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The Mumbai Pune Corridor is a part of the National Hihgway NH4 is was identified by a study conducted by the Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) during the seventh five year plan as amongst the three most congested national highway corridors in the country. MoST proposed that this corridor be developed as part of the "National Expressway System". This corridor had been unable to develop because of high traffic volumes, high growth rates and restrictions on widening because of the topography of the Ghats and the lack of sufficient funds with the Government. Because of this, the corridor was unable to grow and match the needs of traffic. Because of the heavy traffic projection GoM in 1990 decided to construct a new expressway between the cities of Mumbai and Pune as a long-term solution to the problem and accordingly appointed RITES (Rail India Technical Economic Service) along with Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick (UK) to conduct a techno-economic viability study for the expressway
Project Plan Process
RITES submitted its report in 1995 and recommended that a new expressway be constructed starting at Kon near Panvel and ending at Dehu road near Pune to be operated as an access-controlled tolled road. The road was to be constructed with the latest technology and incorporate features such as guard rails, dual carriageways, and speed monitoring equipment which would make it much more safer than the existing road. In addition, the width of the road would ensure that congestion did not take place. When new govt electd in Maharashtra in 1995 and due to prestige issue attached with this project they formed Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) to accelerate the process of road development
MSRDC had been constituted with the following objectives
To promote and operate road projects.
To plan, investigate, design, construct and manage identified road projects and their area development.
To enter into a contract in respects of the works and any other matters transferred to the Corporation along with assets and liabilities.
To invite tenders, bids, offers and enter into contracts for the purposes of all the activities of the Corporation.
To promote participation of any person or body or association of individuals,whether incorporated or not, in planning, investigation, designing, construction and management of transport projects and area development.
To undertake schemes or works, either jointly with other corporate bodies or institutions, or with Government or local authorities, or on agency basis in furtherance of the purposes for which the Corporation is established and all matters connected therewith.
To undertake any other project and other activities entrusted by the State Government in furtherance of the objectives for which the Corporation is established
Government appointed Project Management Consultants (PMCs) for preparing and ensuring consistency in design standards, cost estimates and tender documents, and to supervise the construction work as and when it began. In addition it was also though that if the technical aspects of the projects were taken care of by PMC's, then MSRDC could concentrate on the task of coordinating the various administrative requirements such as getting clearances, raising finances etc. The Project Management consultants were to have the following functions:
Preparing estimates and detailed designs
Issuing tender papers & bid evaluation
Supervision: ensuring quality and correctness of work
The whole expressway construction work is divided into 9 sections. Viz . section A,B,C,D, Ghat Section Pakage 1, Ghat Section Pakage 2, Panvel Bypass Pakage 1 , Panvel Bypass Pakage 2, tunnel work. MSRDC selected 6 PMCs . Important skill for a PMC was considered to be Technical Skill, the selection criteria were such that 80% weightage was assigned to the technical bid and 20% to the financial bid. A condition was imposed that 1 PMC could work on only 1 section of the Expressway to avoid excess load on a PMC. Presence of a minimum number of technical supervisory staff at the project site was insisted upon before awarding the contract
The Tender Committee was formed. Stringent criteria had to be specified by selected constructors. Stringent qualification criteria were specified, so only those contractors having minimum experience in their main items of work, minimum number of required key personnel, and minimum financial assets and credit facilities could succeed. Although bidders could bid for more than 1 section, they would be eligible to get work for only 1 section. This was done to harness resources from 4 agencies for the work, and to finish the work within the tight schedule. There was transparency in the bidding process. It was clearly specified in the tender document how the technical evaluation would be carried out on the basis of the information provided. The maximum marks allotted to the various aspects were clearly specified in the tender document. If a bidder scored less than 75% on the technical evaluation, his financial bid would not be opened.
However, once the technical bid was qualified, a 75 % weightage would be given to the financial bid so that only financially viable and less expensive bidder was awarded with the final contracts. As a result of this the final bids were less than the estimated costs. Fianlly Construction work started at Jan 1998.
Facilities given by MSRDC to consultants and Contractors:
To ensure quick and efficient working, and to ensure that the project was completed on time, MSRDC and GoM provided several facilities to contractors and consultants. These facilities include sops to the project partners, and also included completion of tasks that the consultants/contractors would normally have to do themselves. The expenditure on extra services/facilities did not, however, increase production costs - it reduced them by 8-10% as a result of speedy project completion and reduction in delay-induced cost overruns.
Construction Work Starts:
Construction work started in right earnest with the issue of the order to proceed with the works in Jan/Feb 1998. The contract completion date was specified as 27 months requiring substantial completion in 24 months when it was proposed to to open the expressway to traffic by Jan 2000. The scale and time schedule of the work was unprecedented in the highway sector but Indian Contractors rose up to the occasion. Most of the technologies were being tried out in the country for the first time. The consultants also showed remarkable skills in adapting to new technology and monitoring techniques
Project Schedule, Milestones
1990: GoM decided to construct a new expressway
1995: RITES submitted its feasibility report in
April 1997 : Bids for PMCs are called.
May 1997 : Receipt of bids from prospective PMCs.
June 1997 : Fixing of 6 PMCs - 1 each for Sections A, B, C and D; I for the Panvel Bypass; 1 for
The Ghat region
Nov 1997 : Calling of bids for civil construction.
Nov 1997 : Receipt of tenders.
Jan 1998 : Fixing of construction agencies after assessment, and issuance of work orders. Construction work started. The contract specified project completion time as 27 months from commencement of work (January 1998). The contract also required substantial completion in 24 months. It was proposed to open the Expressway to traffic by January-end 2000.
April 1998: Groups in Pune start opposing the project saying that it is a sheer waste of taxpayers money.
July 1998: The sole objection to be raised by a private party against the proposed Mumbai-Pune Expressway squashed.
Dec 1998: Mumbai high court admits writ petition, restrains the state government and MSRDC from further acquisition and displacement of tribals and villagers affected by the controversial Mumbai Pune expressway, till the pendency and final disposal of the case
Jan 1999: Stay on acquisition released.
The protests against construction continue throughout the execution of the project
2000 : The first sections opened for traffic
April 2002: The entire route was completed, opened to traffic and made fully operational from.
Objective - in terms of requirement, time and cost
Process- The Whole PM activity
Plan- the project schedule, Milestones
Learning from the success/failure