The Manufacturing Producer In Steel Frame Factory Construction Essay

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For this chapter, definition and description of Industrialised Building System will be given. Beside that this chapter also included history of IBS in Malaysia, installation process, safety requirement during the installation work and more.

2.1.1 Industrialised Building System (IBS)

Industrialised Building System is a technology of construction which there are manufactured in controlled environment, either at off site or site. And then only transported, positioned and assembled into the construction works (CIDB 2012). There are five main IBS groups identified in Malaysia, there are:

IBS is the method of construction developed due to human investment in innovation and on rethinking the best way of construction work deliveries based on the level of industrialisation (Abdullah and Egbu 2009).

IBS is defined as an organisational process continuity of production, implying a steady flow of standardisation, demand, integration of the different stages of the whole production process, a high degree of organisation of work, and mechanisation to replace human labour wherever possible (Hassim et. al 2009).

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IBS is defined as a mass production of building components, either in factory or at site, according to the specification with a standard shape and dimensions and then transporting them to the construction site to be re-arranged to a certain standard to form a building (Chung 2007).

IBS is defined as a concept of mass production of quality building by using new building systems and factory produced building component (Badir et.al 2002)

IBS also defined as a new construction method that can increase the quality and productivity of work through the use of better equipment, materials, plant and machinery and extensive project planning (Haron et.al 2005).

Zulkefle (2007) defined IBS as a set of interrelated elements that act together to enable the designated performance of a building.

Hence, from the information I get they say that Industrialised Building System (IBS) is a process of the steel frame component are manufactured in the factory with standard requirement and then transported to the job site for installation to be assemble together to form a building.

Other than that, it is interesting to note that the term Industrialised Building System" (IBS) is often misunderstand as systems limited only for construction of building. But IBS actually covers all types of structures as the word building actually related to constuction (Shaari and Elias 2003).

2.1.2 History of IBS in Malaysia

IBS in Malaysia begun in the early 1960's. When the Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries and evaluate their housing development program (Thanoon et.al,2003).

After their successful visit in 1964, the first project using IBS had started by the government. The aims were to built quality and affordable house and speed up the delivery time. About 22.7 acres of land along the Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur was dedicated to the project comprising 7 blocks of 17 stories flat, 3000 units of low-cost flat and 40 shops lot. This project was awarded to JV Gammon & Larsen and Neilsen using large panel precast concrete wall and plank slabs. The project was completed within 27 month including the time taken in the construction of RM2.5 million casting yard at Jalan Damansara (CIDB, 2006; CIDB, 2003 and Thanoon et al, 2003).

In 1965, the second housing project initiated by the government comprise of 6 blocks of 17 stories flats and 3 block of 18 stories flats at Jalan Fifle Range, Penang. The project was awarded to Hochtief and Chee Seng using French Estoit System (CIDB,2006; CIDB, 203 and Din, 1984)

Another earliest IBS project was at Taman Tun Sardon, Penang (1,000 units of five storey walk up falt). IBS precast component and system in the project was designed by British Research Establishment for low cost housing (precast system). A similar system was constructed at Edmonton, North London. About 20,000 precast dwellings were constructed throughout UK from 1964 to 1974 (CIDB, 2006). Nonetheless, the building design was very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the local needs to have wet toilet and bathroom (Rahman and Omar, 2006).

Many construction in the following years utilised precast wall panel system. One can observed that IBS was engage at first place in the construction of low cost high rise residential building to overcome the increasing demand for housing needs (CIDB, 2006). However, the industrialisation of construction at the earlier stage was never sustained. Failure of early closed fabricated system made the industry players afraid of changing construction method. Some of the foreign systems that were introduced during late 60s and 70s were also found not to be suitable with Malaysia social practices and climate (CIDB, 2005).

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Newer and better technologies were constantly being introduced in the market. Wet joint systems were identified to be more suitable to be used in our tropical climate. It also was better to utilised the bathroom types which relatively wetter than those in Europe (CIDB, 2005). In 1978. the Penang State Government launched another 1200 units of housing using prefabrication technology. Two year later, the Ministry of Defence Adopted large prefabricated panel construction system for constructing 2800 units of living quarter at Lumut Naval Base 9 Trikha and Ali, 2004). During the period of early 80s up to 90s the use of structural steel components turn particularly in high rise building in Kuala Lumpur. The usage of steel structure gained much attention with the construction of 36 storey Dayabumi complex that was completed in 1984 by Takenaka Corporation of Japan (CIDB, 2003 and CIDB, 2006).

In the 90s, demand for the new township has seen the increase in the use of precast concrete system in high rise residential buildings. Between 1981 to 1993, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor (PKNS) as state government development agency acquired precast concrete technology from Praton Haus International. It was based on Germany to build low cost house and high cost bungalow for the new townships in Selangor (CIDB, 2003 and Hassim et al.2009). It was recorded around 52,000 housing units was constructed using Praton Haus system (Trikha and Ali, 2004).

In the booing period of Malaysian construction 1994 to 1997, hybrid IBS application used in many national iconic landmarks such as Kuala Lumpur Convention Center, Bukit Jalil Sport Complex constructed using steel beam and roof trusses and precast concrete. Other than that, Lightweight Railway Train (LRT) and KL Sentral was constructed by using steel roof structure and precast hallow core. While KL Towe was built by using steel beams and column for tower head. Kula Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) was contructed by steel roof structure and Petronas Twin Towers was 9 steel beams and steel decking for the floor system. (CIDB, 2006)

The local IBS manufacturers were mushrooming, althrough yet to operate in full capacity. The current IBS systems used in Malaysia housing projects are steel frame, precast frame, formwork frame and large panel system. These system is largely used for private residential project in Shah Alam, Wangsa maju, and Pandan (Sarja, 1998), Dua Residency in Kuala Lumpur, Taman Mount Austin and Tongkang Pecah in Johor (CIDB,2006).

The new generation of building that utilised IBS is better as compared to conventional method in term of speed, cost, quality and architectural appearance. Steel frame, precast panel and other IBS systems were used hybrid construction technique to construct government building (CIDB, 2006).

2.2 Classification of IBS

This section will be explain the classification of IBS published in Malaysia. IBS was classified as a part of modern of construction (MMC).

MMC is term adopted as a collective description for both offsite based construction technologies and innovative onsite technologies. The latter includes techniques such as tunnel form construction and thin joint block work (Goodier &Gibb, 2006). MMC also include modern methods of construction of floor or roof cassettes, precast concrete foundation assemblies, preformed wiring looms, and mechanical engineering composites. They also can include innovative techniques such as thin joint block work or tunnel form (NAO, 2005 and Gibb and Pendlebury, 2006). As the reference, IBS is in which component are manufactured, positioned and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works both on site or off site (CIDB, 2003 and Chung, 2006). While on on site IBS can be in the form of in-situ precast system using steel formwork and off site techniques is the description of the spectrum of which are manufactured assembled remote from building site prior to installation in their position. Whereas all off site may be regarded as falling within a generic IBS and MMC heading, not all IBS and MMC may regarded as off site (Gibb and Pendleton, 2006).

Pre-fabrication is a manufacturing process generally taking place at a specialised facility, in which various material are joined to form a components part of final installation (Tatum et al, 1986). While the components maybe assemble on and off site.

Pre-assembly carried on a definition as a process by which various material, pre-fabricated components and or equipment are joined together at a remote location for subsequent installation as a sub unit. it generally focused on system. Therefore, a generic classification of IBS-MMC term is promoted based on the following assumption compiled by the previous researcher.

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2.3 Activity in Steel Framing Construction

2.3.1 Manufacturing Producer in Steel Frame Factory

Erecting structural steelwork for building construction takes place in a dynamic, changing environment

where there are many hazards and risks. Proper and timely planning and coordination are the most effective ways to manage those hazards and risks.

Projects involving structural steel construction have four main stages where risks to health and safety need to be considered:

• design

• fabrication

• transport

• erection.

The functional relationship between each party is outlined in Diagram 1, on the previous page. Each party is responsible for the matters that are under its management and control. Managing risks arising from these matters is more effective when parties regularly consult one another and review how the next part of the process will proceed. For example, close co-operation between all parties is essential to ensure that the procedure for the erection of steel work is safe. They should:

• ensure the procedure is acceptable to all parties and signed off by the erection engineer

• review the procedure before activities begin.

Health and safety representatives

Planning and coordination must involve consultation with those engaged in the work and the health and safety representatives (if any). A health and safety representative is elected by the workers to represent their health and safety issues at work. Health and safety representatives must be consulted alongside employees and contractors on issues relating to health and safety, including when processes are reviewed.

Key planning tools

There are six key documents which help ensure safe work in structural steel erection. These are:

construction drawings - architectural and structural

shop drawings - drawn up by the shop detailer, who is engaged by the fabricator, in consultation with the erection engineer, and detail what steel members are to be manufactured. Shop drawings are reviewed by the structural design engineer before fabrication

marking plans - developed by the fabricator and detail where steel members will be positioned in the erection process

sequential erection procedure - usually developed by the erector and approved by the erection engineer. The sequential erection procedure sets out the steps for the work in the correct order of erection

safe work method statement (SWMS) - developed by the erector in consultation with the crew and the builder, and identifies the hazards and risk controls for each step of the erection sequence

erection design - developed by the erection engineer based on the sequential erection procedures prepared by the erector.

Design stage

There are two separate phases of design in structural steel erection

i) Structural design

The first phase involves the structural design of the building, for in-service condition, which is carried out by the structural design engineer. The structural steel design should be produced according to the standard. Guidelines for the erection of building steelwork, which detail how risks can be eliminated or reduced in the design stage.

ii) Erection

The second phase, the design for erection, is for the handling, transportation and erection of the individual members and structure. It may be produced independently of the structural design of the building. Ideally, planning for the safe erection of structural steel work should be considered at the design stage. Structural design engineers should consider the safe working conditions for those involved in the erection stage, and eliminate as many of the hazards as possible at this stage.

Roles during design stage

The structural design engineer is responsible for the structural design of the building.

Managing risk at the design stage

Failure to plan and design for safety, from the outset, can result in unsafe practices onsite and in structural instability during erection. Accidents in the erection of structural steelwork are not restricted to falls. They can also occur because of structural instability during erection, and while handling, lifting and transporting material.

The stability of the building should be checked by the erection engineer at agreed times with the builder during erection. Special care should be taken in design and during construction to guard against progressive collapse. Progressive collapse means a continuous sequence of failures initiated by the local failure of one part of the structure.

Progressive collapse may be prevented by providing:

adequate structural strength and continuity of the structure and its parts,

temporary bracing, shoring or ties, and

alternative load paths that cause applied forces to be safely transmitted through the structure

The failure of a single member should not lead to the complete collapse of the structure. This is particularly important where structural stability is provided by steel roof and wall bracing systems. In

addition, consideration should be given to the effects of abnormal loads on the building, such as gas

explosions or vehicle impacts.

As part of the structural design process the structural design engineer must provide sufficient details to allow the shop detailer to prepare shop drawings and the erection engineer to prepare the erection design

The shop drawings and erection design should be submitted to the structural design engineer for review to ensure that they comply with the requirements of the structural design

Before the shop drawings are produced, the parties involved in the design, fabrication, transport and erection process should liaise to plan the complete construction and erection sequence.

The table show what hazards may arise if the design does not adequately provide for safety in

the erection of the structure. Methods for managing and controlling the risk of hazards are also provided.

Common hazards

the "build ability" of the design

Collapse of structure due to member failure from temporary loading during erection

Members not designed for transportation

Risk Control

The structural design engineer is required to provide design drawings which include:

purlin and frame detail

levelling pad detail

date and issue number of drawing

plans and elevations clearly indicating the structural framing and layout

the grade of steel member

reinforcement required for in-service loads and temporary conditions

structural design criteria affecting construction

make provision for positive connection between members of the structure that have been specified to resist imposed lateral and vertical force

Consideration should be given to details such as:

site limitations

delivery sequence

local street access

transport requirement

overhead obstructions.

Fabrication stage