, responsibilities and obligations. The construction professional team must consist of:
The first one from the team of the construction professionals is the client who is the one that got the idea of the whole project. Everything starts from the client and nothing can be done without him. The client of this construction is the West Thames College. The client could be an organisation or a person who commissions the works and pays the bill. Also is the one responsible for appointing representatives to organise the work on his behalf such us an architect, a project manager a surveyor or a project manager.
The demand and the finance for the project which is the most important part are providing from the client's function. Another important thing provided by the client is the contract between the client and the engineer, where it is clearly mentioned that the main duty of the client is to have full control of the economical status of the project.
Architect is the construction professional who leads the design team in the planning and design stage. He must take the entire client's requirement and translate them into drawings and plans for the engineer and the constructor to move on. Architect is involved in the earliest stage of the project and finishes with the completion of the project because he ensures that the works carried according to specification.
Also has to prepare and present to the client a design proposal and advice him on practicability. He must then produce detailed drawings of the Isleworth campus and keep the other professionals at the estimated budget and timeline. Except of these he has to check the progress of the project with site visits after the contractor begin the work and coordinate with the contractors.
An engineer is really important for the whole project. Engineer professionals are divided into 2 categories. The first one is the consulting engineer is a designer. He liaises with the client to plan, manage, design and supervise the construction of projects. The second category is the contracting engineers, who turn plans into reality.
Engineers, both of the 2 categories has to supervise the tendering progress, check the progress with site investigations, lead teams of some other engineers, undertake technical, feasibility study and manage, advise and solves problems which the progress of the project may have. Also has to communicate and liaise with other colleagues, schedule materials and ensure that the project will be finished at the time that the client estimate.
In our case study the engineer will have the following duties :
1.Initiating development proposals
The engineers must listen to the client (West Thames College) requirements and then make a development proposal according to them. Though in his proposals he must apply aesthetic rules, the time of the construction and the potential budget requirement. After he finishes his proposals he has to present them to the client (West Thames College) with several options to select.
2. Carrying out feasibility studies
The necessity of this part depends on the complexity and potential cost of the project and time available for such studies. Feasibility studies are a research that the engineer is going to do to assess the potential success of the proposal. Also will determine whether the redevelopment of the Isleworth campus will serve the client's intended purpose. Once the engineer completed the design project will be presented to the client and if the client accepts it he can move to the next phase.
3. Design of project
If the client accepts the proposals and feasibility studies, then a contract would be issued with the engineer to continue with drawing which involves drawings. At this point, he mau prepare his tender for the redevelopment of the Isleworth Campus. Except of these must prepare the budget estimation which should include unforeseen work.
Tendering is the phase that the engineer will prepare and recommend a tender package to the client and also must present a list of suitable contractors. Then he must communicate with the contractors to invite them to tender for this position. Once the contractor is selected, he will draw a contract between the client and the contractor.
The engineer must oversee the project from the commencement to completion; however to be able to oversee day by day the site`s supervision he has to appoint a resident engineer. The main duties for the resident engineer are to ensure that the contractor follows the approved method of construction, work in accordance with specification, correct and appropriate usage of materials and ensures that the health and safety rules are applied.
6. Quality Control
This is the last phase before the project handed to the client. The engineer must conduct the testing of materials, as well as ensure site staff carry daily checks and site tests and that specification is adheres at all times. All of these are about to ensure that the Isleworth Campus is working without any problem and is really safe to contain anyone inside.
7. Operation and maintenance
The engineer as the project finished he must compose an operation and maintenance advise for the client and also provide them with advice and instruction. Although must ensure that contractor remedies any defects that arise before the period expires.
From the main duties of the engineer it is clearly shown that he is the connection point between the client and the contractor. The responsibilities of engineers are very importand and for that reason must employee a representative and a site engineer.
The engineer representative has a site supervisor role. The site engineer is perform technically, organise and supervise the project. He is also responsible to apply designs, ensures that everybody in the site is safe and mark out the site.
The Quantity Surveyor
The quantity surveyor or the Construction cost consultant can work either for the contractor or the client. He has to manage all costs relating to building project (From initial calculations to final figures). Also the Quantity Surveyor is trying to minimise the cost of the project and enhance the value for money.
Some other duties of the Quantity Surveyor are to prepare the budget estimations, advice the client on tendering process, process claims for the contractor, provide advice on these claims and performing the risk management and the cost control. Also he must stay informed of any changes on the project or any delays in order to change his estimations or offer some ideas
The Contractor has redevelop the Isleworth campus in accordance with the execute drawings, specification and standards which were set out in the tender. The contractor is the one that is responsible to finish the redevelopment of the campus in accordance with the agreed deliver contract programme; he is also responsible for the Health and Safety on the site and for any risks. Although the contractor has a big say in the project, he is not permitted to sub-let the whole of the work --just sub-contract agreed element.
The graphs above are shoeing the line of command and the Contractual Relationship.
Graph 1: The Line of command
Graph 2: The contractual relationship
The workers are simple people were working for the construction company. They are just doing what the contractor said and they are trying to finish their job (the construction part) at the time that the client and the architect estimate.
3. Health and Safety
Health and Safety is a very important part of the project. The engineer and the contractor have to ensure that everyone in the site is following the instruction so that it could minimise the risk of injuries or deaths.
Last 25 years statistics
2.2 million people work in Britain's construction industry, making it the country's biggest industry. It is also one of the most dangerous. In the last 25 years, over 2,800 people have died from injuries they received as a result of construction work. Many more have been injured or made ill. ( http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/)
Main Cause of Death Trough Accidents in Construction Industry
Figure Taken from: http://www.craneaccidentlawfirm.com/img/Crane-Accident-Deaths-Causes.gif
To avoid all of these injuries and deaths the workers have to follow all the measures. Here are some examples of measures needed to be taken:
Wearing safety helmet
Protective clothing (gloves)
Helmet (hard hat) can protect the head of the worker if any object fall from height
Goggles(safety glasses) can protect the worker eyes
Steel toes (safety boots) can protect the worker if anything heavy falls on his toes
Ear defenders can protect workers from very loud noises
Protecting Clothing (Gloves)
Protecting Clothing (Gloves) can protects workers hands from everything heavy lifting.
The health and safety signs are very important and advise workers what they can do or cannot do. The signs were divided at four categories:
Safety Conditions Signs
4. Risks associated with the construction process
One of the other roles of a site engineer is to produce a risk assessment that is to be present to the health and safety inspector. This document has been done from a professional and includes all the dangers on a construction site. Also resolutions are detailed to make workers feel safe at work. To consider the document the professional would need to have a vast knowledge of health and safety.
Some of the risks and the hazards that the professional's document includes are:
Workers would fall from heights while working on the site (roofs). To make this situation safe the professional has to put the warning signs at each side of the building and at points of entrance of the roofs. If the professional done that and everyone can see the warning signs, he minimise the risk for an injury or a death.
Clients, engineers, architects, workers and visitor will be at risk because some small object can falls through barriers from heights. The first action that the professional must take to make situation safe is like the first one hazard. The warning signs. Also all of the workers and the visitors have to wear the safety helmet (hard hat) and report any defect in barriers as soon as possible.
Everybody on the side could receive electrical shock which can cause a serious injury and a death. To avoid those injuries the professionals have to test every five years all the electrical.
Trips and Slips
Clients, engineers, architects, workers and visitor will be at risk. If any material or other object left lying around, it could cause an injury to someone. If all the materials and object kept tidy and the floor kept dry, the risk of injury of someone is minimised.
All on the site are risk in the event of fire. Except the risk of getting burned, the smoke can cause lung diseases. To risk will minimise if the building contain fire exits, alarms and fire drills. Also the smoking has to be prohibited.
The redevelop of the Isleworth Campus as is clearly shown involves lot of people. Each one of them has his own role and each one of them is important to finish the project. Even the smallest mistake from a simple worker it may destroy the job, who everyone done. That is the reason that everyone has to be careful with his job.
Of course all of the people were are working for this construction have to protect himself and follows all the rules, that the professionals and the government set, because the life on the site is dangerous and everyone can be injured.