What the main difference between safety and health management and other part of management in business group is that it generally does not seem to be section of organization. People have a different of causes and incentives to begin and continue their job without appropriate consideration for safety and health, although a good management and successful organization usually have a better safety and health performance and accident evidence. So, the way safety and health is managed can be used as a standard of a professional business.
Heinrich who is well-known as father of safety management evaluated accident as partial failure of the safety management. As said by the DOMINO THEORY of accident causation model, Management lack of control is the major part that put in to the domino result in the event of an accident. Consequently preventing accident by good management of Safety and Health will also prevent breakdown of the management in their responsibilities.
LACK OF CONTROL
ACCIDENT CAUSATION MODEL
The Management being the hazard creator should be in charge to control or prevent the hazard or accident at work place by starting good Safety and Health Program. To make sure an organized and excellence in safety and health programs, a methodical technique to manage them need to be approved by the management. Managing Safety and Health Programs in a methodical approach means a good system must be came after. Any model of safety and health management system could be used to manage OSH programs in the workplace, supplied this system is confirmed and active in making sure the rescue of a quality, efficient and successful safety and health programs.
OSH Management Models:
The OSH management System model below is one of the simple cases of Safety and Health management model assumed by successful group. This group highlight on the continual improvement of safety and health program in the workplace to make sure that the safety and health of the workers will be the right of way in their job action.
The main part that will shift this Safety and Health Management System to be useful and effectual is the Promise from the Top Management. In general duty of this systems lies on the shoulder of management team (both top and middle Management team). They have to guarantee that all other components of the systems set up in a methodical way with a correct planning and completion.
They have to set the policy and objectives, budget allocations, employ resources, find the correct team and check the programs. The completion of any program linked to safety and health should be rooted in this management system consequently it can be check and enhanced suitably to guarantee the safety and health of the workers is preserved. Monitor and check is the tool that can be used by the management team to guarantee the efficiency and the quality of the program started.
The expert groups in Safety and Health such as, Industrial Hygienist, Safety and Health Officer, Occupational Health Doctor and Nurses, Toxicologist, etc. should be occupied by the management to help them in setting up Safety and Health programs. Then the implemented programs should be improved and assessed.
The Health and Safety managerial first available "Successful health and safety Management", HS(G)65, in 1991 and the modified edition was published in 1997. HS(G)65 takes the "plan-do-check-act" management model and convert it into the five key elements of a successful health and safety management system. The five key elements of successful OSH managements are:
Planning and Implementing
These elements are inter-linked and are subject to auditing as you see in the HS(G)65 occupational health and safety management system model in Figure 1 below:
CONTROL LINK FEEDBACK LOOP
INFORMATION LINK TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
In this model the policy should begin an obvious way for the organization to follow. It should show the organization's purpose to accomplish and keep high standards of health and safety and the commitment to continuous improvement. The policy should set up the health and safety management system and the duties for accomplishing its aims. Organizing for health and safety needs both management and employees to be actively committed and associated to the policy. This sharing can be achieved by guaranteed management control, the efficient co-operation of employees and their safety representatives, the organization of a successful safety communication system, accomplishing co-ordination of activities and ensuring the capability of all employees.
Planning and implementing required a systemic method to implementing the policy and assist to management system for the reducing of danger or risk. Risk evaluation ways should be used to set up priorities and ideas for removing hazards and reducing risks. If possible, risks should be removed from the selection and design of equipment, facilities and processes. If risks couldn`t removed, they should be decreased by using physical controls, also performance standards should be employed for the measuring of performance. Measuring performance show how efficiently the health and safety management system is implementation. This can be done both from an active and a reactive view. Active monitoring is planned to measure the accomplishment of standards and objectives. Reactive checking includes the analysis and collection of breakdowns of the health and safety management systems. Organizations required learning from accidents, ill-health, near misses property and injure. Dates from active and reactive checking can be help to recognize reasons of breakdown and to filter the management system to avoid repetition and make better performance. The methodical review of performance should be based on the information from monitoring and the outcomes of audits of the management system. Also the review should think about the health and safety policy and governmental needs.
BS OHSAS 18001:
This Safety and Health Management System Model is based on the Quality Management model come up to make sure that the Safety and Health program in the workplace could be better more through its repeated improvement system.
British Standards Institution (BSI), in relationship with other national standards groups, documentation bodies and professional consultancies, developed the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series document OHSAS 18001:1999 "Occupational health and safety management systems- Specification". This certificated has been used widely in over 70 countries global. This document was modified in 2007 for worldwide use (OHSAS 18001:2007) and has been adopted in the UK as British Standard BS OHSAS 18001:2007 "Occupational health and safety management systems - Requirements". Under this standard official certification are available for organizations. The management model that used in BS OHSAS 18001 is based on the BS EN ISO 14001 environmental model as shown in Figure 3 below:
Fig 2. BS OHSAS 18001 model
Measurement & Evaluation
OHS & POLICY
OSH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MODEL
In this model the occupational health and safety (OH&S) policy must express the complete a commitment and objectives to the prevention of ill -health, injury and continual improvement in OH&S management and performance. The policy must be described and approved by top management.
Planning should contain:
Risk assessment and risk controls
Legal and other necessities
Objectives and the OH&S management program.
Implementation and operation includes:
Accountability and authority
Training and awareness
Participation and consultation
Control of documents
Monitoring and corrective action link to: performance measurement and monitoring; estimate of compliance; incident study, improving action and protective action, disagreement, control of records and internal audit.
Management review needs the organization's top management to review the OH&S management system at permanent time to ensure its continuing correctness, sufficiency and success.
While there are official international standards for managing quality environment (ISO 14000) and (ISO 9000), there isn't any known International Organization Standardization (ISO) confirmable standard for OSH management. ISO has been cautious of becoming included in occupational health and safety. In 1996 ISO Workshop was concluded that the time was not proper for an occupational health and safety management standard. Later in 2000 ISO declined an approach from the International Labor Organization (ILO) about an international standard. Therefore, after it reviewed over twenty national occupational health and safety management systems the ILO improved its own non-certifiable guidance, "Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems - ILO-OSH 2001". A flow diagram based on the ILO method illustrate in Figure 3 below:
Figure 3, Flow diagram based on the ILO approach
PLANNING & IMPLEMENTATION
ACTION FOR IMPROVEMENT
The Policy part includes:
The occupational safety and health policy
Responsibility and liability, training and ability, communication and records.
Planning and implementation includes:
Development and implementation,
Safety and health objectives and hazard prevention (prevention and control measures, management of change, emergency prevention, preparedness and response, procurement and contracting).
Performance monitoring and measurement,
Investigation of work-related injuries, ill health,
Diseases and incidents, and their impact on safety and health performance, audit and management review.
Action for improvement includes:
Preventive and corrective action and continual improvement.
While the ILO did not plane to make the standard certifiable, the Chinese Government has accepted the ILO system and has used it to expand an endorsement framework.
International certification bodies and national standards bodies in UK, Ireland, South Africa, Spain and Malaysia are using OHSAS 18001 for certification uses. It is evaluated that currently some 32,000 organizations in 82 countries use OHSAS 18001.
Elements of successful safety management:
Changing the work organizations does not only increase risks, on the other hand, it provides chances to develop the safety level to accomplish successful safety management. Elements of successful safety management are:
Under force of quickening change, regulations have developed from detailed, prescriptive
necessities and standards to more common needs and duties. Deregulation replaces
the duties on the company management to improve their own performance standard
and to get better their management systems (Jensen, 2001).
There are ideas that this modify gives fulfilling results for big companies, who have the
means to improved suitable programs, training, management tools, etc. The technical
rules and regulations though (that the system had to take care of before) is felt as a significant
responsibility. (Opinion of the Economic and Social Committee, 2000; Hovden, 1998).
2. Management Commitment:
Successful accident prevention contains:
Strong management commitment
Good employee involvement
A model which management accepted commonly to deal with safety and health problems is 'the circle of continuous improvement. The management review give opportunity for top managers to look forward to changes in o structure, development of new products, the introduction of new legislation or the establishment of new technology.
WHICH SYSTEM TO USE?
The option of which system to accept depends only on the need of each organization. However, the organization requires ensuring that their selected system contains provision for continual improvement, includes auditing and shareholder and is properly documented so as to show efficiency.
At present discussions are being organized at International, National and European levels on the probable improvement of a single international standard (ISO) for OHS management systems.
Elements in OSH Basics, Organizations and Necessities:
There is a framework for good management. The five key elements of this framework are:
OSH policy, plans and procedures
Hazard identification, risk assessment and control
The proper organization shows the following:
The organization senior managers know about their duties in respect of the OSH policy.
A consultative approach has been selected when preparing the OSH policy.
OSH plans and procedures supported the organization's OSH policy with the purpose of accomplishing the objectives of the OSH policy.
Give all personnel an explanation of their OSH responsibilities.
OSH POLICY, ORGANISATION AND ARRANGEMENTS
WHAT IS A POLICY?
The OSH policy is the first logical step in OSH management system , is the best starting point for workplace starting their safety and healthy duties. In fact policy should be indicated following a complete analysis of an organization`s present situation with regard to occupational safety and health. Also OSH policy is a report of management's commitment and intent in regard to OHS. So, the OSH develops to date should be considered to establish how acceptable the organization is performing.
The best produced with the assistance of the safety and health committee is a policy. It assists management to explain the main issues, plan suitably, decide and assign resources and duties and integrate OSH into the normal routine of the workplace.
The OSH Act 1994 put a responsibility on every employer to provide a written statement of his general policy with value to the safety and health at work of his personnel and the organization and arrangements for the time being in force for implementing that policy, and to bring the statement to the notice of all of his personnel.
The main phrases are `written statement', `general policy', `organization', `arrangements', and `bring to the notice of all personnel. These indicate the key format of a safety and health policy statement.
OSH policy must be:
Clearly states the commitment of senior management towards OSH
Formulated by the top management
Realistic, credible, achievable and measurable.
Included all of business activities
Selection of People, Equipment and Material
Work procedure and method of work
Design and delivery of goods and services
OSH Policy Components:
1.General Statement of Intent (Specifying Objectives)
This part outlines the company's overall philosophy in relation to the OSH management
2. Organization (People and Their Duties)
Shows that who is responsible to whom and for what
Functions of Safety committees and representative
Individual job descriptions and relationships with OSH
3. Arrangements (Systems and Procedures)
Sensible arrangement to implement OSH:
training, safety monitoring, accident reporting/investigation, safe system of work, permit to work systems, noise/environmental control, fire safety, liaison with contractors, machine guarding, emergency procedures, and medical considerations.
Allocation and Assigning of Line Management duties:
This part of the policy document should describe the organization for safety and health duties. This will be mostly about "who is to do what".
Basically it should:
Spell out the list of safety and health duties of all levels of management i.e. from top management down to supervisors and safety and health personnel.
Explain worker`s role in the implementation of the policy. Each personnel have a duty not to hazard themselves or others by their actions or errors, and to co-operate in all measures prepared for his safety and health.
Spell out the structure and purpose of safety and health committees and other safety and health organizations.
Where there are job descriptions, safety and health objectives should be included in them. Evaluation of individual`s safety and health performance against set objectives should also be contained in annual personal assessments and job progress. Apply the OSH Act responsibilities as the foundation of the allocation of responsibilities.
The managing director/senior executive must accept overall responsibility for all matters, including those regarding health, safety and welfare. The senior person responsible for OSH policy should also be identified.
Who is responsible for OSH?
The main duty for OSH lies with the person who is finally responsible for the employees, for instance a CEO. Although all the personnel have responsibility in the OSH system, top managers have more authority in this section, in other word; the level of authority delegated must equal the amount of duty given for having efficient safety system.
Top Management Responsibility:
Top management duties include as follow:
Making sure that the OSH policy is implemented in their own workplace.
Monitor workplace to keep safe conditions.
Making sure that worker, contractors and visitors know about safety procedures.
Deciding which safety plans is to receive most important consideration.
Checking the outcome of organization`s OSH plans.
Making sure about obedience with law and standards.
Supporting the formulation of suitable regulations, procedures and ways for workplace.
Ongoing and efficient distribution of OSH data and increase health and safety knowledge in the workplace.
Providing, adequate training, information, instruction and supervision to ensure that work is conducted safety.
Taking immediate and appropriate steps to investigate and rectify any risks to safety and health arising, from the work activity.
Bringing to the quick attention of senior management any safety and health issue that requires their attention.
Making sure that all `near-misses' and accidents are correctly recorded and reported and an investigation is carried out for determining fundamental reasons.
Duties of Line manager and Supervisor:
Line manager and supervisor duties include the following:
Overall supervision of employees to make sure about the health and safety of employees, the public and the customer.
Identify hazard and evaluation and control of risks.
performance of specific safety program
On-the-job preparation and guidance
Try to motivate workers comply with safe work act , involving detailed instruction when assigning orders
Accident or incident investigation, proper reporting consistent with lawful needs
Make sure about correct use of, suitable workers protective clothing and equipment
Suggestion of reports and recommendation for hazard control, workstation procedures to more senior management, when these subjects are outside their scope of power
Where they have this authority, decision making about job design, workplace layout employment.
Responsibilities of human resources department:
The responsibility of human resources department is one of the advisory, services, strategic function, it`s not a line management job. Normally the health and safety function is control by this department, where it is frequently one of the "extra duties" added to that job.
Human resources workers take part in a workstation health and safety team. It is also suitable for this department to know about the function of OSH staff and of training accessible in this region. The department maybe needs to organize training for staff.
Responsibilities of a health and safety manager/officer:
Advice the workers to be taken in the interests of the safety and health of the persons employed in the workplace;
Study any accident, incident, near-miss accident, hazard incidence, which has happened in the work place;
Check the place of work to decide whether any machinery, equipment, appliances, process cause injury to any person working in the workplace;
Help the OSH committee in any inspection of the workplace for the aim of monitoring the efficiency and efficacy of any events taken in compliance with the Act or any policy made under the Act;
Gather, analyze and keep statistics on any accident, hazard occurrence, occupational disease which have happened at the of work place;
Reviews, checks and updates health and safety guidebook, rules, events.
Health and Safety Assistance
Knowledgeable persons have been selected to help safety and health group in meeting them safety and health responsibility. These people have enough knowledge and information to make sure that, statutory requirements are met and that the safety policy is being stick to.
Names, job titles and functions of these people are listed below:
The company will keep appropriate numbers of first aid personnel to manage minor accidents and emergencies at the workstation. These personnel will have sufficient preparation and experience in accordance with legal needs.
Emergency procedures are designed to give warning about to happen danger and to let personnel to go to a safe place. The manager of each department is responsible for making sure that all workers and visitors within the area are informed of, and are fully familiar with, emergency procedures.
Fire marshals will be selected for each area to help with an evacuation. They will be given sufficient training and preparation to ensure efficacy.
Health surveillance of individuals is supplied where essential under legal requirements or where this would be of advantage to keeping safety and health.
Information and Communication:
Appropriate and significant information relating to safety and health at the workplace is distributed to staff and non-employees.
Safety committee meetings will be held frequently, during which time matters arising in relation with safety and health will be discussed.
ARRANGEMENTS (SYSTEM, PLAN AND PROCEDURE)
A procedure is a logical chain of steps relating to a detailed workplace activity. It set up what action is needed, who is needed to perform and when the action is to take place.
In the safety and health policy the organization has confirmed its aim to prepare for safe and healthy workstation conditions. The strategies and procedures outline in better detail the way in which this is to be accomplished. The general (systems) procedures would include the following:
Risk evaluation and control
Accident, incident investigation
Emergency awareness and evacuation
Procedures for visitors and contractors
Safe and health systems of work
There are three most important steps for designing of any place of work OSH procedure:
Identification of the risks.
Evaluation of the hazards
A control strategy to remove or decrease the hazards.
Each manager is needed to make sure that this policy and the OHS Program is developed and efficiently implemented in their place of control, and to support head teachers / supervisors and hold them accountable for their detailed duties.
Management & supervisors
Each first-line supervisor is responsible for taking all useful measures to make sure that:
OHS Program compliance in their workplace and workers are control and qualified to meet their needs under this Program;
Staffs are asked in issues which influenced their health and safety and any concerns they may have are related to management.
All workers are needed to co-operate with the OHS Policy and plans to make sure their own and others health and safety in the place of work.
All Contractors employed to do work on the locations are needed, as element of their contract, to obey with the OSH policies, procedures and plans of the organisation and to view directions on health and safety from selected officers of the organisation. Failure to comply or view a direction will be considered a contravention of the contract and enough reason for stop of the contract.
Occupational Health and Safety Program
In order to apply the common provisions of this policy, a program of performance and procedures will be set up, repeatedly updated and efficiently carried out. The program will connect to all parts of OSH including:
OHS training and learning;
provision of data to workers, contractors and sub-contractors
improvement of safe and health work procedures:
emergency procedures and processes;
provision of OHS tools, services and facilities;
regular workplace inspections and assessments; and
Recording and Reporting of hazards, incidents, accidents, injuries and illnesses.
Quality standards in management:
There is rising knowing that a developed approach to quality is an necessary feature of a good organization, it`s not an optional extra. The importance is on `managing quality in' rather than `inspecting defects out'.
Success in quality management needs the growth of helpful organizational cultures. Organizations which are successful in the OSH management go to great lengths to increase a positive safety culture on the same foundation.