The Growing Concern Of Waste In Construction Construction Essay

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Introduction

During the last many decades, it is being recognized with growing concern that the wastes from a construction are of large volume which is increasing year by year and thus leading to problem of waste accumulation and thereafter management.. Most of the waste materials are left as a landfill material or illegally dumped, which is common practice in poor and developing nations and resulting in threat to environment. The impact on the environmental can be reduced by making more sustainable use of the waste. The sustainable waste management is one of the priorities of every community and it has become marked that sustainable waste management practice can enhance the quality of life of human being.

As per estimate [5], the construction industry in India generates about 10-12 MT of waste annually. Tthe requirement for building material in the housing sector is more than 55,000 M Cum of aggregates and an additional 750 M Cum aggregates are required for achieving the targets of the road sector annually. The resources mining to fulfill this demand will certainly lead to unsustainable development. One of the sustainable way to reduce the demand-supply gap in both these sectors is the use of recycled aggregate material from demolition waste. While retrievable items such as good undamaged bricks, wood, metal, titles are recycled and reused, whereas the concrete and brick masonry waste, accounting for more than 50% of the waste from demolition activities, finds there ways in dumping yards in poor and developing nations.

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The burnt clay bricks are very common resource in construction industry. The brick making is a very energy intensive process. During the process of making the bricks, the many are damaged. The broken pieces of bricks are generally disposed off wastefully. The renovation and demolition activities in the old structures also results in the generation of large quantum of brick masonry waste.

The recycling of stone, concrete,and brick masonry waste is, being done in developed countries like U.K., USA, France, Denmark, Germany and Japan. The stone, concrete and brick masonry waste are recycled by sorting, crushing and sieving into finally recycled aggregate, which is being used to make concrete for desired purpose, specially the road and building construction work. In India, the research work on recycling of aggregates is being done at Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) , Roorkee and Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi. The study reports from these organizations stresses the importance of recycling and reusing the demolition waste, creating awareness about the problem of waste management and the availability of technologies for recycling. The utilizing of the damaged brick units was performed successfully as aggregate in concrete. In addition, this concrete has an acceptable load capacity, gives better thermal insulation and has less density than ordinary concrete

This paper present an overview of results of experiments which were carried out on M-15 grade concrete made with recycled burnt clay brick as an aggregate. In general the aim of the presented study on recycled burnt clay bricks were -

Determination of properties of demolition waste i.e. demolished brick masonry.

Determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes (M-15) prepared by using the demolished brick masonry waste as coarse aggregate.

Comparison of compressive strengths of concrete cubes (M-15) prepared by using the fresh coarse aggregate and demolished brick masonry.

MATERIALS & METHODS

In this research work the suitability of demolished brick masonry aggregates as coarse aggregates in concrete is tested through experimentation. The samples of demolition waste of burnt clay brick masonry works from five different buildings were taken. The collected pieces of demolished wastes are broken to small pieces and sieve analysis of the same for proper gradation was done. The prepared coarse aggregate (CA) of brick were taken in lieu of fresh aggregate for making M -15 concrete. The same concrete were also prepared by taking the fresh aggregates to compare the results. The concrete cubes of size 10 x 150 x 150 mm were made from waste brick aggregates and fresh crushed stone aggregates and tested for compressive strength after 7 days and 28 days curing. The water absorption test was also conducted for concrete cubes after 28 days.

The raw materials used other than the brick masonry aggregates were the fresh aggregate of 20 mm size and locally available sand as fine aggregate (FA) were collected from near by sand mine. The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) of 53 grade conforming BIS:383-1970 was used. The water used for making the concrete was collected from the municipal water connection. All the experimentation works were carried out in concrete and highway material testing lab of department of civil engineering of our Institute. The flow chart as shown in figure - 1 describes the overall experimental program in brief.

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Figure - 1 ""Flow Chart Showing the Experimental Program"

The sieve analysis of coarse and fine aggregate was done and found satisfying the norms as mentioned in BIS-393-1990. The laboratory test for finding out the specific gravity and water absorption of material used was done. The specific gravity of the brick masonry aggregate and fresh aggregate taken to prepare the concrete was determined through experiments as per BIS practice. The results are 1.896 and 2.469 respectively .The water absorption of the brick masonry aggregate and fresh aggregate taken to prepare the concrete is determined through experiments as per BIS practice. The results are 10.25 % and 1.5% .

The standard mix design for M-15 grade concrete was taken for preparation of brick masonry concrete cubes and fresh aggregate concrete cubes for testing of compressive strength in the laboratory as per prescribed method.

Cement : Fine Aggregate : Coarse Aggregate = 1 : 2 : 4 (By Weight)

Weight of Cement Cube = Density of Concrete x Volume of Concrete Cube

Table - 1 - "% Weight Retained on Different Sieves of Coarse Aggregate as per BIS 383-1990"

Size of Opening (mm)

% WEIGHT RETAINED

% CUMMULATIVE WEIGHT RETAINED

%

%

40

5

5

20

5

10

16

5

15

12.5

75

90

10

10

100

6.3

0

100

PAN

0

100

 

100

 

The density of concrete with different types of coarse aggregates is taken from existing literature review for calculation of quantities of constituents. The general results of same for making six cubes of concrete with brick masonry aggregate and stone crushed fresh aggregate as coarse aggregate are shown in table 2. The quantity of coarse aggregates for making the concrete of M-15 grade, of different sizes as selected with reference to BIS 383 1990 as mentioned in table 2 is calculated and is shown in table 3.

Table - 2 - "Quantity of Constituents of Concrete for Six Cubes"

Sr No

 

1

2

Type of Coarse Aggregate

 

Demolish-ed Brick Masonry

Fresh

Crushed

Stone

Density of Concrete

(from Literature)

Kg/m3

1950

2400

Size of Cube

m

0.15

0.15

Volume of Cube

m3

0.003375

0.003375

Weight of One Cube

Kg

6.58

8.10

Number of Cubes to Cast

No.

6

6

Total Weight of Concrete Cubes

Kg

39.4875

48.6

Wastage of Material @ 20%

Kg

7.8975

9.72

Total Weight of Cement, Fine Aggregate & Coarse Aggregate (Rounded up) for Six Cubes i.e. "TW"

Kg

48.00

59.00

Cement = TW x (1/7)

Kg

6.857

Fine Aggregate = Total Weight x (2/7)

Kg

13.714

Coarse Aggregate = Total Weight x (4/7)

Kg

27.429

Water Cement Ratio (from Literature)

WC Ratio

0.687

Water = WC Ratio x Cement

Kg (Litres)

4.71

Table - 3.- "Weight of Coarse Aggregate of Different Size

(As per BIS 383-1990)"

Sr No

 

1

2

Type of Coarse Aggregate

 

Demolished Brick Masonry (Kg)

Fresh Crushed Stone (Kg)

Coarse Aggregate = Total Weight x (4/7)

% by Weight

27.429

33.714

Weight of CA Retained on 40 mm Sieve

5

1.371

1.686

Weight of CA Retained on 20 mm Sieve

5

1.371

1.686

Weight of CA Retained on 16 mm Sieve

5

1.371

1.686

Weight of CA Retained on 12.50 mm Sieve

75

20.571

25.286

Weight of CA Retained on 10 mm Sieve

10

2.743

3.371

Weight of CA Retained on 6.30 mm Sieve

0

0.000

0.000

PAN

0

0.000

0.000

TOTAL

 

27.429

33.714

OBSERVATIONS & RESULTS

The concrete cubes of size 150x150x150mm, six numbers of each type , type1 concrete cubes with demolished brick masonry as coarse aggregate and type2 as concrete cubes with fresh stone aggregates were prepared as per BIS for M15 grade of concrete. Out of six cubes of each type, the 3 no. of cubes are tested after 7 days and remaining 3 after 28 days in compression testing machine (CTM).The results of concrete and compressive strengths tests after 7 days and 28 days curing are shown in table 4 & 5. It is found by the study that it is possible to use recycled brick masonry aggregate in concrete without compromising on strength and durability of concrete. This study opens up a major avenue for utilization of demolition waste. The experiment with recycled brick masonry aggregate is done for M - 15 grade of concrete as per standard procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

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The following conclusions were drawn from experiments :

The specific gravity of the brick masonry aggregate is lowest i.e.1.896. It is 23.21% less than the specific gravity of fresh aggregates (2.469) considered for experimentation.

The water absorption percentage of the brick masonry aggregate is highest i.e. 10.25%. It is 5.84 times more than the water absorption percentage of fresh aggregates (1.50%) considered for experimentation.

The density of the concrete cubes made from brick masonry aggregate is lowest i.e. 2069.35 Kg/m3. It is 14.97 % less than the density of concrete made from fresh aggregates (2433.679 Kg/m3) considered for experimentation.

The 7 days compressive strength of cubes made of brick aggregate is lesser by 35 % as compared to the concrete made of fresh stone crushed aggregates.

The 28 days compressive strength of cubes made of brick aggregate is lesser by 31.15 % as compared to the concrete made of fresh stone crushed aggregates.

Table - 4 - "7 Days Strength of Concrete Cubes"

Cube No. & Mix Type

CUBE NO.

WEIGHT OF CUBE

DENSITY

OF CUBE

AVERAGE DENSITY

LOAD AT FAILURE

STRESS AT FAILURE

AVERAGE STRESS AT FAILURE

GRAMS

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

TONNE

N

N/mm2

N/mm2

1 (Brick Aggregates)

1/1

6990

2071.11

2069.432

19

186390

8.284

8.502

1/2

6985

2069.63

19.5

191295

8.502

1/3

6978

2067.56

20

196200

8.720

3 (Fresh Aggregates)

3/1

8150

2414.81

2433.679

29

284490

12.644

13.080

3/2

8190

2426.67

31

304110

13.516

3/3

8301

2459.56

30

294300

13.080

Table -5 - "28 Days Strength of Concrete Cubes"

Cube No. & Mix Type

CUBE NO.

WEIGHT OF CUBE

DENSITYOF CUBE

AVERAGE DENSITY

LOAD AT FAILURE

STRESS AT FAILURE

AVERAGE STRESS AT FAILURE

GRAMS

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

TONNE

N

N/mm2

N/mm2

1 (Brick Aggregates)

1/4

7110

2106.67

2085.235

27.5

269775

11.990

12.208

1/5

7005

2075.56

28

274680

12.208

1/6

6998

2073.48

28.5

279585

12.426

3 (Fresh Aggregates)

3/4

8210

2432.59

2445.432

40

392400

17.440

17.731

3/5

8205

2431.11

40

392400

17.440

3/6

8345

2472.59

42

412020

18.312

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank, the students of final year civil and the laboratory administration of concrete testing laboratory of SSVPS BS Deore College of Engineering, Deopur, Dhule (MS) India for their support and help in experimentation.