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The analog of 'Cost planning' is an action to accommodate cost-based intelligence into the design action and that of 'Cost control' is the administration of the costs associated with the design action to accomplish a predefined acclimatized basic budget.
The planning and control of basic costs are a key affirmation of adequate baby minding and should be antecedence for all basic works projects. The primary aim of carrying out cost planning and cost control procedures in the administration of basic projects are to ensure that cost certainty and amount for money are achieved. By adapting best conveyance procedures in the administration of basic amount through cost planning and cost control, the project coordinator can minimise the financial risks complex in undertaking basic works projects.
The new railway megaproject is a 'Design & Build' project where the contractor is responsible for the design, management and delivery of the project, on time and within the contract sum, taking into account whole-life costs and fitness for purpose in accordance with a predefined output specification provided by the client.
For design-and-build projects, the bureau may adjudge to cease design assignment at the cessation of any one of the activity reviews and to transfer complete design works and statutory approval accident from that point on to the acknowledged design-and-build contractor who emerges from the tendering.
Here, all cost planning and control procedures relating to design ceases once the design and statutory approval risk are transferred to the contractor. And thus the cost planning and control would be more important.
For design-and-build projects, the agency will craves the design team it has appointed to abide in abode to adapt tender documents for design-and-build tenderer, apprise tender designs and prices and advise construction, administrate the arrangement and achieve the final account.
And the cost document should include outline cost plan, developed cost plan, tender cost analysis and analysis of outturn costs.
Q1 B) Importance of "Constructability Analysis and Improvement":
The abstraction of constructability was given by CII (1986), in which it declared "Constructability is the optimum use of construction knowledge and acquaintance in planning, design, procurement, and acreage operations to accomplish all-embracing project scopes". Constructability is additionally authentic as measurements of the affluence of advantage with which a facility can be completed (Hugo et al. 1990). Constructability is an "attitude" that must abound through conceptual planning, design and accretion and field operations. If performed right, constructability has been apparent to reduce construction cost, by 10 to 20 times its accomplishing amount (More 1983).
For the conceptual stage, an analysis of the constructability knowledge includes the following factors. First is the action objectives, it means if these objectives could be accomplished in agreement of construction, such as whether the budget is abundant to assemble the railway; whether the milestones is achievable in specific construction phase, whether the arrangement types are acceptable to ensure the acknowledged achievement of the project. Second is the action scope, provides alternation of specification and maintenance & operation requirements for the architecture of the railway project. The blueprint and requirements which actually resulted from construction knowledge and acquaintance will acquaint and alter the construction of railway projects. Third is the site information, such as carnage volume, soil, weather and existing facilities will actuate the believability and furnishings of the route planning, design and construction of railway projects. Altered site information will advance to alter optimum construction for this specific project. The after most one is varied choice of technologies such as guideway structure, vehicle structure and control system will alter the architecture methods. Better understanding different technologies, better implementing constructability based on different project conditions.
For the design phase, we should consider the structural system, which includes station facility, aliment facility and guideway structure. It is important for the design and construction of railway projects. It will make some effects on the efficiency, the accomplished cost, the agenda and the aesthetics of this project. Second is the construction method, the project will be advantaged from the optimum administration of material and equipment, and advanced use of equipments during acreage operation, by cost reduction and efficiency increase. After most is the field layout, the condition of construction armpit such as the accessibility influences the allotment of the construction adjustment and technologies. For example, the accessibility for the large-scale construction equipments should be considered.
In summary, constructability analysis and improvement can make the construction planning easier, reduce both design and construction costs, provide a better quality of work, increase innovation in both design and construction, maximize the benefits of contractor expertise, ensure ideas and initiatives are practical, and obtain contractor ownership and commitment within the project team, minimize the number and magnitude of changes, disputes, cost overturns, and delays during construction. Also, shortening construction time and improving project management by using constructability is expected to decrease overall project cost and thus reduce capital investment risk. Constructability represents the extent that the measurements of a facility take account of accessible construction systems and techniques that affluence construction activity and accept an absolute appulse on cost.
Constructability is an important factor in the design process and should be discussed from the aboriginal stages of projects. The early involvement and commitment of the construction contractor in the design process should improve constructability.
Q2 'Method Study' and 'Work measurement'
The major aspects of 'Method Study' in Construction Project Management are to record the procedures and to analyse the method currently followed and it is when the 'Work Measurement' can come into the way. For 'Method Study', we are talking about a more macroscopic view, the flow of work. In adjustment study, based on some pre-identified operation or activity, present procedures will be recorded with ASME symbols for the accumulation of action charts, outline action charts, time-scaled charts, accompanying movement charts, multiple-activity charts, biking charts, cord diagrams or foreman adjournment surveys. Recorded absolute achievement will be analyzed to see if they are as able as they are expected. Such almanacs will anatomy the base of alternatives development and options selection, which will be conducted systematically by allurement assorted, questions on purpose, place, sequence, being and means. After accustomed by all stakeholders, another access will be installed and maintained with connected improvements fabricated with advertence to absolute armpit conditions. There are all sorts of stages in a whole construction project or even an activity. Let's pick the 'concreting' for the sake of discussion: In 'Method Study', the flow diagram of a specific activity is being drawn, let say concreting of a tank. There are a lot of activities involved for concreting: (i) Site Clearance->Entrance of the concrete drum mixer->Moving in of the vehicle to the required position->Pouring of concrete->Tamping of concrete by workers->Curing of concrete->another cycle of concreting. Details like the where the entrance is set, the route of the truck, the number of workers, the time duration for each cycle can all be modified in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible.
'Work Measurement' intends to break down the activity into elemental tasks and compare to the standard time to complete such typical tasks. For example, if the standard time for a dumper to dispatch the concrete is 5 minutes but the actual time is 10 minutes, then something (steps, the relay of command, etc.) must have been gone wrong or not in the highest possible efficiency. For those activities involving human effort, which is mostly the case in a construction site, evaluate the performance is somehow difficult. However, it is the subject that has the most say for the finishing time of a construction project. There can be great variations in terms of ability and knowledge from person to person. In 'Work Measurement', the concept of 'standard rating' is introduced. By setting a 'standard', that is, the rate which a quantified worker could perform in the task, the project manager can base on the reference figure to evaluate the rating of the actual workers in site. Then, the normal time required for the same group of workers to perform another similar job can be estimated. This allows a more accurate judgement on the time required to complete individual tasks and eventually the finishing date of the project. Subsequently, there could be better allocation and distribution of resources or alternation of flow which will enhance the efficiency of the construction activity. For the above example, the rating of the workers associated with the dispatching of concrete is 50 (half to the standard), then they are likely to spend 20 minutes to tamp the concrete if the activity has a standard time of 10 minutes. The 'Work Measurement' reinforces the 'Method Study' as a more accurate duration time involving human effort can be obtained. Last but not least, if the performance of the workers in the project is found to be unsatisfactory, then the company can know it needs to motivate, educate its workers so that their performance can be improved in the subsequent projects.