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C&D waste consists of such materials as wood, brick, concrete, asphalt pavement, glass, ,
drywall, and asphalt shingles generated during the construction, remodeling, or demolition of structures. Construction projects, particularly those involving demolition, can generate other wastes, such as plastic buckets, pipe and wrap, cardboard boxes, plumbing, electrical and other fixtures, and wire that are also sent for disposal or processing. Generally, interior finishing items, such as carpets and furniture are not considered C&D waste, but in practice could be included in demolition waste.
The definition of recycling is to pass a substance through a system that enables that substance to be reused. Waste recycling involves the collection of waste materials and the separation and clean-up of those materials. Recycling waste means that fewer new products and consumables need to be produced, saving raw materials and reducing energy consumption. [Atmospheric Environment]
Analysis of C&D debris material shows that it is a mix of reusable or recyclable material wastes commonly generated during the construction of new homes and buildings, or the materials left after the demolition or "deconstruction" of old buildings and other structures.
The Solid Waste Management Rules include a definition of "construction and demolition waste." The definition has been developed from various guidance documents and
"Construction and Demolition Waste means, for the purpose of these rules, waste derived from the construction or demolition of buildings, roadways or structures including but not limited to clean wood, treated or painted wood, plaster, sheetrock, roofing paper and shingles, insulation, glass, stone, soil, flooring materials, brick, masonry, mortar, incidental metal, furniture and mattresses. This waste does not include asbestos waste, regulated hazardous waste, hazardous waste generated by households, hazardous waste from conditionally exempt generators, or any material banned from landfill disposal under 10 VSA 6621." C&D waste, quite simply, is any waste material inherent to building construction or demolition. C&D waste also includes roadway waste, such as asphalt and concrete, although these wastes are generally managed differently than building debris, and are not included in this subchapter.
What is Construction and Demolition Waste?
Construction wasteoriginates from the construction, repair, and remodel of residential and nonresidential
structures. The waste generated is relatively clean, and can be readily separated at the jobsite. On residential
construction and renovation projects, wood, drywall, and cardboard make up 60 - 80% of jobsite waste
(NAHB). Metal, brick, block, vinyl, and asphalt waste are generated in relatively smaller quantities. "Driveby"
waste, unauthorized dumping during off hours, can be as high as 30% of the total waste volume.
Commercial construction waste volume varies based upon the size and type of construction.
Demolitionwaste is generated during the removal of existing structures; structures that were built over a range
of time periods using a variety of materials and construction methods-some of which are no longer
appropriate. Demolition materials include: aggregate, concrete, wood, paper, metal, insulation, and glass.
Demolition waste is often contaminated with paints, adhesives, and insulation, and the recyclability of wood
may be hindered by nails and other fasteners. Large pieces of wood and dimensional lumber can be recovered
through denailing and replaning and, because of the availability of local outlets, many demolition projects have
been able to recycle as much as 80% of mixed debris.
[Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC)]
Construction waste, also
referred to as construction and demolition waste, is as defined as mineral and non-mineral
matter in variable composition from construction, demolition and renovation projects
including excavated natural or fill soil and rock material generated during construction
(Pereira, et. al. 2005).
C&D waste are generated during new construction, renovation, and demolition of buildings or other structure. Most of the C&D waste can be recycled.
There are a large number of materials widely used in the construction industry. For this reason, there are also a large number of wastes produced when the construction and demolition works are carry out. The C&D waste measure is differ in the nature of the construction project.
Materials that can be recycle:
Brick is a pure and natural product. It is made by loam or clay mixing with water and is kiln-fired. Because of the natural raw material used for production, bricks contain no pollutants or allergens. Bricks are also resistant to noxious insects as well.
Bricks are widely use in the construction field. It is one of the major resources for construct a building. In addition, it had been the ideal building and construction material and continual use for more or less 5000 years. Bricks are the most common walling materials. It is widely used for the building wall, retaining wall and monuments. It is normally laid or joint by using mortar whereas some bricks such as compressed earth blocks can be dry stacked.
Bricks are really useful in construction field because it has multiple of benefits. The selection of the bricks will give the impact to the external appearance of a building. It is also more durable and last longer compare to others materials such as wood, vinyl siding or aluminum. Besides, it has better sound resistance and fire resistance which classified as non flammable materials. Moreover, it has a good load-bearing properties and potential low energy impact.
While modern methods of brick construction have a much lower sustainability index, the UK brick industry has developed a strategy to minimize its environmental impact and increase its energy efficiency and use of renewable energies. The bricks wastage may reduce by improve the durability and strength of the bricks.
Overall, bricks are one of the selections for a sustainable building practice and it is currently achieve its popularity around the world. In brief, bricks produce little waste or no waste because it requires minimal energy use and can be turned back into its original at the end of their life.
Concrete is originally from cement mix with stone aggregate. In the manufacture of cement, limestone, sand, clay and iron ore are blended, ground and heated to 1400 -1550 Celsius in a rotating kiln. The resulting material called clinker is cooled, pulverized and mixed with gypsum to create what is known as Portland cement, a hydraulic material primarily made up of calcium silicates.
Concrete is most used material in the construction field. Concrete is commonly apply for the foundations all kind of structures and filling in the spandrils or arches or the hearting and backs of walls. With the materials has improved, it has been employed for many other purposes such as walls built in concrete. There are several types of cement to form concrete; usually the construction will use Portland cement. Concrete is form by a mixture of cement and stone aggregates. Cement mix with the water to create the paste so as to bind the aggregate together to form concrete.
The quality of the concrete has the interrelationship with the amount of water and stone added. The quality of the concrete is depends on the quantity of the mixing ratio. A suitable cement, sand and water mixing ratio is use in order to form a strong concrete. The higher amount of the water contain will dilute the cement paste. Thus, the properties of the concrete are influenced by the property of the cement. Reinforcement bar added to form reinforced concrete will have better strength.
According to Deputy Works Minister Datuk Yap Khoon Seng, at least 5% of the construction of new roads under the 10th Malaysia plan would use the cement concrete paving method. This is because concrete has longer lifespan and better quality if compare to asphalt for new road construction. Hence this will reduce the expenditure in terms of maintenance in long run.
Wood is obtained from a falling tree or deforestation. Wood is unique and versatile. Wood has been used throughout the history of mankind. Wood has provided to the construction industry with a wide range of building products and materials for construction from many years ago.
Wood can be use in many parts in a building. It can be apply in the floor including flooring, framing and footing. It is also can install for wall which include framing, internal lining and insulation. Besides, it also can act as a plasterboard and gutters for roof part. In short, wood can be the only material to building up a whole building.
Wood is often considered to be the cheapest and best materials for the construction. Besides, the manufactured of wood has the lowest amount of carbon released if compare to others building materials such as steel and aluminum. Moreover, it continues to store carbon dioxide for the remainder of its life as a wood product or even in a part of a building whereas others materials will not store the carbon dioxide.
However, regular maintenance is required to maintain the life cycle of the wood to resist fungus attack. Furthermore, timber is insufficient in the fire resistance. Hence, it will be the main consideration to construct a building.
Wood is one of the materials that can be repaired and re-used. It can be re-used or re-machined into other products, such as railway sleepers as a garden design material or re-machined into floor boards and wood profile. Many wood-producing companies use wood and wood waste to provide power and heating in their factories. Wood processing waste is also used in chipboard production or for animal bedding. In fact, wood is renewable.
Asphalt is sticky and black which is derived from the same crude oil which produces kerosene, gasoline and vinyl. It is primarily used in road construction such as surface for roads, airport runways, parking lots and playgrounds. Asphalt is used to bind or glue with the aggregates particles. It is also mainly used as a sealant for rooftops.
Construction field will rather to select asphalt than concrete for road construction because its initial cost and maintenance is cheaper. Asphalt provide good quality road and can continually to lay at the same point when there has damages on the road.
Asphalt waste is produced when it lose their plasticity and therefore harden and therefore crack or crumble. The stress of heavy traffic is also one reason which causes the asphalt loses their strength.
Asphalt can be recycled back into new asphalt by crushing it. Markets for recycled asphalt paving include aggregate for new asphalt hot mixes and it can be used sub-base for paved road.
Metal is commonly used as structural framework or as an external surface covering for roof. There are many types of metals used in constructing a building such as steel and aluminum. Steel has become a worldwide building material because its offers better strength, durability, versatility and economic value. Steel has a long life cycle, require little or no maintenance and it also provide a beauty aesthetic appearance.
However, corrosion is one of the biggest weaknesses of the metal. Moreover, the reason of why it is not fully equipped in a building is because its heat conductivity.
Metal is the most profitable and recyclable material. Steel can be completely recycled at the end of its useful life and it is permissible to repeating recycled. it can be melted down and reform into other metal product. This will reduce both the cost and environmental impact of making new steel as it conserves energy.
Gypsum board is one of the common wallboard uses in building construction. It is also known as drywall. Gypsum is a natural mineral in crystalline form, is a hydrous sulfate of calcium. It is generally has two layer of special papers and the gypsum rock core sandwiched between. Different types of gypsum wallboard will use to fit the different types of purpose. Basically, gypsum wallboard is used to cover interior walls of a home or other structures. Gypsum wallboard carries an advantage which is noncombustible.
The unused gypsum wallboard can be removing and recycle. The wallboard which has not been treated with surface chemicals such as water resistant and fire retardant can be used in agriculture as a fertilizer and as a soil amendment. It is also can be returned to the supplier or else donate or sell it.
Glass is made from mixtures of sand and silicates. Glass occupies a special place in construction field with its unique characteristic. Uses of glass in previously is quite limited because it is thought to be an easily break building material. Hence, this is the main reason to take into account for a construction project and many will select others materials than it because of its weakness.
Modern glass has improved and not only can look through, it is also stronger, safer and energy efficient. Glass has therefore widely demand for the architectural and decorative finishes. It is utilized in the construction of several elements of exterior and interior of architecture.
By using the glass cladding in a building, it fulfill the functional requirements of lighting, heat retention and cost saving. It is an outstanding material for thermal insulation, water proofing and chemical resistance.
Glass is also relatively inexpensive and it is same as metal which can be fully recyclable. Recycling the glass can help in reducing the C&D waste, lower the construction cost and reduce the environment problems. Usually the glass will be crushed to pebble size and remove the sharp edges hence it will not harm the workers when use it as aggregate instead of sand. It can be use as decoration in concrete plaster or use as bedding in place of sand.
Ways to recycling and reuse Bricks
Ways to recycling and reuse Concrete
Benefits of 2R
Limitation of 2R