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Construction is not limited to buildings but covers bridges, dams, road, canals, etc. All of the building materials that we use nowadays have a long history and some of the structures built thousands of years ago without the aid of modern technology. The earliest stage of the Neolithic period (6800-6500 BC), the first buildings were simple huts, tents and shelters meant to suit the basic needs of protection. In the next period, the Early Neolithic (6500-5800 BC), house construction was characterized by a diversity of dwelling types and the variety of materials used.
There were curved, rectangular and square constructions of clay, unbaked brick and wood. Stone foundations for walls also appeared for the first time. The results of the Early Neolithic achievements culminated in the following Middle Neolithic period (5800-5300 BC).For the first time small towns with streets and squares appeared. An important advance can be seen in the Middle Neolithic construction; the use of stone wall foundations and platforms for the houses becomes general, wooden pillars appear, the walls are plastered on the inside with mud and uprights are used to protect the foundations from rainwater and damp. From the end of the 6th millennium BC onwards, the building materials varied greatly between the previous periods and the following ones, the Late (5300-4500 BC) and the Final Neolithic (4500-3300) BC.
In ancient times, mud brick was used for ancillary buildings and normal houses. Mud, dried in the sun, was one of the first building materials. It is conceivable that on the Nile, Euphrates, or Tigris rivers, following floods, the deposited mud or silt cracked and formed cakes that could be shaped into crude building units. The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures called ziggurats. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. The usage of the mud brick in construction is followed by ancient Egypt and Greece. The Romans made use of fired bricks, and the Roman legions, which operated mobile kilns, introduced bricks to many parts of the empire. Roman bricks are often stamped with the mark of the legion that supervised their production. The use of bricks in southern and western Germany, for example, can be traced back to traditions already described by the Roman architect Vitruvius.
While in the beginning of the 19th century, the trend of building construction displaced brick in favor of cast and wrought iron and later steel and concrete because of quick development of high rise building. Concrete is a composite material composed of cement which most commonly Portland cement and fly ash, a fine aggregate which are sand, a coarse aggregate which are gravel, and sometimes chemical admixtures. Water reacts with the cement around the aggregate to form a solid, bonded conglomerate. The most common use of concrete is tight up with reinforcement concrete which make with steel.
The reasons of why people choose steel and concrete because of its safety feature. The concrete can resist an explosion or impact and it can endure very high temperatures from fire for a long time without loss of structural integrity. Concrete also requires no additional fireproofing treatments to meet stringent fire codes, and performs well during both natural and manmade disasters. Because of concreteâ€™s inherent heaviness, mass, and strength, buildings constructed with cast-in-place reinforced concrete can resist winds of more than 200 miles per hour and perform well even under the impact of flying debris especially for tall building. Whatâ€™s great about concrete is that it can take many different shapes and can be implement almost everywhere. In addition to the unique aesthetics achieved with concrete construction, these buildings offer some very real space advantages when it using cast-in-place reinforced concrete to frame a high-rise office building would yield more rentable space because of lower floor-to-floor heights. Plus with the proper engineering, concrete building can also offer uninterrupted floor plates.
For the steel structure, although it can soften and melt with exposure to extremely high temperatures but with the addition of passive fire protection, such as spray-on fireproofing, buildings built of structural steel can sustain greater temperatures and, therefore, provide additional safety. Steel also has strength and ductility, combined with solid engineering and design, make it a safe choice in seismic zones. Steel framing does very well under high such as wind loads because it is ductile, which means it has the ability to bend without breaking and able to absorb that kind of energy. Furthermore, steel has the highest strength-to-weight ratio compare to others construction material. Use of girder slab, staggered truss, and castellated beam construction enables lower floor-to-floor heights than typically expected in structural steel buildings. It can be built in a long span and very open-bay footprints without intermediate columns. In future time, the construction building may extend lot of complex material and more sustainable.
In the future, the construction technology will focus more on serving the energy saving and eco-friendly construction technology to create a more efficient and sustainable environment. Green construction achieved when it created a home that was energy efficient and used sustainable building material. Buildings are more energy efficient than they have ever been when they are using sustainable building materials such as wood and bamboo which are replaced easily after harvesting. What is considered green by most people is not even close to being as green as it should be to be considered green construction. Wood framing, sheathing and insulation needs to be replaced with a better system and materials.
The first step towards a green construction home is to build it with a steel frame. Substituting wood framing with steel framing would create a tremendous positive impact on our environment. Logging for timber for home building has seven times the impact on carbon dioxide green house gas emissions when compared to recycling steel. Harvesting wood is responsible for 20% of green house gas emissions. Moving to steel in all new home building would have 2.9 times the positive impact on the carbon dioxide emissions over requiring that every new car and light truck sold to be a hybrid or other technology that doubled gas mileage. Now that is what can truly be considered as green construction.
The next thing is to substitute fiberglass insulation in the stud walls and blown insulation in the attic with radiant barrier and continuous ridged exterior insulation. Radiant heat loss and air infiltration are the two main sources of energy inefficiency in a dwelling. Common insulation only resists these two things. It does nothing to block them. In other words it only slows down radiant heat loss and infiltration. Contrary to conventional insulation a radiant barrier system blocks radiant heat infiltration. It blocks as much as 97% of radiant heat infiltrating the house and blocks as much as 85% of radiant heat loss.
The built environment has a vast impact on the natural environment, human health, and the economy. By adopting green building strategies, we can maximize both economic and environmental performance. Green construction methods can be integrated into buildings at any stage, from design and construction, to renovation and deconstruction. However, the most significant benefits can be obtained if the design and construction team takes an integrated approach from the earliest stages of a building project.