This task will thoroughly goes on the way how to organize maintenance works in a building or property. The initial issues will goes on the slightly explained about the maintenance works referring to some books relating to this field. The important and requirement before organizing maintenance works generally be discussed in the initial stages. This task focused on the role of the property managers in organizing maintenance works as they are the main and responsible persons regarding to this field. The contents consists about five roles of the property manager in conducting maintenance works in a building. Actually, there are still many roles not to be discussed in this task but it is thought that the discussed points are the main or most important items need to be practice by the property manager nowadays. It is conclude that the property managers need to played their role in other to achieve the goals and the objective of the organisation, gain profit to clients, satisfy the tenants and provide convenience to the occupants.
The maintenance work in a property is falls into the Maintenance Management sector. The significance of the maintenance sector is to make sure the building able to run in a good condition in providing services to the occupants which is tenants and the users. In reality much building work is not concerned with the erection of new buildings but rather with maintenance or renovation (White, 1979).
Mostly, the maintenance work will be planning to achieve the client's need which is the owner of the building. As the property manager receives a task by their client, he/she will create the objective in order to achieve the goals. Guided by that objective, further planning will be performed on maintenances work in the property. The manpower has to follow this guide including the entire manager's level which is top, middle and first level manager together with the workers.
Therefore, it is important to highly concern on this sector in the industry to reduce the maintenance work problems and to regulate the extent of a repair. Maintenance management may be viewed either: (White, 1979)
from the viewpoint of the property owner who needs to employ a manager to maintain his estates in good working order, or
From the viewpoint of the contractor who is carrying out the work, who may be part of the property owner's organization or an independent firm.
In organizing the maintenance works, it is important to consider the theory and practical experience in managing any property. The maintenance work may also include an element of improvement as well as the definition given by the Department of Environment Committee on Building Maintenance in its report 1972. "Work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility, ie, every part of a building, its services and surrounds, to a currently accepted standard, and to sustain the utility and value of the facility"
Refer to the Roger A Burgess and Gordon White, 1979 maintenance work generally falls into two categories in that it may form part of an organised and planned programme of renovation, improvement and servicing, or it may be occasioned by the sudden failure in performance of some part of a building or its equipment. They explained that in the first instance the need is foreseen and the work will normally be scheduled well in advance as a part of an overall scheme of maintenance management, based upon past records of building performance and the extent of a particular job will normally be quite well define. In the second case the occurrence is unforeseeable until after preliminary investigation or emergency work was taken place.
They clearly stated that work based upon a programme of improvement will fall into the first category though an unexpected demand for repair work due to breakdown or damage may well create the opportunity for bringing forward some part of the longer-term programme.
Therefore, from the explanation, it found that the maintenance work will mostly goes through by the two main problems which is expected and unexpected failure in performance of a building or its facilities. This situation can be fixed out by create the preventive and corrective maintenance besides other type of maintenance that feel needed in the maintenance process. These include in organizing maintenance work process as practice by the project manager nowadays.
The person who responsible to organized the maintenance work is the property manager. Many of the larger organizations will have a maintenance manager, though their job title may be property manager or estate manager, building officer, facilities manager or similar (Wood, 2003). Property manager will come out with their plan in manage the building and will seek to the consent of the client/owner. The first or initial step that should be done by the project manager is to choose either to use in-house or outsource maintenance. This is because, not all maintenance can be performed by in-house maintenance teams. For some assets, maintenance must be outsourced either because of a lack of skilled in-house staff or because, a lack of resources to support an employee or because the asset requires specialized equipment for proper care (Smith, 2012).
The alternative to employing direct labour is to engage external contractors to undertake the work and these may be used for general maintenance work or in a specialist capacity, and should be considered separately as the contractual conditions may vary in each case (White, 1979).
There are many reasons why large organizations will choose to engage external consultants, including: (Griffith, 1997)
The lack of specialist or professional expertise in-house
Consultants may have particular knowledge of their market and an awareness of 'the state of the art' in their field that the client organization might lack.
They provide a means of easing peaks in the workload.
The overall workload may be reduced.
Cost saving may be gained over the retention of in-house staff.
So, the property manager should properly decide in conducting the type of maintenance plan in a building as well as it is subjective decision as refer to Jeremy Headley & Alan Griffith, 1997; for many organizations the choice between direct labour and contract labour, for certain categories of work, is not clear cut. When the decision has been made to either maintain or establish an element of directly employed labour, the size of the establishment must be calculated with care. Such organizations must ensure that the size of the direct labour force does not exceed that which can comfortably deal with the magnitude of the identified work area existing in periods of reduced construction demand that is during troughs in the on-going workload cycle.
Besides that, property manager has to make a decision for the planning of the work. Before organizing any maintenance work, it is necessary for the property manager to classify the type of work to be implemented in the organization. There are some categories of maintenance work specified in BS 3811; 1984:
Jeremy Headley & Alan Griffith, 1997 was reducing the list of types of maintenance work into two generics type which is strategic and tactical. They explain that the strategic repairs would include both planned and reactive maintenance operations, for which forecasts of future needs can be made and priorities identified. Strategic repair and maintenance work encompasses major structural repair work, such as re-roofing. Tactical maintenance and repair work, on the other hand, is restricted to the day-to-day repair work required immediately, the classic example being the broken window.
Preventive maintenance defined as the work carried out in anticipation of failure usually on a planned cycle related to the long term preservation of the building and unlikely to have a high degree of urgency. Cases included redecoration programmes, replacement of roofs, floors and engineering installations (White, 1979). Preventive maintenance also is maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or to other prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the likelihood of an item not meeting an acceptable condition (BS 3811; 1984).
Planning approaches generally divide into two complementary and interacting systems: (White, 1979).
A scheduled or predetermined system where the inspection procedure and remedial work are carried out at predetermined times as closely related as possible to predictable rates of deterioration.
An emergency system where demand for work is essentially unpredictable and action results from the receipt of a complaint or a demand for service. The method of planning maintenance is to define clearly what tasks are to be carried out and then to programme the work in a logical pattern. If this is done properly, failures will be detected at an early stage, enabling simple corrective action to be taken and the level of productivity of the work force will be increase by the logical concentration of task to avoid unnecessary travelling, re-erection of scaffolding, waiting for access, other trades or spare parts. Unplanned maintenance may seem to give its attention essentially to those items most in need of it, but conceals the wasteful elements of the frequent reallocation and movement of resources from place to place to deal with task of a work content which could have been greatly reduced by forethought and a plant maintenance policy.
So, property manager should accompanied which approaches need to execute in the maintenance work plan in order to longer the lifespan of the building while reducing the cost. Major and minor work need to be handle by classify it into different maintenance approach. For example, the major maintenance work such as painting, replacement of roofs, clean the glass window for the high rise building need to be put under scheduled or planned maintenance with a long-term basis. While the minor work such as minor water leaks, glass replacement and easing of doors normally is execute under preventive and corrective maintenance approach due to the small jobs and not including higher cost.
In addition, the property manager must ensure that the level of standards in line to the objectives of the organization, relating regulations and other requirements. The main tasks need to be done by the property manager are identify degrees of faulty for example at which user activities possible to face seriously affected and the part of building which probable to loses visual acceptability. The level of standard need to be achieved not only depending on the cost of the work for the client, but also the way in which the property manager will approach their work and allocate his resources.
Roger A Burgess and Gordon White, 1979 said that "Acceptable standards" must be capable of simple definition and three general categories can be identified as follows:
Functional performance, quality and reliability related to user needs.
Safety aspects of structure, electricity, fire, etc.
Preservation of the asset and its amenities in terms of the interests of the owner.
More than that, inspections routines also need to be done by the property manager in order to avoid the defects occurs from become worst. The frequency and nature of inspections must depend upon the characteristics and rates of deteriorations of building elements so that defects may be identified before they have reached the stage where they are liable to fail (White, 1979). Such inspections must be based on the schedule prepared before the work is implementing. The schedule will guide the manpower on the specific time to do the inspections work, action to be taken and much more followed by recording the results. This routine will simplify the major or minor maintenances work on the property due to the initial cause of the problems was identifying during the inspections work.
Paper work for maintenance is crucial for establishing a good maintenance organization and is often neglected. The records of maintenance works carried out time to time have to be kept equipment wise. History cards or logbooks of all the plants and equipment must be compiled meticulously giving details of materials used, components replace and time spent by the workforce. Creation and maintaining this database is essential for proper planning and control, which alone will lead to effective and efficient maintenance management (Murthy, 2006). Therefore, after all the maintenance works have been done, it is necessary to record the work done carried out through the maintenance work process. This will ease to the property manager and also to the relating manpower for the future maintenance process as it can be as the reference to the future maintenance works. In case, reappointed new property manager in a building, the record of the past maintenance works is very important to them for creating a new organizations for maintenance works.
As a conclusion, maintenance work need to be done in a building in order to avoid the building defects and can function as well as early built. The role of maintenance manager is becoming increasingly demanding and requires a balance of technology expertise and practical expertise, together with training in analysis and an understanding of its role in the overall performance of an organisation (White, 1979). The property manager need to played his role to make sure the building running in good condition or otherwise. The lifespan of the building will depend on the idea proposed by the property manager in organising the maintenance work. Excellent property manager will produced excellent services and will gain profit to the owner while achieving the satisfaction aim.
As discuss in the content, the property manager as a middle man in every type of maintenance work to be execute in the building. In addition, the organisation also need to create by the property manager and any decision regarding to maintenance, gain or loss of income, to provide the best services to the client and occupants, to attract the tenants, to promote all the services provided and many more need to wisely handle by property manager. Their role will influence the situation and market price of the building. Furthermore, with the new technology and modern equipment which always be exposed nowadays, the property manager must have the future thinking or up-to-date thinking to prevent from lagged far behind between the other successful property managers on doing maintenances work in a building.
So, property manager is the responsible person who needs to ensure that the longer lifespan of a building with the highly available in providing services to the client, tenant and also the occupants. Any problems that occurred need to be organized without any major problems as intended by the client. Although the property manager was authorized as to manage the building, but they still be bound with the regulations stated by relating body such as OSHEA in conducting the maintenance work. Therefore, they have to follow the guided provided and directly give an excellent services as well as they are enforce to do so.