The Construction Methodology Of Laying Pipes Construction Essay

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The pipe is usually placed in the trench, and great care must be taken when working in the trenches. There are several tips for laying a sewerage pipes:

Each trench that deeper than 1200mm (4 feet) should be properly supported or shored up and trenches will be excavated only when necessary.

Excavation of trench should allow for the working space and bedding around the pipes.

In advance of pipe-laying the trenches should not be open too far

The trench width must keep to the minimum because of every pipe diameter plus 300mm

Pipe-laying basics

The process of handling, cutting and jointing varies for each type of pipe and its associated range of fittings, but the general principles remain the same.

Firstly, the entire pipe should be placed in a straight line to a steady gradient and to ensure consistency and accuracy in the alignment and leveling of the laying pipe, a taut string line, sight rails or a laser line is used. Then, if necessary they will prepared the bedding in advance, with a recess scooped out to accommodate sockets.

After that, the entire pipes can be laid on to a full bedding of granular material and not propped up on bricks, bits of stone, broken flagstones and others. The pipe should be consolidated into bedding or packed bedding under it until the correct alignment and level as indicated by the guidelines determined by the string or laser.

The type of bedding needed will be determined by structural analysis. The structural analysis can be made with our recommendations to bedding the pipe and pipe strength when supplying the necessary details such as type of soil, trench design, loads, life loads and additional loads.

The important part is to ensure that the soil around the base of the pipe is firm. Loose soil has to compact mechanically to prevent landslide and for the soft soil, it should be removed and replaced by non-cohesive soil. The bed at the base of the trench should be prepared so that the pipe, when placed, it can be supported along its barrel.

Bedding Types

There are many factors need to consider of the construction methodology of laying a sewerage pipes, not least of which is attached to the relative strength of each type of the pipe, and the impact that has on the laying technique.

Two special methods of bedding, the first for each type of pipe, illustrated opposite. There are a lot of 'classes' of bedding to the drainage, which is designed to meet all kinds of soil conditions, type of pipe and the anticipated loadings. Each class is identified by different letters. Depending on pipes material, two types of bedding is required to protect the pipes from ruptures or breakages.

Bedding detail for rigid pipes (Vitrified clay) Bedding detail for flexible pipes (ABS pipes)

KEY

Selected Fill - no stones over 40mm or no lumps of clay over 100mm or no organic or frozen material

Selected Fill or Granular materials

Granular materials - 10mm single size or 14 and 5mm graded

The reasons of different bedding type between vitrified clay (rigid) pipes and ABS (flexible) pipes.

Vitrified clayware (Rigid pipes)

ABS-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

(Flexible pipes)

As we can see from the bedding detail of vitrified clayware (Rigid pipes), the pipe was placed in the middle between two layers of soil.

The materials of vitrified clayware are stronger than the ABS (flexible) pipes equivalents, which is pipes made of clay that has undergone vitrification, a process that fuses the clay particles into an inert, very difficult, glass-like state and are less susceptible to deformation when buried.

Therefore, clayware depend less on the efficiency of the granular bedding material to withstand the external loading.

These pipes can often be placed directly into the trench trimmed and shaped, while the ABS pipes must be surrounded by small selected gravel or pea-shingle

Although, vitrified pipe also has great structural strength, which allows it to support loads of several thousand pounds without losing its shape

Mechanical barrier of vitrified clayhas grown so over the last decade. Currently, a vitrified claypipe has the same mechanical strength of reinforced concrete pipe. Typically, the installation done on the sand bed of 90 °.

Vitrified clay pipes have and to hold the smooth surface (wall roughness between 0.02 and 0.05 mm). Especially in the case of limited slope, offers quite a few advantages. Because the defense of high erosion, vitrified clay pipes can even be used for slopes up to 10 m / sec., without danger of material damage.

Vitrified clay pipesof the life cycle are calculated for 80 to 100 years, even in the most difficult conditions. In addition,vitrified clay pipe is the only material that holds regular rinsingand clogging the technique of high water pressure. This means that the Vitrifiedof clay pipes can be written for a longer period of time and maintenance, renovation and replacement costs may be limited to the lower level.

Vitrified clay has a low coefficient of thermal expansion in action of excessive compensation. In the case of sudden temperature shock, may be required to take protective action (such as cold water buffer).

Pipes buried channels may be depressed by the traffic load and the local landfill. In specific applications additional risks may result from the influence of temperature and internal pressure.

Once installed, the vitrifiedclay pipe requires very little maintenance. Vitrifiedclay pipe also score very high in relation to all the requirements that must be imposed on sewer pipes, and reached a very long working time. Important properties mentioned above do not degrade over time. That's especially true for jacking pipes, because they are structurally too excessive for optimal use and then sleep in the land.

ABS is a modern thermoplastic polymer found in everyday applications

Acrylonitrile chemical resistance and stiffness rigidity, butadiene endows products with the impact strength, toughness and abrasion resistance, Styrene contributes luster, processing facilities and rigidity

ABS formula was developed to optimize their performance in relation to tensile strength, chemical resistance, ductility, resistance to weathering, heat stability, and low toxicity, does not stain and ease of processing from raw materials to finished products.

ABS is very strong and powerful over the recommended temperature range -40°C to +70°C.

Lightweight ABS pipe and fittings are made lighter for easy user friendly. The installer found that physical disability is required in handling and use.

ABS pipe and fittings, making it easy and quick to assemble. ABS pipe has the power to destroy the soil load, slab foundations and high surface loads without collapsing. It is also resistant to the effects of accidental misuse of public for the construction and operation of piping.

Storage and Handling of ABS pipe is preferred to be kept in the room to protect it from direct sunlight which may cause the pipe to expand unevenly. Should have tap on the support of ABS stores flat to prevent sagging or bending. Although the ABS pipe is very difficult, tough and easy to handle, do not drag on rough ground.

Elements of butadiene in ABS afford unparalleled resistance to impact. ABS is a relatively ductile thermoplastic, which shows very high impact strength compared with other thermoplastics such as UPVC, especially at low temperatures. ABS is unique in maintaining a high level of impact strength at sub zero temperatures and is significantly superior to most of the thermoplastics used in plumbing.

ABS is a ductile material like copper and soft failure modes. Failure is by ductile distortion and tear, and local capacity to minimize the loss of the contents of the pipe. Conversely, crack and fragmentation of brittle material failure to participate in dangerous.

ABS is not affected by both internal and external chemical attack by various types of acid, alkali, salt, ground water and other environmental factors.

ABS is a weather-resistant polymer available today. ABS piping systems for outdoor installation in extreme conditions without any further surface protection. Long-term exposure to weather elements will result in some minor degradation of the surface open. Removal decision is reduced gloss level, and the shift in surface color to light gray, and is limited to only the surface open. Long-term exposure to sunlight for a long time had a minimal impact on the physical properties of the ABS system.

All thermoplastics expand at a greater level of metal. Development is not necessary because the attention is not necessarily in the design and installation of ABS piping systems is taken as long as recognition at the design stage. Flexural modulus of ABS for reduced steel that results in reducing the burden on the tools and equipment arising from thermal strains.

Question 2

Nowadays, a landscaping contractor and designer are the most popular job in construction industry. A landscape contractor working with customers to design, develop, maintain or plants provided a beautiful area. Some landscape contractors to work with customers to design housing in the yard, gardens and beautiful natural areas in residential areas while others are working with the government garden, business or even to maintain the current grass area or to the landscape and develop new areas or who have there. Most of the landscape contractors offering garden design services from or to the right page in the maintenance area during the year. Customers may choose to use all or some services based on the needs and desire to work in their own garden or simply enjoy the beauty.

There are several services or contractor task involves in landscaping:

Supply and placement of soil fertilizers and drainage material to the client places.

Supply, planting & tending of trees, palms & shrubs, foliage, plants & turf as per specifications that clients need.

Then, the contractors have to check the planting areas for discrepancies.

After that, transporting the plants from nursery to site.

Also have to check the plants condition & type upon delivery.

Need a proper storage for plants.

Planting should commence in 2 days time upon delivery.

Watering and tending for specify period.

Landscape contractor usually begins with the project met with the customer. At this time they discuss the types of parks or green spaces that are required to share their ideas to clients, including trees, flowers or even weeds to be most suitable for the area. Most of the landscape contractor will have produced a computer model, drawing or blue print for the customer to check the landscape. One of the most important aspects of the first meeting is to help clients understand what is not suitable for crops or growing area. Sometimes customers have a realistic desire for a particular crop is not grown in the area, so the contractor should work to clarify this issue. Once the final plan is developed landscape contractors and coordinate the purchase or plants or grazing, and supervises the work.

Landscaping contractors who have their own business should focus on advertising and increase their customer base. Because the ad says the mouth is very important to provide quality service to every customer is a must. Landscape contractors will be answering questions, keep the project on the timeline or notify customers of any changes. He will also hire, train and supervise staff and even a contract with the nursery or landscape supply companies.

General work activities include:

Meeting with clients to determine the type of plant, garden style or a need for the area.

Consult with customers about the options for the plant, the type of grass or even shrubs and trees that will grow in developing regions.

Marketing services company, including overseeing advertising landscape.

Invoice customers and collect payment for landscaping work or maintenance area, including the ongoing maintenance of the garden and mow the lawn.

Hiring, supervision, training and fire personnel. Often this may include lay-off during the winter in some climates and regions.

Agreements with various suppliers and outside vendors to ensure projects run smoothly and stay on schedule.

Many companies, both large and small, hire landscape contractors to assist in the planning, design, and maintain the property surrounding their buildings. This article will explain the process involved in the implementation of landscape design for commercial office buildings.

Landscaping should be an office building is planned. It begins in the office by putting the leading landscape contractor. One is to find landscape contractors who specialize in commercial landscape in the yellow pages of a telephone directory or by searching online.

This is a good idea to select several potential contractors and interview each separately to see the landscape contractor can offer the best service and the best price within your budget. By doing this, you can get to know each landscape contractor. Each will feature a different talent.

Once you decide to landscape contractors, then you will want to sit down with him to design your landscape plan. A well designed landscape will be something to beautify the outside of your building and capture the attention of every person who walks by your company. Everyone likes to see a nicely decorated and well maintained land.

As part of the planning process, landscape contractor will carefully evaluate your hotel and plan to offer some suggestions. The contractor will take measurements, angle of figure and space, and take shape and the ground around your building and then provide ideas and suggestions on the best type of commercial landscaping will match your hotel. At this time, you will be able to share your thoughts about what you want to see in the case of trees, shrubs, grasses, flowers and many others.

During the landscape design of office buildings, landscape contractors are also able to discuss certain types of plants that will build the best and look good around your building. He will be able to discuss the types of flowers, trees, and shrubs that will be most appropriate for your hotel.

The contractor will help you select plants to accent your building and which will have a life, the longest fully based on climate, air quality, and traffic across the hotel. To some office buildings, factories will work best for lasting climate change, and for other office buildings will Annuals work best. The types of plants, trees, flowers, and shrubs will depend on the type of land your building is located on the traffic and weather, air quality and the distance across the land.

Finally, after all the planning and design done, the landscape contractor will bring a professional team is trained to perform the installation of landscaping. After installation is complete the landscape, the same company may be hired by you to maintain the landscape throughout the year. They will perform services such as cutting grass, trimming trees and bushes, planting flowers, laying mulch, and clean the hotel either on a weekly, two-weekly, or monthly. Landscape treatment schedule will depend on regular clothes and tears you land, as well as your budget is appointed.

Landscape maintenance level office building is very important. If you are investing money in the commercial landscape, it is very important that you follow a strict maintenance schedule. Do you really want your investment to go away and you'll want your hotel to see well kept and trimmed at any time. Therefore, you should discuss options with the contractors landscape maintenance plan. Many plants, trees, flowers and other shrubs will require weekly attention if they look beautiful and healthy.

In conclusion, the landscape of office buildings is something that all hotel owners should consider. Today, more and more companies are hiring contractors for landscape design, design, and maintain their property. Remember, one of the first clients, customers or visitors will get your company is visible from the outside because of how they walked

You'll never get another chance to make a first impression, so you should consider hiring a landscape contractor specializing in commercial landscape to keep all of the features that surround the office building.

Question 3

Road construction requires the creation of the right-way-continuously, overcoming geographic barriers and has a low enough value to allow the vehicle or foot travel may be required to meet the standards set by law or official guidelines. This process often begins with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of dikes, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of the pavement.

The factors of road design are influence by:

Type of subgrade

Liability of subsidence

Initial cost

Maintenance cost

Appearance

Resistance to wear

Non-skid qualities

Type of subgrade and lialibility of subsidence

After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been discussed by a surveyor appointed road alignment. The radius and the slope of the best designed and lurking in accordance with the natural ground level and minimizes the amount of cut and fills. Great care is taken to keep all references.

Road requires a stable platform that will be built on. That's why earthmoving operations to be done before the paving of the road base, asphalt and the surface layer. What are the techniques used in the rolling compaction? In which direction will the results affect the structure of soil compaction? Nature does not always provide the ideal base for road construction: natural stone. Therefore excavation operations are usually the first step in the construction of new roads. When the program was established and went, the land underlying the new road should be prepared. Stable soil compaction will lead the way is the most important processes in the construction of the ground. His job is to reduce the volume of the pores in the soil will be compacted, which is filled with water and air. Soil compaction will provide the desired properties: Its resistance to stress caused by traffic and climate will be improved by increasing stability while reducing the tendency to swell due to water absorption. The last addition will make the soil resistant to frost.

Non-cohesive and cohesive soil is different processes for different types of soil. In cohesive soil such as clay, clay or dust, soil particles in the bonding with one another. In non-cohesive soil such as gravel or sand, the particles lying side by side without binding. Soil types can be distinguished as follows in terms compactability: the ground water, well grained cohesive soil, non-cohesive coarse grained soil, a mixture of fine and coarse grained soil, and rocks. Dynamic compaction is an effective dynamic compaction by vibrating or oscillating compaction equipment has proved very effective in earthmoving operations. Compaction produced by the combined action of vibrating or oscillating roller drum and the weight of the machine itself. Applying dynamic loads to achieve the effects of compaction are significantly higher than just performing gravity.Compaction requires more than just the weight of the intensity of compaction determined by three factors that influence: displacement of the roller drum, which means that the amplitude of vibration or oscillation, the repetition of the vibration or oscillation, the mean frequency, and duration, which means the roller's travel speed. When this parameter is set correctly, the density is determined to be achieved in fewer passes roller.

General fill material should be free from organic, to meet the required minimum bearing California (CBR) results and a low plasticity index. Lower fill generally consists of sand or sand-rich mixture of fine gravel, which acts as inhibitors of plant growth or other plant material. Compacted fill also serves as drainage bottom strata. Select the contents of both (sieved) should consist of gravel, decomposed rock or broken rock below a certain particle size and free of chunks of clay. Stockpiles of sand clay can also be used. Road bed must be "proof rolled" after each layer of compacted fill. The roller through the area without creating visible deformation or spring is considered the meeting. The sidewalks are designed for life or the expected service life design. Care to be considered in the total cost of living all the way to the milestone years of service at 10, 20 and 30. When pavement lasts longer than the mean age, he may have been overbuilt, and the actual cost may have been too high. When the pavement fails before the intended design life, the owner may have excessive service and cost recovery.

Distress and loss of service due to the way of concrete may lose support because of voids under the concrete pavement sheet. Cavity occurs near the crack or joint due to the influence of surface water. The most common source of the void is pumping, consolidation, failure and failure of basic land bridge approaches. Slab stabilization is a non-destructive method to solve this problem and is usually used with other concrete pavement restoration (CPR) methods, including patch and diamond grinding. These techniques to return the support to concrete reinforced by filling a small cavity under the plate is developed in the concrete at the joints, cracks or edge of pavement. This process consists of pumping grout cementitous or polyurethane mixture through holes drilled through the slab. These nuts can fill a small cavity under the plate and / or sub-base.

Slab stabilization is not completely depressed, increasing the capacity of structural design, stop erosion and eliminate faults. However, return the support slab, therefore, reduced deflection under load. Stabilization can only be done on the joints and cracks in the loss of support there. Visual inspection is the simplest way to find the void. It is recommended to do this test at night as during the cooler temperatures, open joints, the bond between the aggregate is reduced and the deflection load at their highest.

Initial cost

Road construction is very different based on location. A stone path in the mountains may cost several hundred times more than the flat one on the ground. Similarly, the construction of the road in a remote location will sometimes be more expensive because the costs for equipment and material to the site. Other times, probably more expensive to build roads in the city because of increased costs associated with rerouting traffic around the structure of the existing reviews, and connect to other roads, driveways, and others. Some way must be built on poor soil, uneven terrain, or over the same difficult situation. Urban roads are usually flat, while the Interstates and other roads paid to the bank so as to promote a better control on top of vehicles at high speeds. It goes without saying that each situation differently. Depending on how we define "street" and whether it includes tunnells, bridges, and other channels for their own way, a few miles to the road segment costs billions. another way, in the outskirts of, say, for example, a road extension on flat ground, with no existing structure to deal with and a good, hard ground under it, will only be charged a few thousand dollars. It depends on what we define as "buildings" as well. Does this include things like the cost of surveys, demolition and plans? Or is it just the asphalt and the machine and the hours to lay the asphalt? What kind of asphalt roads, or whether it is preparation that goes into place? All this does not even reach the question, is one way a rock band?One lane each way or eight way each way of road?

Maintenance cost

For the maintenance cost, as pavement systems primarily fail because of fatigue failure (in a manner similar to metals), the damage done to improve the pavement with the fourth power of the axial load vehicles traveling on it. Civil engineers consider the axial load trucks, current and projected truck traffic volume, supporting soil properties (can be measured by using CBR) and drainage sub-class in design. Passenger cars are not considered to have practical effect in the pavement service life, from the perspective of fatigue.

Other failure modes include surface abrasion and aging. As the years passed, a binder in an asphalt wearing course to become more rigid and less flexible. When getting "old" enough, the surface will begin to lose the aggregate, and dramatically increase the depth macrotexture. If no maintenance action is to quickly charge the course potholing will take place. If the road is still sound structure, asphalt surface treatments, such as surface dressing chipseal or may extend the life of roads with low costs. In regions with cold climates, studded tires may be found in passenger cars. Several design methods have been developed to determine the thickness and composition of the surface of the road needed to bring the expected traffic load for a certain period.

Regardless of how carefully planned a road transport and construction, the surface would be transformed by the constant pounding of transport vehicles. Although the reduction can be controlled to a large extent by the type of surface material used, the supplier still must assume mine a road maintenance schedule is necessary for the safety and economy. Dust, hole, rut, depression, lumps, and poor surface conditions can and will happen on every road surface. If the left does not improve, they may prevent the engine and damage control transport. When met with a rolling tire surface scars, there is a tendency to deflect from the musical journey. So, drivers are forced to compensate the difference by increasing its steering effort. If the surface deformation is too large or if the driver is not aware of it before the impact, the total loss of control may result. Often, even if the driver can negotiate with the rudder surface irregularities, a tendency to overcompensate will be after the danger has passed can result in loss of control. In addition to lowering safety, road damage can be expensive from the standpoint of maintenance. Although surface mining equipment designed to receive enough trouble, his life could be improved if rough handling kept to a minimum. Wear in almost every component of a significant increase when the vehicle runs on a rough surface. Roadside ditches and culverts should be inspected and cleaned regularly to ensure that no obstacles are present. If not cleaned, drainage facilities may overflow in wet weather and cause corrosion of the road surface or saturation of the sub base.

Question 4

Cladding of the building enclosure does not support the vertical load other than its own weight and strength of the environment. The main purpose of the cladding is to separate the indoor environment of a building from outside. Cladding should prevent entry of water, such as rain, snow and ice in the building. This should slow the course of water vapor, causing staining problems, loss of insulation value, and corrosion. Cladding should regulate the light, especially sunlight, reduce glare effects. Have to endure the necessary heat conduction in and out of the building. This should isolate the interior from outside noise, or vice versa.

Joints should be designed so that they can meet the following requirements:

Exclude wind and rain

Allow for structural, thermal and moisture movement

Good durability

Easily maintained

Easily made or assembled

Riveting

There are many type of jointing. One of the jointing is by riveting. Panels can be fastened together or joined with other materials to the public rivets for aluminum construction. For outdoor use and for use in high humidity areas, aluminum blind rivets with stainless steel mandrils are used to avoid the ugly side of corrosive

Mechanical fixing

Another jointing is mechanical fixing: Cladding can be mechanically secured in place using the threaded or fastening screws or rivets. Rivets and screws have a minimum of1 5-20 mm from the edge of the panel when the fix. Care should be taken to ensure that the diameter of the hole allows you to develop tools and materials are not tightened as this will cause the de-formation of the surface. Wind often causes uneven pressure on the wall. Pressure variations in the field of the wall can cause the movement of wind, life behind the cladding. Air movement can move the water through the casing to the wall. It is important to close the air space in the corners of the building. A lot of water can running into the wall if the joints have inclined to. If the climate is not very accurate which can be used in horizontal joints with tilted outward.

Coating and Spray Finishing

For the jointing spray coating and finishing, use of air drying acrylic or polyurethane varnish two components are required. If the panel is over smoothed it must be bent or folded at a later date.

In the case of cladding systems are very easy assembly. Grid is organized and controlled easily, accept the changes needed for local employment and work in the field to ensure leverage of each heat expansion could cause the movement, and any changes regarding the installation and positioning. Quality of work may be most likely to be secured regardless of experience producing, for possible corrective interventions and adjustments in the field. Jobs respect the insertion of the final cover and finishing a very tight and completely controlled, thus insuring the cladding acts as insulation high quality. Method of cladding is one of the many advantages to high-end solutions, each of which contains of course the weakness. Steel has a relatively poor power to weight ratio, rust if not treated, and apparently fragile under pressure. While aluminum has high energy costs were relatively early, but the fact that aluminum manufacturing capability and offers high flexibility, low-cost, used, and also a wide range of colors. It is predicted that the aluminum will be more widely used in construction

Conditioning

Timber and wood-based products to expand to take water from the air and fell on the loss of moisture. It is important that the panel is mounted near the water with which they will achieve in service

Panel to panel joints

All connections should allow for small dimensional changes which may occur on the substrate, or panel repair as a result of changes in temperature and relative humidity. It will be more evident in the external cladding and envelope from the inner layer where the initial movement for the content of the water balance may change dimensions only. In certain circumstances it is possible to produce a flush joint (or connection) between several panels without allowing for the movement, providing an appropriate interest created around composite panels. Joints in the internal wall and ceiling lining should be visually acceptable. Joints that require the external envelope for air and water tight provides a level sufficient for the structure.

Joints that require external cladding to visually acceptable and protect the structure from view under the wind and rain, but avoid retention of moisture in the joints, or voids adjacent panel on the back. Horizontal joints need to be very effective, especially on the head wall, or in which an uninterrupted façade with windows and other openings. Joints on the surface to be painted need to allow maintenance of the surface layer in a crevice formed.

Structural Aspects of Design for the Precast Concrete Wall

This is one example of the cladding system using precast concrete wall system. It is most often constructed as a curtain wall or veneer, in which no building loads are transferred to the concrete panel. Most precast concrete wall system typically must withstand lateral loads directly served on it, such as from wind and earthquakes, as well as vertical loads due to self weight of precast concrete wall system. This burden must be spread over the walls and structural elements of secondary structure. Other expenses such as erection, effects, related construction, and transportation must also be taken into account in the design. It is important to evaluate the design, detail and tension precast panel for not imposing an undesirable load to the panel.

The connection between the panels must be wide enough to accommodate differential thermal expansion and movement between the panels. The connection between the panels of the most frequently covered with a sealant to prevent water penetration in the wall cavity. Cavity wall and back wall up that is usually covered with a waterproof membrane to give a second line of protection against water penetration into the building.

MOISTURE PROTECTION

The most common moisture protection system used with precast concrete wall system is a system combines barrier with an adequate seal. In some cases where additional moisture protection is needed, the implementation of concrete sealer or coating is used. Sealers may be transparent or pigmented if used as the increasing appearance of precast. Film forming coatings are usually offer a higher level of performance but will have a significant impact on the performance of precast concrete units.

Precast concrete panels should be designed to provide the appropriate level of resistance to planned exposure. Durability can be enhanced by setting a minimum compressive strength, maximum water to cement ratio, and a range of measures of air entrained.

FIRE SAFETY

Precast concrete wall systems are not considered to provide greater improvements in fire safety of concrete cast-in-place. In fact, for a high rise precast concrete panels can cause a serious safety hazard when a fire occurred which destroyed and caused the panel to panel connection and then fell from the building.

ACOUSTICS

A precast concrete wall system and cast-in-place facade will give a similar performance on the sound transmission from outside to the inside of the building. However, depressed and open joints between panels to provide a situation in which the transmission of sound to the interior could be improved.

MAINTAINABILITY

When properly constructed precast concrete panel system requires some care. The most important maintenance item for precast panels is the sealant in the joints and protection systems, if used. If the layer of sealer or concrete has been used for aesthetics or to minimize the penetration of water into the panel, sealer or coating will require reapplication. Time frame for sealant and surface protection a system vary widely but typically ranges from every 7 to 20 years.

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