This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
The civil engineer usually projects the major part of the design that requires complex calculations. The specialism that a civil engineer has is the main professional qualification needed in the design and management of the project. The major civil engineering works include building of bridges, dams, waterways, power stations, motorways, harbours and dock designs.
Architects are involved in the preliminary discussion with the client to establish the 'brief'. He is responsible in outlining planning approval for the project. He gives advice on appointment of quantity surveyors and other consultants, as well as doing sketches of plans and designing drawings and other relevant detail documents. Architects handle the full planning and building regulation consents from the local authority departments, give advice on clerk of works appointment, draw up a list of contractors for tendering and selecting the contractor. Affairs relating to the preparation of contract documents and work during the project duration are managed. He calls for site meetings to discuss necessary matters regarding arising problems, provides choice of nominated subcontractors and suppliers. He gives reports to client on progress of the project, checks the cost, variation orders, alter drawings where necessary and in power of approving the interim and other certificates.
The quantity surveyor is brought in at the earliest opportunity - this is normally at the design stage- to advise the client, with the approval of the architect, on the approximate cost of the various schemes put forward to the client. The client is then able to choose those that are suitable with him.
It is unusual to employ a professional quantity surveyor if a Bill of Quantities is not part of the contract documents. Bills are not normally required for small works, schedules being more suitable. Neither are 'bills' prepared by the professional quantity surveyor for contracts offered under a 'package deal', the construction contractor's quantity surveyor being in a better position to do so.
When 'bills' are required and the client requires strict financial control of the project the professional quantity surveyor is appointed, and eventually when the contractor is selected, he keeps in constant touch with the successful tenderer's representative, particularly prior to interim valuations and payments. The surveyor is usually a qualified Associate of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyor (RICS).
The works includes are to give an approximate estimate for the project, checking cost and analyzing it, as well as preparing the Bill of Quantities such as the Reduction or Addendum Bills where necessary. He is responsible for the measurement of work on site, prepares interim certificates and the production of the final accounts.
In designing modern structures, environmental problems need to be think of and over come, so this is where trained and experienced specialist are needed. They prepare diagrams of their proposals which can then be incorporated within the architect's drawings. Indeed, usually the specialists prepare separate drawings of, say, the services layout to a proposed building, which the architect includes in what are known as 'contract drawings'. These drawings are later sent, together with the other 'contract documents', to those companies who wish to tender/bid for the construction work.
Many members of the Chartered Institute of Building Services work in private practice offering their services t architects and designers alike, on specialism such as plumbing, heating, lighting, ventilation, air conditioning, acoustics, sanitation, communications, refuse disposal and telecommunication.
This is the recommending certificate prepared by the Professional Quantity Surveyor from the interim valuations of contractors 'and subcontrators' work, for the value that can be submitted by the contractors to the client for the payment. The value is usually based on the Architect's assessment of completed work. These are usually issued or at agreed interval.