The Methods Of Carrying Out Design And Construction Construction Essay

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3.0 Introduction

This section deals with all the issues associated with how the entertainment complex was designed and constructed.

Briefing is an important factor for the successful completion of the overall project.

It is the process by which client requirements are investigated, developed and communicated to the construction team. Briefing of some kind always occurs during a project, though the quality can vary considerably. Good briefing is not easy to achieve, yet a number of studies have suggested that improvements to briefing results in clients getting better buildings. The different stages in the briefing process will be examined in this section.

After the procurement option has been chosen it is necessary to examine the tendering options available so as to choose a contractor for the project. Alternative tendering options will be evaluated and the reasons for the final chosen tender given.

The procedure in applying for planning permission, fire safety certificates and other essential forms for the building will also be outlined. Finally, the design process and type of construction used for the development will be presented in this assessed area. The crucial construction details of the school consisting of a pad foundation, concrete block/brick, steel frame and pre-cast upper floors and roof.

3.1 Briefing

Barrett and Stanley (1999) defined the briefing process as "the process running throughout the construction project by which means the client's requirements are progressively captured and translated into effect".

The suggested definition assumes that the process is continuing until the client's requirements are translated into effect (i.e. the final building) which suggests that the briefing process is extended to the end of construction stage. This definition is welcomed and supported by professionals representing clients' organisations.

The outcome of any project relies heavily on the quality of the clients brief. The briefing process involves regular feedback throughout the whole project between client and the project team. The briefing process has a specific number of steps; each step helps to develop a brief using a larger amount of detail.

The steps involved in developing the brief are the same for all projects regardless of the method of procurement chosen. The steps for briefing can be outlined as follows:

3.1.1 Project Start

The client approaches the project team with the idea for the proposed development and a set of needs that coincide with the development. The client's idea and their list of specific of needs are examined and a conclusion is made as to whether construction is viable. For this project the client is a private businessman that wants to develop the Entertainment Complex. The client plays the most important role in the briefing process and for maximum benefit to him he will need to lay down precisely what is to be expected.

Defining the project

Assembling the team

Designing and constructing

Completion and Evaluation

Briefing is an extremely important part of any construction project, it is said that the most critical time for any project in terms of briefing is at the start. Vast amounts of projects fail due to inadequate briefing in relation to the amount of time and effort spent from the design through to the construction phases. This can mainly happen because there can be a sense of urgency to start the project before adequate planning has been implemented. In conclusion the investment of time and effort at the beginning of any construction project will in turn drastically reduce the possibility of problems arising during construction phases.

3.1.2 Initial Project/Strategic Brief

The initial project/strategic brief involve several different stages. The client firstly assigns a project manager in order to help the client draw up what is known as a "statement of need". The statement of need outlined that the client wishes to construct an Entertainment Complex with all the various facilities and standards listed in previous chapters.

Using the statement of need the project team conducted an options appraisal based on the client's requirements. "Option appraisal is a technique for setting objectives, creating and reviewing options and analysing their relative costs and benefits. Option appraisal should help develop a value for money solution that meets the objectives of the project".

3.1.3 Project Brief

For the entertainment complex project, the Project Brief is a formal statement of the objectives and functional and operational requirements of the finished project. It should be in sufficient detail to enable the construction team to execute the detailed design and specification of the work and is therefore an essential reference for the construction team. For the duration of the design and construction phases the strategic brief is converted into the project brief, the concept design brief and finally the detailed design for the project. The reasoning for this is that each stage of the process paves the way for the other in further detail. However it is extremely important that the client certifies that every requirement is met before signing off on each individual brief. The project brief is basically used to convert the strategic brief into construction terms. An estimate of the entertainment complex in relation to cost will then be given which will then be used to further develop the design brief. Any significant change to the material contained in the Project Brief will thus need to be referred to the project management and the client.

3.1.4 Design Brief and Concept Design brief

The chosen procurement method will enable the design process to occur simultaneously with the construction process. The client has already summarized his requests for the Entertainment Complex. The development of the design brief will mean that the client can see how much the items are likely to cost and also propose alternatives if the costs become too high. Furthermore the design brief will then be used to put together a concept design brief. The concept design will then be used to give an outline of the architectural and engineering design for the project.

The concept design is used to aid in the development the design strategies for the construction process. The concept design also gives clear warnings in relation to the amount of risk associated with each activity. The Q.S can also use the concept design illustrate a elemental cost plan for the project which gives us individual costs for different elements of the building, using this information the Q.S can then offer either cheaper or more expensive substitutes for the various elements

3.1.5 Detailed Design Brief

Once the concept design have been given and approved by the client the document can then be signed off allowing the project team to scrutinize it and begin to come up with a detailed design brief. This will summarize certain design specifications and outline the performance required for each of them. The detailed design should also identify as many hazards in the construction as possible and have contingencies plans in place to deal with these problems should the situation arise.

A detailed design brief should include:

A statement of the scheme design.

Show location of site and information regarding planning approval etc.

Dimensions of the elements included in the detailed design brief.

Standards of performance required by the individual elements.

A cost plan.

Suggestions regarding maintenance & management of the project.

A project execution plan.

Methods of performance measurement.

3.2 Procurement

For this part of the project the procurement method will be selected which will most suit the Entertainment Complex. A global view of procurement from the client's perspective will be taken also alternative procurement systems will be identified and an awareness of their specific advantages and disadvantages in relation to the development of the Complex in Carrigaline. One method will then be chosen, and its merits over the other methods will be described. Also a detailed description of how the procurement method will be applied to this particular development.

When a client considers undertaking a development a number of vital decisions need to be made. According to NEDO "Thinking about Building" (NEDO 1985), eight procurement factors have to be considered by the client at the procurement stage and that the three most important qualities on any construction development were:

Time - the overall timing of the project from inception to completion

Quality - the client's required standards of design and workmanship as expressed in the specification

Cost - the market price applicable at the bid submission stage and final account cost (Cooke & Williams 2004)

Furthermore NEDO (1985) also suggested using the following criteria to establish the client's requirements and this will in turn help to determine the most suitable procurement method for the particular project.

Speed. The desire to have the project completed as soon as possible.

Cost certainty. Knowledge of how much the client has to pay at each period during the construction phase

Time certainty. A degree of certainty that the project will be completed on the date which is agreed by client and contractor when signing the contract.

Five other client considerations were also highlighted as being influential on the choice of procurement.

Complexity - Complexity of building design, layout and services

Controllable Variation - How sure the client is of his requirements?

Degree of completion - Does the client wish to create competition at the design and construction stages of the project?

Client responsibility - Does the client wish to be directly involved in decision making.

Risk in the project - Commercial risk, occupation risk, design and construction risk. (Cooke & Williams 2004)

The Carrigaline Entertainment Complex requires a method of procurement which will satisfy the client's needs in all the above areas. This is aimed to ensure that the project encounters as little problems as possible from inception to completion. Procurement methodology is concerned not only the contractual arrangements for construction work but also the sourcing of professionals for design, project administration and health and safety management. This ensures that the right choice of procurement method will allow the risk to be allocated to whichever party is best to deal with it.

The principle procurement methods to consider for this project are:

Traditional Procurement

Design and Build

Management Contracting

Construction Management

3.2.1 Traditional Procurement

This is the most common method of construction procurement and is well established and recognized. In this arrangement, the architect or engineer acts as the project coordinator. His or her role is to design the works along with other designers such as structural, mechanical and electrical engineers, prepare the specifications and produce construction drawings, administer the contract, tender the works, and manage the works from inception to completion. The design stage is usually completed before tendering begins. The contractor's main role is managing the project rather than assisting with the design. This gives little scope for the designers and contractors to be involved in each others work. Also there is little direct contractual links between the client and the main contractor. However in turn any subcontractor on site will have a direct contractual relationship with the main contractor.

The reason for this type of procurement is that with little or no contractor involvement in the design stage earlier start dates can be obtained however problems can arise when the design needs to be changed which can lead to delays and disruption on the site.

The traditional structure for project procurement is a sequential method the client develops the business case for the project, provides a brief and budget and appoints a team of consultants to prepare a design, plus tender documents. The client appoints the building contractor to construct the works to the design, by the contract completion date and for the agreed price. Usually much of the work is sub-contracted to specialist firms but the contractor remains liable. The consultants oversee the contract on behalf of the client and advise on aspects associated with design, progress and stage payments which must be paid by the client.

A quantity surveyor is also employed to work on design costs, prepare bills of quantities, check tenders, prepare interim valuations and advise on the value of any variations

This strategy is a low-risk option for clients who wish to minimise their exposure to the risks of overspend, delays or design failure. However, the exposure to risk will increase where the design phase is rushed, where unreasonable time targets are set or where the tender documents are not fully completed.

Some qualities of Traditional procurement are:

Cost

Subsequent to a completed design and the bill of quantities drawn up, the tendering costs are reduced for contractors. Also there is a clear explanation of the nature of works to be undertaken. This greatly reduces any uncertainty and gives a level playing field for the contractors to compete for the tender.

Time

There are two factors to consider when thinking of the duration of this form of procurement: the pre-contract and on-site works. The main difference between this form of procurement and others is that in the pre-contract preparation work is the slowest to complete in comparison to other forms

Quality and control

This form of procurement gives the highest degree of control over finished development.

Traditional Procurement Relationships

Traditional Procurement

Advantages

Disadvantages

As most members of the team understand this method, it has the attraction of familiarity.

The client can control the output of the development process very closely.

The client can select the design team to suit the needs of the development.

The client can decide when to commit to the contract.

The main disadvantage is lack of speed.

It is not excellent at achieving cost savings.

Difficult to deal with possible design variations

The contractor has little ability to influence the project

3.2.2 Design and Build

Design and build procurement is another procurement option which could adopted for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex. This is one of the best known procurement systems used at present. In this form of procurement the client develops a brief of the development required. The brief must be clearly presented so that tender bids can be submitted in a competitive way.

The contractor must bid a lump sum to cover the design and construction of the building based on the information available. This method of procurement involves the contractor being responsible for design as well as construction. The main contractor takes responsibility for both design and construction and will use either in-house designers or employ consultants to carry out the design. Most of the construction work will be carried out by specialist or sub-contractors.

This form of procurement has particular application to fairly simple buildings, for example, community halls. Saving in time and cost are the main benefits of design and build, but may lead to inferior design quality, however this may not be a major problem for this type of development.

The Design-Build approach gives the client a single point of contact. However, the client commits to the cost of construction, as well as the cost of design, much earlier than with the traditional approach. Whilst risk is shifted to the contractor, it is important that design liability insurance is maintained to cover that risk. Changes made by the client during design can be expensive, because they affect the whole of the Design-Build contract, rather than just the design team costs.

Design and build is an attractive option for clients because it simplifies the contractual links and the contractor accepts full responsibility for designing, managing and constructing the project. However, for a development such as this it is important to establish whether the particular contractor has sufficient depth of design knowledge to complete the work properly. There are organisations that have the know-how and depth of experience and, indeed are design and build specialists. However there are many other companies, which do not have the required expertise to enter into a field such as design and build.

Design and build

Advantages

Disadvantages

Price Certainty is secured in the early stages.

Completion dates are fixed early in the design process.

The contractor takes responsibility for design & construction.

Major risks lay with the contractor not the client.

Good for inexperienced clients and those requiring distance from the project.

The contractor has greater financial risk and this often reflects on the price.

Tender period and negotiation tend to be much more time consuming.

Difficult for client to control the design and quality.

Changes can be expensive and disruptive to the contractor.

Contractor may focus on price at the expense of quality.

3.2.3 Management Contracting

Management contracting is when the client appoints designers and a contractor (management contractor) separately and pays the contractor a fee for managing the construction works. The management contractor has the responsibility for the whole of the construction works. A feature of this procurement method is the early appointment of the contractor to work together with the design team, to develop a programme for construction and contribute to the design and costing of the works.

Client

WP2

WP3

WP5

WP4

Project Manager

Design Team

Architect

Consulting

Engineer

Quantity

Surveyor

WP1

Management

Contractor

Design team

Coordinator

At the outset of this method there is less price certainty than others, because construction tends to start ahead of completion of all design stages and at a point when many of the work packages have yet to be tendered. This often means adjustments are made to the design and specification of works packages later in the programme to keep the project within budget.

The works for the management contracting technique are tendered out competitively by the management contractor to subcontractors and specialists in appropriate works packages. This approach often means that design and the start of works on site overlap, with the design and tender packages becoming available 'just-in-time' to suit the construction programme.

Much of the success of this approach depends on the contractor's team. Unless the team is drawn from companies which are experienced in this kind of team working, the benefits are not always realised. However, management contracting is an extremely fast strategy. Clients are attracted to management contracting because it offers early starts to large scale, complex construction projects. The management contractor is appointed to work with the professional team, to contribute their construction expertise to the design and later to manage the specialist 'works' or 'package' contractors. They are responsible for the smooth running of the work on site so that the contract can be finished within time and on budget.

Management Contracting

Advantages

Disadvantages

Suitable for fast track projects.

Suitable for complex buildings.

Parallel working environment is natural.

Works packages are let competitively to contractors.

Need for good quality brief

No cost certainty before starting construction.

Not suitable for inexperienced clients

Relies on a good quality team.

Removes resistance to works contractors claims.

Not suitable for clients wanting to pass risk to the contractor.

3.2.4 Construction Management:

This method is similar in concept to Management Contracting. Contractors are contracted directly to the client and the construction manager manages the process for the client on a simple consultancy basis. Construction Management requires constant involvement by the client so it is really only suitable for experienced clients.

The construction manager joins the team at a very early stage in the project. The construction manager agrees a fee with the client and his role will be to over look and plan out work that is to be done by the contractors. This form of procurement is usually adopted for bigger contracts.

Client

Design Team

Project

Manager

WP3

Architect

Q.S.

Consulting

Engineer

WP1

WP2

Construction

Manager

The main difference between this method and management contracting is that a management contractor will be in direct contract with the works or package contractors, however in contrast to this under construction management these contracts will be direct with the construction client.

In both methods it is customary to engage the 'fee' contractor and then to place contracts for the construction works as the design progresses. These works will then sent out to be tendered competitively to preferred bidders but this will be after the client has committed himself to the project. Due to this both management methods can be much more risky for the client because there is less price certainly, however there is benefits from efficiencies in build ability and time owing to overlap between design and construction. Source: (Cooke & Williams 2004) pg 33.

Construction Management

Advantages

Disadvantages

It allows for the design and construction process to work parallel which saves time.

Construction expertise is available to the design team at an early stage from the construction manager

There is a lot of team work between the client, designers and the building contractors

Quality is assured as there is a high level of supervision where quality control can thrive.

Suitable for difficult large developments because the design can be changed and can be developed in stages.

Client has to take all the risk involved.

Early letting of work packages can lead to expensive changes in the design.

The client has no price certainty from the contractor during works.

Only suitable for experienced clients.

3.3 Rating systems

3.3.1 Rating system for traditional procurement

Criteria

Importance

Traditional

 

 

 

Rating

Score

Lowest cost

10

6

60

Price certainty

7

7

49

Optimum capital and life cost

8

8

64

Client involvement in design

8

9

72

Choice of design

3

2

6

Speed of construction

9

5

45

Modify design in construction

7

8

56

Achieve high quality

7

8

56

Choice of sub-contractor

2

6

12

Protection against design defects

8

8

64

Protection against workmanship

7

8

56

Level of professional advise

8

8

64

Total Score

 

 

604

3.3.2 Rating system for Design & Build Procurement

Criteria

Importance

Design & Build

 

 

 

Rating

Score

Lowest cost

10

9

90

Price certainty

7

9

63

Optimum capital and life cost

8

7

56

Client involvement in design

8

3

24

Choice of design

3

9

27

Speed of construction

9

7

63

Modify design in construction

7

3

21

Achieve high quality

7

6

42

Choice of sub-contractor

2

2

4

Protection against design defects

8

6

48

Protection against workmanship

7

6

42

Level of professional advise

8

4

32

Total Score

 

 

512

3.3.3 Rating system for management contracting procurement

Criteria

Importance

Management

 

 

 

Rating

Score

Lowest cost

10

8

80

Price certainty

7

5

35

Optimum capital and life cost

8

7

56

Client involvement in design

8

4

32

Choice of design

3

4

12

Speed of construction

9

9

81

Modify design in construction

7

3

21

Achieve high quality

7

7

49

Choice of sub-contractor

2

1

2

Protection against design defects

8

5

40

Protection against workmanship

7

5

35

Level of professional advise

8

4

32

 

 

 

 

Total Score

 

 

475

3.3.4 Rating system for construction management procurement

Criteria

Importance

Construction MGT

 

 

 

Rating

Score

Lowest cost

10

7

70

Price certainty

7

5

35

Optimum capital and life cost

8

8

64

Client involvement in design

8

5

40

Choice of design

3

4

12

Speed of construction

9

8

72

Modify design in construction

7

4

28

Achieve high quality

7

6

42

Choice of sub-contractor

2

2

4

Protection against design defects

8

4

32

Protection against workmanship

7

5

35

Level of professional advise

8

4

32

 

 

 

 

Total Score

 

 

466

3.3.5 Choice of Procurement method

Subsequent to carrying out the above rating system it can be seen that traditional procurement method of construction is the most suitable system to be implemented on the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex. The results of the rating system were as follows;

Traditional procurement had a total score of 604

Design and build 512

Management Contracting 475

Construction Management 466

As the above shows traditional procurement significantly surpassed the other methods of procurement as it fulfils the majority of the criteria required.

Traditional procurement is best suited to the Entertainment Complex because to start with the client will not be held responsible for the financial risks of the development as this will be the liability of the main contractor. This method is also largely design lead which will guarantee the highest levels of quality in the design which is essential as the client demands a facility of the uppermost modern quality. In relation to finances of the development, traditional procurement ensures reasonable price certainty at the outset and if changes in design become necessary at any stage of the project they are usually easy to arrange as well as value.

Furthermore this system of procurement is extremely well known in the Irish construction industry it will have the clear attraction of familiarity which will ensure less stress and confusion to all parties involved.

3.4 Tendering

Tendering is the name given to the process that is used to obtain offers from contractors which leads to a contract between the client and the successful contractor. The primary aim of this development in relation to tendering is to select and produce a list of contractors all of which are competent to complete the project in Carrigaline.

The tender procedure for this development the client work invites contractors to tender and receives offers for it on the basis of tender documents prepared by each contractor. The tender documents should contain enough information about the about the work and the terms of which it is to be contracted to allow the contractors to identify, assess and price the requirements and the risks involved in the development.

The tender documents should identify the information required and the format in which it is to be provide by the contractors to ensure that all tenders that are presented are similar. In relation to the pre-tender planning, the process begins with the tender enquiry to the contractor and ends with the contractor's tender submission.

3.4.1 Open Invitation Tendering

Open tendering is done by placing an advertisement in appropriate journals or newspapers such as the Irish times with the invitation to tender for a specific project, in this case an Entertainment Complex in Carrigaline and in turn send tender documents to any contractor who requests them. The advertisement should give a detailed insight to what the project entails e.g. the size, value, location etc.

Contractors which are then interested in applying for the tender will contact the organisation for further information regarding the development. However, before any tender documents are sent out the contractor is obliged to pay a small deposit for the tender documents. This deposit is then reimbursed when the contractor sends back a legitimate tender.

Tenders which are received by the specified date in the advertisements are then assessed against a certain criteria such as technical capacity to complete the project, the contractors financial standing etc. from this a shortlist of suitable contractors will be identified. This short list of tenders will then assessed by certain criteria laid out by the client for example price. The successful contractor is then identified and will be invited into a contract of work.

Open Invitation Tendering

Advantages

Disadvantages

Larger interest in the development due to the public advertising.

Tenders more competitive due to this larger number of responses which can lead to a significant reduction in price.

It will allow new contractors to the industry an opportunity to compete for projects and prove themselves.

Contractors with insufficient funding may win the tender and not be able to finance the development.

Tenders that are received take time and money to evaluate.

3.4.2 Restricted Invitation Tendering

Restricted Invitation Tendering or selective tendering is similar to open tendering except that the invitations to tender are not advertised to the public but only to contractors that have been specifically selected. This involves selecting a contractor by reference to their specific criteria such as reputation, financial situation and willingness to tender. Tenders are then issued to these contractors and tenders which are received back by the specified deadline are then, like open tendering, assessed against criteria for selection and the favourable contractor recognized. The number of tenders sent out to these selected companies is approximately six, sometimes even less where the preparation of tender documents will absorb a substantial amount of time and money, such as a design and build contract.

Restricted Invitation Tendering

Advantages

Disadvantages

Contractors who are invited to tender are of a high standard.

Contractors financial standing is known as well as their past projects and reputation.

All companies invited to tender will have a genuine interest in winning the contract.

Time is saved and therefore saves costs in the tendering process.

Selective tendering doesn't ensure the most competitive price. Firms that are renowned as being superior not renowned for working at the lowest price

Preparation of tenders may take a greater length of time and be expensive.

New contractors that enter into the industry do not have a reputation and in turn would not be chosen for tender.

3.4.3 Two Stage Tendering

Selective tendering is further categorized as single and two stage tendering. It involves two stages, the first stage is a tendering process and the second stage involves a negotiation process. For the first stage, the aim is to assign a contractor for further negotiation, on the agreement of initial low levels of information. A preliminary tender is usually received from several bidders on the basis of a first design, scope, budget and programme. The chosen tender will then work alongside the design team to concur on a final design which includes works packages, an agreed programme of works and a cost plan. Finally once the employer agrees the price they will enter into a main contract.

Two-stage tendering is useful where the client's requirements are not yet developed enough to invite tenders. It is then preferable to the client to get the expertise of a suitable contractor to advance the requirements of the development to a stage where a tender can be invited for the construction of works. However, it is not uncommon that the successful first stage tenderer will not be successful at the second stage. Therefore it is crucial that the first stage documents make it clear that the client has the right to employ other contractors to carry out the work that has been developed by the first stage tenderer.

Two Stage Tendering

Advantages

Disadvantages

An overall tender price is usually known before work commences.

Fewer disputes should arise as the contractor has been involved in the design and document preparation and has a better understanding of the requirements.

Contract sum maybe more expensive than the single stage method because of the reduced level of competition.

Delays in providing design information can lead to project overruns and additional costs.

3.4.4 Selected Tendering Procedure

The tendering procedure which was chosen to be implemented for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex is restricted invitation tendering. The decision to adopt this method of tendering was reached on the characteristics of restrictive tendering as well as the features involved the project. In selective tendering the architect prepares a list of suitable contractors for the project and they alone are invited to present a tender.

The selected companies were then sent the relevant tender documentation and invited to tender for the project. The company that offered the best price and value for money was notified of their successful bid for the construction of the Entertainment Complex.

The use of this method of tendering will ensure that the vast majority of the client's criteria will be fulfilled. Furthermore, the peace of mind knowing that the chosen contractor will have an extensive amount of experience on projects similar to this.

Restricted Invitation Tendering

Advertising

Prequalification

Tendering

Tendering

Evaluation

Contract

Awarded

3.5 Form of Contract

The form of contract which will be used for the Carrigaline Entertainment complex is the RIAI form of contract with quantities. The contract documents will include, bill of quantities, drawings and specifications. The advantage of using the RIAI standard form of contract is that it well understood within the Irish Construction Industry and the RIAI contracts safeguard the interests of both the employer and the contractor.

The contracts comprises of the following elements regardless of whether, building or civil engineering, traditional or design and build:

3.5.1 Letter of Acceptance

The letter of acceptance is issued by the client when accepting the Contractor's successful tender. The issue of the letter creates a binding contract between the Client and the chosen Contractor.

3.5.2 Agreement

This is between the Client and the Contractor. This identifies the date that the contract was entered into, the parties involved in the contract, the contract sum and any post tender clarifications. The final section of the Articles of Agreement is where the parties sign or seal the Contract. A contract that is signed is known as a 'simple' contract whereas one that is sealed is a contract 'under seal'. The main difference between the two is that a simple contract binds the parties for six years after completion of the contract, and a contract under seal binds them for twelve years.

3.5.3 Contract Conditions

The contract conditions set out the roles and responsibilities of each party and the operational and management issues which will regulate the works. This falls into the following sections:

The Contract;

The Law

Loss, Damage and Injury

Management

Contractor's Personnel

Property

The Site

Quality Testing and Defects

Time and Completion

Claims and Adjustments;

Payment

Termination

Disputes

3.5.4 Schedule

This contains precise contract information as referred to in the conditions but with considerably more information. This is in relation to the Appendix to Tender in the IEI 3rd Edition.

The Contracting Authority completes Part 1 and includes it in the tender documents when inviting contractors to tender. Part 2 however is completed by the contractor and consists of any necessary information and is submitted with its tender. The completed Schedule should be included with the Letter of Acceptance.

3.5.5 Works Requirements

As the selected method of procurement for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex is a traditional contract it will include completed drawings, specifications, site investigation and other relevant reports, consents, preliminary safety and health plan, etc.

3.6 Appointment of the Design Team

The Classical model for Organising, Developing, and Controlling the Design of Buildings allows for the selection and appointment of individual Design professionals by a client to work in a team. Each design professional will have a certain field of expertise to be utilised in the design process. However, each of the individual professionals will have separate Articles of Agreement with the Client. The leader for of the design team for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex will be the Architect. This role of Architect is backed up by the RIAI forms of Contract, where the Standard Forms of Contract acknowledge the Architect as the administrator of the Building Contract.

The Clients role in this Design and Procurement system is limited to his initial Brief to his Design Team. However he also has to providing funding up to the completion of works. In spite of this the extent of which the Client engages with the Design team, and his capability to control his Design team is set out in the Articles of Agreement he has drawn up with each individual team member.

3.6.1 Design Team Selection

When selecting the design team there are several issues which the client should consider before appointment.

Previous experience on similar projects

Experience and Background of the individuals

Organizational resources and Management systems of the practice

Financial resources of the companies and their ability to support the project.

Ability of Design Team members to work together as a team.

Prior to the appointment any design professionals the Client will shortlist individuals and then interview potential design team members. For this interview a marking scheme should be outlined based on the above criteria and not only on their interview or reputation. Below is a sample marking scheme which could be implemented to score the potential candidates.

Criteria

Importance

Rating of Candidate

Score

Previous experience on similar projects.

8

5

40

Experience & background.

8

5

40

Organizational resources.

6

5

30

Financial resources.

7

5

35

Ability to work as a member of a team.

8

5

40

Total Score

185

3.6.2 The Design Brief

The Design Brief in any construction development would be considered to be the most significant contribution the Client has in the entire Design Process. Ultimately the design brief is the Client stating exactly what his wants and needs are for his end building to the design team. Frequently in the construction industry inadequate Briefing to the Design Team can lead to bewilderment within the team as the Clients requirements are not properly understood. This in turn can lead to an unsatisfied client.

All Construction Projects should have a design brief that has derived from the original objectives of the development. The objectives should be well defined, quantifiable, and produced by the project stakeholders. For this procedure it may be practical to appoint a Project Manager to supervise the process as well as mediate with the Design Team.

3.6.3 Outline Design Proposal

For the design proposal of the development in Carrigaline the Design team must work alongside the Client to come up with a suitable Scheme Design, then test the viability of the development and finally outline the cost with the criteria previously set out in the Design Brief. The Design Team are not being permitted to extend beyond this point without formal consent of the Client.

3.7 Method of Construction

The methods of construction selected for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex consist of;

Pad foundation system.

Concrete block/brick.

Steel frame.

Pre-cast upper floors and roof.

The above methods were approved by the design team as the most suitable means of construction for the type of development as well as its location. These methods will ensure that the Entertainment Complex will be constructed to the specific design standards set by the Client and will also guarantee a dependable, speedy method of construction. These methods will ensure that the Clients requirement to have the school built within an allocated time frame is kept.

3.7.1 Pad foundation

Pad foundations were chosen for this development as previously in chapter one, a detailed site investigation had been carried out on the site. The result this investigation was beneficial as the ground was found to have a good load-bearing capacity. However, due to the close proximity of the Owenabue River and its history of rare flooding the designers decided it was in the best interests to construct a pad foundation instead of a normal strip foundation.

3.7.2 Steel frame

It was decided to use steel frame construction as it will aid in the speed of construction. All the steel components will be manufactured off site and then brought on site to be put in place. This will in turn reduce the amount of onsite waste. Furthermore, off site construction enables the construction team to work off a more predictable construction programme which is to the benefit of everyone.

3.7.3 Concrete block walls.

The use this wall brings numerous advantages to the Carrigaline development. The use of concrete block walls will increase the thermal mass of the structure, giving increased comfort in the summer as well as the winter. Furthermore fairfaced blocks typically will not require painting and therefore can provide a building with reduced overall life-cycle costs. It is also very heat resistant and thus will provide good fire protection.

3.7.4 Pre-cast upper floors and roof

Pre-cast upper floors and roof were selected for this development firstly there is limited storage availability on site and pre-cast allows for more storage space on site. Concrete members can also be erected under any weather conditions making it very appropriate for the Irish climate. The duration of the entire build was also a factor for the client and using pre-cast will ensure time is saved.

3.8 Planning Application

Planning permission is required for every new construction project. By law it is necessary to:

Put a notice in a specific newspaper

Erect a site notice

When making the application six copies of all drawings are required, including one newspaper notice and one site notice.

This is the system that must be followed when applying for planning permission

A notice is published in a newspaper and a site notice is erected at the sites main entrance.

Four weeks later - Last date for objections to planning application.

Between two and four weeks later - The planning authority issues the notice of their decision.

4 weeks after the issue of decision - If no appeal has been made, the planning authority will issue a grant of permission, except where they have already made a decision to refuse the application.

3.9 Commencement Notice

Every new building or works that requires planning permission requires a commencement notice before any work begins. The client is obliged to submit a commencement notice to the relevant Building Control Authority at least 14 days and no later than 28 days before commencement of work.

3.10 Fire Safety Certificate

A fire safety certificate is a certificate issued by the Building Control Authority. It says that the building to which the application relates will if constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications submitted and will therefore comply with the requirements of Part B of the Second Schedule of the building regulations 1997. The certificate has to be obtained for all new public buildings under these Building Regulations. A fire safety certificate was applied for 15 weeks prior the commencement of works on site. This allows adequate time for the application to be processed and assigned to a fire officer to carry out an assessment.

The fire safety application consisted of:

A completed application form

Relevant drawings in duplicate

A fire safety report

The appropriate fee

To ensure that no major problems were met and that the building design complied with all fire safety regulations a fire safety consultant was hired. However, this can also be done by an Architect or Engineer who is familiar with the building regulations. With the expertise of the fire safety consultant a design that was in accordance with Part B of the Second Schedule of the Building Regulations was obtained.

The statutory period for assessment to be completed by the council is two months. During this period it was found no request was made to make changes to the design. The fire safety officer was therefore satisfied that the design was in accordance with the building regulations. Following this the fire certificate was approve by the Cork County Council.

The application fee for the Fire Safety Certificate was given to the Cork County Fire and Building Control department. The fee was €2.90 per square meter floor area. After obtaining the fire safety cert works could commence on the development. It is against the law to commence work before the fire safety certificate is granted. Furthermore it is a legal obligation that the specifications and plans that were provided to the fire safety officer are met and followed out in accordance with the building requirements.

3.11 Conclusion

Assessed area three dealt with the sections that involve the process of designing and building of the Entertainment Complex. The topics that were looked at were;

Briefing process

Tendering process

Procurement methods

Forms of contract

Construction material selected.

Initially this assessed area dealt with briefing, this included the project start, strategic brief, project brief, design brief and concept design brief and finally a detailed design brief.

The procurement method chosen for this development was Traditional Procurement. The main reasons for the strategy is that it is a low-risk option for the client who wishes to minimise his exposure to the risks of overspend, delays and design failure. Furthermore, that the client can control the output of the development process very closely which is very important to him.

The tendering procedure which was chosen to be implemented for the Carrigaline Entertainment Complex was restricted invitation tendering. The decision to adopt this method of tendering was reached on the characteristics of restrictive tendering as well as the features involved the project. The use of this method of tendering ensures that the vast majority of the client's criteria will be fulfilled. Furthermore, the peace of mind knowing that the chosen contractor will have an extensive amount of experience on projects similar to this.

The contract that has been adopted for this development is the RIAI form of contract. A brief outline of this form of contract was provided above.

The method of construction used is a pad foundation, steel frame with a concrete block inner and outer leaf and also pre-cast upper floors and roof.

Finally, planning procedures have been identified, as well as the requirements for the fire cert and the commencement notice.

 

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