The Low Carbon Construction Construction Essay

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1.1 Introduction

One of the challenges the world is facing today is Carbon Emission and all the countries are working towards reducing the same as it is affecting the environment and also have an adverse impact on human beings. The data is collected in 2007 by CDIAC. The top 10 countries in the world emit around 67.2% of the world total carbon emissions. The United Kingdom has taken an initiative and introduced an Act in 2008 by setting a realistic target of 80% reduction in carbon dioxide by 2050. Housing contributes to 40% of UK's CO2 emissions. The government has set up a strong framework with planning and building control measures to reduce the CO2 emissions in housing sector and aim to be compliant to achieve zero carbon by 2016.

In Southwest region, 28000 new homes a year are planned by keeping this in mind to reduce the carbon emission. The advantage of low carbon housing developments safe guards the people from disruptions of energy supplies and fuel poverty. (Introduction to low carbon development, 2007)

1.2 Aim

The main aim of this project is to identify the different ways to improve the energy efficiency to achieve the long term goal of carbon reduction.

1.3 Objective

The objectives of this project are provided below:

Determine the measures to tackle the CO2 emission

Identify the key deliverables towards development and building energy efficient housing

Establishing the techniques to improve the energy efficiency of existing houses and refurbishing them to meet long term carbon reduction targets

Analyze the data and provide recommendations to reduce the carbon emissions

1.4 Methodology

The following methodologies will be used in order to achieve the objective of CO2 emission

Analytical Research: Analytical research has been developed to identify the carbon emission. In this research, the following methodologies are analyzed i.e. Implementation Barriers, Key Enablers, Key Drivers and Implementation. The methodologies will be closely monitored in order to have the quantitative and qualitative approach of the analytical research methods. This will also be supported by a questionnaire/survey designed to identify the key issues. The questionnaire/survey will be designed in a simpler way to encourage the people to complete it.

Data Collection methods:

By surfing: Internet is an efficient as well as a comfortable and attractive way for searching data with respect to the given topic. Data can be searched by using search engines like,,,, the given topic is typed and search is conducted than the relevant data is collected. Due to these advantages and to the constantly wide-spreading use of the Internet and its services, this data collection method is most popular and easiest way.

By reading hobby : If I have good reading hobby like if I read news papers, magazines it helps me to improve my vocabulary and it will be possible for me to collect data from them. As now and then so many articles will be coming on the low carbon construction by the leading designers, this method depends on the interest of the individuals and will help to improve general knowledge, writing skills, interpretation on the topic.

By media: Low carbon construction is a very important topic hence lot of interviews given by the construction experts over this topic can be collected and can be used for interpretation.

1.5 Data analysis and interpretation

Low Carbon Building's Programme scheme has been recently launched by the UK government, for trade and industry through a website of its department. To reduce pollution and to meet national and international targets keeping an intension to reduce effects of climatic change this is an initial measure by the government.

The data collected from Questionnaires/Surveys, Interviews and Data collected from Market Research companies will be inputted into a spreadsheet or any data analyzing application. This will enable us to get the comprehensive study in a simpler form. This is the best way of identifying various factors involved in a project as it gives us an understanding of identifying and analyzing the data. Proper data analysis can be done by keeping references from the previous records i.e. if I know what is the permissible range and what is the range which is not permissible so that if I get any reading or any value after calculation it will be possible for me to interpret or to comment on it.(Low carbon building initiatives, 2000)

2 Construction Defects

2.1 Introduction

With respect to construction defects in construction industry there has been much controversy. With different view points of various parties like homeowners' association, material supplier, developer, builder, contractor, subcontractor etc who are responsible for making decisions and asking questions much of the controversy has proliferated.

The answer to this question is not short and bit multi-faceted or in the other words can be answered or determined in several variables. But it should be understand that there is lot of difference between construction defects and other nuisance claim like rough surface after de shuttering, normal wear and tear, minute cracks on the surface of freshly laid concrete and the reason for this is just poor maintenance. Where as the construction defects are very complex and may ranged from improper placing of reinforcement in slabs, columns, beams and pedestal, improper dimensions of columns, beams, leakage in slabs, defective frame work etc. (Construction defect, 2001)

Construction defects are tangible and can be grouped in to four major categories like

Construction Deficiencies

Design Deficiencies

Material Deficiencies

Subsurface/Geotechnical Problems

Some construction defects are shown below: (The Miller Law Firm, 2010)

2.2 Aim

The main aim of this research is to know the causes for the construction defects and precautions to control them.

2.3 Objectives

The main objectives of this research is to know

What is a construction defect?

Reasons for a construction defect?

To know most common types of construction defects?

How to prove a construction defect in court?

Damages of what kind can be recovered and who will be paying for them?

For filing a law suit for repair is there any time restrictions

For construction defects who is responsible and while lawsuit is pending can I make repairs for which I will recover cost in the lawsuit?

2.4 Methodology:

In order to achieve the above-mentioned aim and objectives the following research methodologies will be used.

Experiences from the previous projects are taken in to consideration and literature review at Sheffield Hallam University learning center will be conducted. Literature review should be carried out in such a way that it should support me to carry out interviews with the professionals, this will help me to get updates on the topic and most useful information as well. In addition to the literature review and interviews site visits of various projects will be helpful to gain practical knowledge ( in site I can go through the specifications of QA/QC and the consequences if they are not followed can be understand which will be in the form of construction defects ).

Data Collection

Data can be collected by visiting construction sites, by talking to design engineers, site engineers, QA/QC officers. Reading books on the required topics will also add to data collection. The comfortable and attractive way to complete questionnaires by the respondents is the internet and the computers, due to these advantages internet now a days is widely used to collect data. In addition to the questionnaires on internet a session of questionnaires in written can also be used as tool to collect data, in written questionnaires the questions asked is to be answered by the respondent in the written form.

2.5 Data Analysis and Interpretation

All the data collected are read thoroughly and edited well incorporating in the EXCEL sheets where one can plot graphs like histograms, pie charts etc. The construction defects lies in which portion and at which period of time can be concluded by this study. Based on the study one can notify the key areas of concern and the precautions to be taken to avoid or at least reduce the effect. (Overview of data collection techniques, 2004)


3.1 Introduction

For each and every project, the factor which is given high importance is the risk involved as it defines whether a project is success or a failure. At the early stage of project i.e. at the Analysis and Planning Stage, it is very essential that all the risks (High and Low) are identified, compiled and evaluated in order for successful completion of the project. The success of the project depends on the identifying the risk, analyzing it and initiating corrective actions in order to be prepared for all sort of risks which can arise on emergency basis. (Williams, CJ. 2000. Project Management: Risk Management)

3.2 Aim

The aim of the project is to identify the risk involved and suggest the corrective action for successful completion

3.3 Objectives

The objectives of identifying risk within project management are as follows:

Develop risk management guidelines and strategies

Protecting the brand value of the organization

Ensuring the assets of an organization are safe guarded

Avoiding Financial loss, Fraud and Litigation

Integrity and resilience

Reduce risk and ensure the organization is well protected with the emergency situations

Taking care of ethical conduct within the organization

Respecting the valuable opinion internal and external users

3.4 Methodology:

In order to accomplish the aims and objectives identified the following research methodologies will be used.

The initial step involves understanding the risk in a project by researching through old reports from a wide range of information sources. Historic data is the potential sources of valuable information as it depicts the incidents occurrence, its frequency, reason for incidents, steps involved to rectify the risk in order to avoid the incidents in future. The one step ahead should be analysing the project and collecting all the information available from independent reviews like Audit Commissions.

The main source of risk identification is the business planning using SWOT analysis, which provides the list of the risks involved. Failure to comply with the analysis will lead in unsuccessful project. It is highly recommended that the management team sets up a group to identify all the risk using SWOT analysis and create a risk register for future reference. (Davies, B. 2004. Risk Management Implementation Guide)

Data Collection

Collecting the relevant data is of high importance as the data needs to be relevant, accurate, reliable and comprehensive. Data for past 5 years are to be collected in order to study the trends. Identifying the trends affecting the service area needs to be included in the analysis. There are varied sources for collecting the data. Ex: Internet, Interviews by project managers, surveys, magazines, articles from the news papers etc .

3.5 Data analyses and interpretation

The next step after identifying all the risks involved is updating them in Risk Register or any Data Analyzing tool to get a comprehensive view of data interpretation. We can use the Risk Impact Matrix below to analyze the impact of all the risks and take corrective action based on the likelihood of the

risk and consequences. For example, if the Likelihood of the risk is assessed as 5 and Consequence is assessed as 5, then the impact is considered to be Severe and needs immediate attention. (Davies, B. 2004. Risk Management Implementation Guide)


For the simplicity point of view categorizing levels of risk has been used by the traffic light system. The seven risk categories and their positions in traffic light is listed below.


Severe - It must be managed by Senior Level Management with detailed Plan

High - Research and Management planning required in detail at Senior level

Major - Attention is needed by Senior Level Management

Significant - Responsibility must be assigned by Management

Moderate - Must be managed by specific procedures and monitoring

Low - By the routine procedures it must be managed

Trivial -Specific application of resources are unlikely to need.

Senior Level Management will have varied opinions on categorizing the Likelihood and Consequence rating of the identified risks. The below tables are designed to assist the management team to categorize the risk uniformly.

A five-scale rating is used for likelihood:

Likelihood Description:


Occurrence is unlikely


In most of the situations there will be a chance of occurrence (lower than average)


chance of occurrence is more than rating 2


Chance of occurrence in most of the situations are higher than average


In most of the situations it's expected to occur


Similarly, a five-scale rating is used for consequence:

Consequence Description:


1. The functional area's operational performance would not be affected materially.


2. No significant accountability implications will be encountered by the organization.

3. There will not be any affect on the interest of stake holders.

4. Organization perception by the public would remain intact.

Consequence Description:


1. There will be minute inconvenience in operational performance of function area


2. For the function or activity area some accountability implications which would not cause any affect to the organization's ability to meet the key requirements of reporting.

3. Without the help of resources which are divert from the main activity areas, From such consequences recovery will be handled quickly.

4. To pursue rights and entitlement, some of the minor effects on the strength of stakeholders for e.g. To the stakeholders other sources and avenues would be available

Consequence Description:


1. Revised planning would be required to solve problems faced by the functional area.


2. In complying with key reporting requirements the organization may face difficulties.

Consequence Description:


1. With majority of its reporting requirements the organisation would not be able to comply effectively.


2. It will be time consuming and highly complicated to recover from consequences

3. To pursue their rights and entitlements stakeholders may face lot of problems

Consequence Description:


1. To the extend its not possible for an organisation to meet obligations in the area of activity, operational performance would be compromised.


2. A significant financial losses will be faced by the organisation.

3. From such consequences the organisation would be unable to recover.

4. Life-threatening consequences will be faced by the stakeholders

All the relevant data collected from varied sources like Internet, Articles, Interviews, Surveys and Questionnaires can be used in the risk matrix in order to identify the intensity of the risk. The data can be analyzed using Spreadsheets, Analysing tool or any application which depicts the result in the form of pie charts or bar charts. (Davies, B. 2004. Risk Management Implementation Guide)

4 Conclusions:

The assignment deals with the procedure of doing research on a topic or in other words deals with the procedure of doing dissertation. As the assignment consist of three topics

1 ) Low carbon construction

2 ) Construction defects

3 ) Risk with in construction management

On which I have prepare aims, objectives, research methodology, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, Which has given me a practice of doing research on any topic by following this procedure. Although the data collection methods for the topics are almost the same and will be the same for the topic which I may undertake as my dissertation topic. Finally for interpretation I have read the aims, objectives, methodology, data collection, analysis and given my view.