The Design Change Control Construction Essay

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During the life of the Atlantic Corridor project changes to the project scope, schedule, and resources may arise. The sources of these may be altered by Howard Holdings, including a modification in construction technology or the availability of resources.

As a change control plan is executed, the following should occur; Improved relationship with Howard Holdings, improved project teamwork, reduced project delays, enhanced financial performance, and improved management of quality. The following will outline the plan this design team will practice to manage change.

Change that can be expected on this project;

Process changes

Schedule changes

Resource changes

Staff changes

Scope creep

Staff changes

Technical changes

Change in deliverables

Schedule changes

Process to Manage change

Use these steps as determined for the specific change encountered

Identify source of change

Define the potential process and impact

Identify who should lead the analysis

Communicate the potential to design team

File origin of change

Determine the nature of change

Investigation of the effect of change

Does it relate to the mission statement

Relate change to current process


Measure the change

Cause effect analysis

Access profound knowledge

Classify impact against agreed upon requirements

Advance a action plan strategy

File analysis into a proposal form

Confirm that Howard Holding has given authoration

Design steps for presentation

Communicate Policy

Gain feedback

Sent documentation package

Schedule meetings

Implement Change Plan and monitor effects

Update the work plan

Assess and monitor operation

Apply and develop a Change Management Record

The change management record is an application to be used to document, measure and track the effect of change management on critical project elements. It is considered mandatory by Howard Holdings to include this and is to contain the following information:

Source of change Location

Decision made by Cost change appraisal

Decision mage date Type of change

Lead Manager Depiction of change

Justification Description Analysis

Decision Impact Discussion Time Change Estimate

Appointment change may occur when;

If the work are sub-standard and not per specification

must complete on a daily basis in order to ensure that the construction project is completed in a timely and correct manner

Failure to complie with all the health and safety regualations

If the contractor don't inform the client on problem areas related to the site.


Project is Atlantic Quarter in Cork Docklands area, a mixed-use development by

developer Howard Holdings, consisting of 3 residential towers, 2 residential

buildings, 4 office blocks, a hotel, an events arena. The project is located upon a

double-level basement carpark, and includes significant development of surrounding

roads and other infrastructure. It is necessary for the design to adhere to the highest international standards and provide the deliverables as listed below.


It is nesacerary for the following to be dated and to be checked by a qualified consultant;

Value Engineering

Value Engineering should follow this structured thought process to evaluate options as follows.

Identification of areas for review. This should be done individual, with each team member critically examining the design drawings and specifications. The idea formulated during this time focus on areas of the design that could take advantage of new products or processes, simplified systems or different use of materials.

Brainstorming Session. Team members should sit down together with lists of ideas and top up ideas and thoughts for other to catch. The idea is to put as many ideas as possible on the table.

Analysis of each recommendation. The group sets up a criteria by which to evaluate each idea. The alternative discussed in the brainstorming session are tested here against that criteria. In the braqinstroming session, cost usaually are not the first consideration. Once the prosposal has merit based on functional requirements, then the costing exercise takes place.

Report to Management. Here the team puts together all the ideas into a package. Some may be carried forward for futher analysis in other places of the project when more information is available. Some have been rejected by the team for stated reasons, and some are recommended for immediate implementation.

When the costing exercise is initiated, the team can look at simple first cost, or it can view the proposal in terms of life-cost costing. If the proposal is sound based on first cost, life cycle costing may not eb done. However, the danger here is that first cost may not translate into overall savings during the operating life of the structure. Therefore, it is better to look at the life- cycle aspects of any costs considered.

Life-Cycle Costing

Life-cycle costing on this project, should examine for intial, operating and maintenances costs as well as future benefit over the life of the buildings. Before this analysis can be applied, assumptions will have to made about the desired levels of quality in the building, the program constraints and future projections of the cost of money.

1 Conceptual Building Floor Plans

Mandatory to provide the following;

Important dimensions and overall sizes

Plan specifying major extent of materials and any unusual condition

Area summary

Plan of all floors show circulation elements, core elements, vertical shaft, structural grid internal partitions, window and door openings, floor elevations

Road assessabitly

Initial finish schedule for work blocks


Mandatory to provide the following information;

Energy sources recognized

Vertical shaft and risers spaces sized and specified on diagrams

Lighting presented on plans

Plumbing fixture count

Fire prevention codes of practice followed

Power requirements stated

Preliminary HVAC system to include central plant, duct chasing

design criteria for HVAC narrative

Water, gas, sewage points traced on plans

Electrical and telephone requirement on plans

Lighting drawn on plans

Design provision for fire prevention codes of practice

Design criteria for electrical services

Conceptual Building Sections

Mandatory to provide the following;

Floor to floor height

Main sectional diagrams

Material designations

Structural grid

Civil Site Plan

Mandatory to providing the follow;

Strong outlining of project limit lines

Classify number of parking spaces necessary

Preliminary spot elevations

Planned utilised noted

Site drainage

Site plan of project showing location of all buildings, roads, parking and landscape features.

Provision for rubbish removal


Outcomes of geotechnical investigation

Conceptual Details

Mandatory to provide the following;

Standard wall sections


Mandatory to provide the following;

Single line floor and roof framing plans

Typical bay and member size noted

Description of footings in terms of the geotechnical report

Structural system description

Conceptual Building Elevations

Mandatory to provide the following;

Key materials recognized

Roof lines, floor lines and top of parapets indicted with dimensions

Finished grades presented noticeably

Major elevations with extent of mullion and glazing spacing specified


Mandatory to provide the following;

Estimate the duration of construction and if there is any phased work

Key component estimate, verify inclusion of element by cross-checking against outline specification for errors and associate with the budget.

Provide cost life cycle investigation of planned roof structures

Code Analysis

Mandatory to provide the following;

Land use constraints

Means of egress

Site assessability

Outline Specification

Mandatory to provide the following;

Recognise specification sections and main material systems and finishes

Energy Report

Mandatory to provide the following

Life cost analysis of energy conservation procedures

Annual energy consumption

Furnish an energy consumption report containing calculations and a summary of the data

Roof Plan

Mandatory to Provide the following;

Preliminary drains and slopes

Roof Material

Structural grid


The lead designer should concentrate on a planned approach for operating tasks, and implementing cost, time, quality planning and monitoring system for the project that highlights the obligation of the project team to deliver secure results. The project supervisor for the design stage will have the following monitoring responabitles;

Communication of potential control measures with the remaining risks so they can be referred to the Safety plan.

Detect the hazards arising from the design or from the organisational, technical, planning related phase of the project

Evaluating performance to determine whether any corrective action are necessary.

Monitoring implementation of approved changes when and as they occur

Provide information to support status reporting , progress measurement and forecasting

Monitoring implementation of approved changes when and as they occur

Quality Control

Work elements must be reviewed and the following ones identified for

applicable standards for each product, process, service, and deliverable. This should be carried out by the lead designer.

Quality Control Plan Items

Reviewers will be recognized and allocated

The project will be accomplished in accordance with applicable IS0 9000.

Communication with team members (may lead to decision documents)

Reviews to be scheduled

Plans will be reviewed to establish consistency in the documentation prior

Schedule, Scope, and Budget will be studied periodically for progress.

Status reviews

Process reviews

Monthly status and quarterly reviews will be communicated.

Milestone reviews

Quarterly review

Howard Holdings feedback

Deliverable reviews

QA Checklist




Standards(s) or References





Identification & Assignment


Gather as-built information

and drawings for smooth

and consistent transitions

Field visits to verify as-built

Existing utilities located on

site and on plan

Value Engineering and

CEVP as appropriate.

Design will be reviewed

and approved prior to the

completion of the PS&E


Constructability review 1

Constructability review 2

Maintenance review

Management review

PS&E Package review

Signature block on all

plans will have a

Executive Order 10.10

Section 12 Cost Management

.1 Contract Sum

Howard holding is using the lump sum method of defining the contract sum, in which single sums are quoted for all of the work. The contractor is will be given the contract sum in monthly instalments for work concluded and for materials supplied during the month. The primary contract sum is discovered during bidding, and may be required for budgetary reasons. If the amount bid is within the budget, the project continues; if the bid is over budget, rebidding or other steps must be taken to either increase the budget or bring the bid amount within the original budget. Changes in scope can be achieved with change orders, which alter the lump sum through construction

.2 Cost Reporting & Monitoring

The Project Manager will be responsible for reporting and managing on the project's cost throughout the extent of the project. In the monthly project status meeting, the Project Manager should meet with management to review the project's cost performance for the past month. Performance on this project will be measured using earned value. The Project Manager is responsible for accounting for cost deviations and advising Howard Holdings with ways for getting the project back on budget. Howard Holdings have the authority to make changes to the project to bring it back within budget if they so wish.

Cost reporting systems need to deliver the established project cost to date, the anticipated final cost of the project which should be set within reason,the future cash flow and any threats of increasing costs should be reported and any potential savings mentoned.

Reporting on this project needs to deal with three stages to assist howard holdings financial planning. Theses include;

Be informed of the financial implications of any project scope changes

The latest date they can change their mind

Be told of approxatly the payment necessary to the contractor at the end of each month

On this project cost-value reconcilation will offer Howard Holding with monitering and cost reports. The contractor will have to arrange for these reports monthly. Theses cost reports will associate the differents between the planned exipediture per month and the actual exipedture per month. The cost should be borken down into work groups and should state the percentage work finished. This information should be shown on bar charts, data sheets and hisogram charts.

Cost-Value Reconciliation Report

Contract Valuation No.

Contract No. Date of Valuation

Contract Duration Month




Value of certificate to




Preliminaries adjustment

Adjustment to valuation date





Contract costs to





Inter-site costs


Subcontractor Liabilities

Future Losses


Cost of Delays

Liquidated Damages


PROFIT As a Value


Date of reconciliation

Prepared by

Costs should be incorporated in the system of financial accounts related with an organization. All expense transactions should be recorded in a general ledger. The general ledger of accounts forms the source for management reports on particular projects as well as the financial accounts for Howard Holdings. Additional parts of a financial accounting system contain:

The accounts payable journal is intended to deliver records of money received from material suppliers and subcontractors. Invoices of charges are recorded in this system as are checks issued in payment.

Accounts receivable journals provide the opposite function to that of accounts payable. Money to Howard Holdings will be recorded as well as receipts. Revenues received will be sent to the general ledger.

Job cost ledgers will summarize the charges associated with particular projects, arranged in the various cost accounts used for the project budget.

Inventory records are preserved to identify the amount of materials available at any stage.

.3 Valuations & Final Account

It will be compulsory for the main contractor to sign the Final Account Statement to indicate that the Final Account figure represents the final settlement of all claims. The settlement of the final account negotiations between the contractor, and the architect will in due course prompt the issue of the final account statement and eventually, permit the architect to issue the final certificate.

A quantity surveyor will be required to arrange the final account clearly, with the original contract sum as the first point. A significant portion of the contractor's quantity surveyor's work is the agreement of the final account. It is compulsory for Howard Holdings QS to work together with the contractors QS to produce an agreed account. The contractor's QS should be notified at identifying contract variations and work that should be compensated on day work rates. Also the contractor's QS should attempt as far as possible to alleviate any potential delays in agreeing the final account.

Under the terms and conditions of contract the contractor is to provide the architect with all documents required for the final account preparation not later than 5 months after completion. Within 3 months of receipt of these documents the architect is to ascertain the final account sum and send this to the contractor.

The adjustment of the contract sum in the final account normally falls under several relevant items, although the QS must have regard to all the matters listed in the standard form of contract and conditions. The contract conditions arrange all the matters that shall be dealt with in the final account in order to change the contract sum in harmony with the conditions.

Sums to be deducted:

Prime cost sums and amounts in respect of named subcontractors and associated contractor's profit;

Provisional sums and the value of work for which approximate quantities are included in contract bills;

Variations that are omissions;

Amounts allowable to the employer under the fluctuations clauses;

Any other amount that is required by the contract to be deducted from the contract sum.

Sums to be added:

The total amounts of nominated subcontracts finally adjusted in accordance with the relevant subcontract conditions;

Where the contractor has tendered for work that was to have been preformed by a nominated subcontractor and his tender has been accepted, the amount of the tender suitably adjusted;

Any amounts due to nominated suppliers, including cash discounts of 5 per cent, but excluding VAT;

The contractor's profit on the above amounts 1,2 & 3;

Any amounts payable by the employer relating to statutory fees and charges, opening up and testing, royalties and patent rights, and insurances;

The value of work carried out against provisional sums or approximate quantities included in the contract bills;

Any amounts payable by the employer to the contractor by way of reimbursement for direct loss/and or expense arising from matters materially affecting the regular progress of the works;

Any amount expended by the contractor as a result of loss or damage by fire or other perils where the risks are insured by the employer and the contractor is entitled to reimbursement;

Any amount payable to the contractor under the fluctuations clauses;

Any other amount that is required by the contract to be added to the contract sum.


.4 Cash Flow

It is necessary for the contractors to provide a monthly cash flow analysis data (sheet as shown below). This should be carried out by an accountant on behalf of the contractor. It is also necessary to include; cash flow forecast (6 months) -With the predicted income and expenditure shown clearly with S curves and Monthly Cash flow Analysis chart

1 General Project information

Contract Value: -

Retainage -

Credit turns -

Payment lag -

2 Construction Shedule and monthly % executed

Month M1 M2 M3 M4

Percent Executed - - - -

3 Monthly earned Value and payment recieved

Monthly earned value - - - -

Montly payment received - - - -

4 Monthly cost and disburstments

Montly costs - - - -

Total monthly expenditure - - - -

Monthly intermediate expediture - - -

5Monthly net cash flow and financial position

Net Cash Flow - - - -

Financial Position - - - -

6Most negative net cash flow

Most neagitve net cash flow - - - -

Worst financial position - - - -

Monthly Cash flow Analysis chart

Payment Period






Payment Due
















Cost Applied



Period + 10d

Cost applied


See net


Less retainage


Net Subs

Req. + 1m

Cost applied

Totals per day

Cum. Period Cash

Cash Requirement Curve

Cash Income

Cash Income Curve

Contractor Cash flow Requirement sample