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However, the building industry has been slow in resposning to international calls for sustainability, partly because education of architecture and engineering remains uneven. A more integrated process of interation between building systems and festures is necessary rather than independent work. For this integrated approach to take place, the design and construction workface need to be educated in a dynamic and engaged environement to learn the appropriate skills and etchniques (Riley, 2006)
To comply with sustaibable property development through the building industry, it is necessary to have the following aims in mind; self-sufficiency of a property by use of renewable energy from unconventional sources, closed cycles in buildings i.e. saving drinking water and recycling technological water, and to analyse the life cycle for each material and building lement (Sobotka & Wyatt, 1998) once thses aims have been complied with, a property will save a vast amount of energy.
As well as implementing sustainable development, agenda 21 deals with the construction industry. It ensures ecologically sound land-use policies, energy effienect design and an increase in locally available resources (United Nations 1992) this had become so essential because 60% of UK CO2 emissions come from the construction industry and the burning of fossil fuels, 22% from the traveling of people between buildings. (BRE, 1998) and 10% from the production of building materials in the UK, which accounts for 29% of national energy use (CIRIA, 1994)
There has been advanced research undertaken in the UK to develop methods of introducing sustainabke development into building techniques, such as material supply chain, design, construction and explitation of buildings, building resiurces and wate recovery management (Rutter and Wyatt 1996). Because of this the Governement have recently begun taking steps to reduce the vast smount of emission the construction industry emits, however the green approach in UK residential propery market has lagged nehind a number of oher European countried (Van Haal, 1997) so it is important the steps are taken now. Seager, (2007) states that various UK companies such as Braratt Homes recently lauched the 'UK Green Building Coucil' to attempt to improve the construction industry's sustaibanily over next 10yeras.
The govrement believes the constrcuion industry can dramatically reduce its harmsful emissions as set out in Sustainable Development: The UK Strategy (DETR, 1994) by measures such as: Purchaisng of locally produced materials, minimizing constructionw atsre, reduing the pollution risk during construcyion, and reducing levels of energy used in the construction process. (Keeping 2004)
The importance of environemtal issues are likely to carry on growing and occupiers will want their buildinsg to conform to 'freen criteria' where practicak (Wootton et al 1991) this view appears to be correct as green considerations are now influencing aspects of design, development,, management of buildings in termsn of location and transport related issues, site specific environemstal impact assessments, chouce of building materials, energy use, purchasing policy, maintenaince, indoor qior quality and user health and comfort (Shiers, 2000)
There is definitely a demand for green development and they are now seen as an oppurnity rather than just to meet future legal green targets and oculd become one of the most exciting financial opportunities in the UK property market in recent years; which is showne by the growing number of green properties in the commercial market, at present there are 280 green commercial peorperties in the Uk (BRE 1999) suggesting such developments are fundanetally better, more healthy, less expensive to rum, more sttractive to occupiers and the public and ultimately have the potential to be more profitable (Shiers, 2000)
The number of developers procuring green commercial building has grown since the launch of the BREEAM programme in 1991 (Shiers, 2000) by the building research establishment (BRE.) this involves a marking system of four outcomes to determine the eco-friendliness of a building. This has been so successful that green buildings now account for 25%-30% of the office space build since 1991 and an estimated 40% of all schemes in the last three years (BRE 1999)
The Handbook of Susitable Building (1996) offers another schmes similar to BREEAM, it includes rankings of building materials in consideration of their impact on the environment, also including the three levels used to evaluate the damage on the environment; science and politics, market/consumer and purely usable (Boonstra et al, 1996)
To employ sustainability in a building there are two fundamental issues that need to be solved, there are:measuing the negative impact your building has on the environment, by means such as measuring CO@ emission furing energy production for the building and developing an appropraiate methodology for designing, constructing, utilizing and managing resources in a sustainable manner (Sobotka & Wyatt, 1998) once these issues have been dealt with the following features can be used to make a building 'green;; low-nergy lighting, natural ventilation techniques, thermally efficient designes including heat recovery systems, thermal mass hea t stirage and high performance external walls. (Shiers, 200)
The green Guide to Specification - An Environemt Profilling System for Materials and OCmponents, similar to the previous methids was introduces to enable peropel to see and understand how environmentally freindsly the materials there wret sing for building wre. (Anderson ey al, 2002)
Another method used to reduce emissions is thorugh the Constrcutin Bes Practice Progarnmme, the programme is a source of support for individuals and companies funeded by the Department of Trade and iNdustrt (DTA). (Keeping, 2004)(
The second wat the Government have tried to make the construction industru more sustainale sis through the Construction Taks Force, chaored by Sor John Egan in 1997. the Cobstruction Taks Force advised the Deputy Prime Minister on opportunities for improvemrnt of the UK construction industry including making it sustainable (www.) this lead to the Movement for Innovation; a body of people to acilitate the changes in construction that was becoming so popular, launched in November 1998 (Keeping 2004)
The UK Governement published a report in May 1999 titled, ' A better quality of life for everyone, now and ofr generation to come' (DETR, 1999). The construction industry was decribed in this report as having 'a huge contribution to make to improve the quality of life â€¦ by providing â€¦ safe and secire building â€¦ and by ensuring the industry itself works in a sustainable way' (DTI, 2000). The report shows the importance of the construction industry in reducing negative emission and implies doing this will improve the quality of life in the UK.
As a result of many of the aforementioned changes, building regulations changed to incorporate a standard assessment procedure (SAP_ in July 1995, meaning all homes have to have a SAP rating. The SAP is an indicator of the efficiency of a house in relation to space ans water heating and is expressed on a scale from 0 to 100 with 100 being the most efficeicnt. There is currently no minimum SAP rating however if a dwelling has a U-value (a measure of air to heat transmission) of 60 of less it must take action to improve its U-values. (Todd, 1995) Table 1 shows the standard U-values as stated in the 1991 buidling regulations, Conservation of fuel and power Part L.
The 2006 building regulations include much higher U-values, this is due to the Government wanting everyone to better insulate their homes so that heating is used less to reduce emissions.
It can be seen for example, that the U-values for walls have increased, along with floors and windows. This is all to try and counter act the impacts of climate change.
The Government need to lead everyone into sustainable living by example; they need to do this through means such as buying localled produced goods as well as through their policies. (DEFRA, 2002). Showing people what to do will encourage them to take similar steps, which is happening now through previously mentioned methods such as CCL's.