Growing rebellion in Construction industry has put up a serious challenge for the project managers in construction to improve their efficiency proper planning for future. To meet the growing demands of efficiency and effectiveness various plans, theories and principles are established defining the planning process in construction.
Such most successful plan of work that is widely used in UK construction industry is the Process protocol. In 2001, the first high level process was developed by a research team at the University of Salford, UK. It took over a period of six years to completely develop the process protocol. In conjunction of nine collaborating companies and inputs from various design and structural engineering companies, project and construction management specialists the process protocol evolved.
This report shall deal with critical analysis using the process protocol method for the CTG project and an evaluation of potential advantages and disadvantages of moving towards the use of a generic Process Protocol.
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The Centre for Technology in Construction is aiming at the security and cost effective goal along with the physical, environmental, social and political settings. The planning methodologies adopted for the CTG identify the vivid issues and constrains pertaining during the whole lifecycle of the project. The definition of Project Management as stated by the CIOB (1998) in Turner (2002) as "the overall planning, control and coordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting client's requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards."
This report deals with the process options and its advantages and disadvantages. The two process methods used for the mapping and analyzing the CTG are: RIBA plan of work and The Generic Design & Construction Process Protocol (GDCPP). This report comprised of four components viz. the CTG project background, mapping done from constructor's point of view using the RIBA plan of work, mapping using the Process Protocol and identifying the value adding and wasteful activities.
1.2 Project Brief:
Located at Liverpool, The Centre for technology in government (CTG) is a high tech facility building with office space and an area of 250,000 square foot. CTG is built for housing world class super computers and a nuclear design weapons design staff. The client brief specifies balance safety, security, efficiency, life-cycle costs, working conditions, and the need for flexibility to address changing advanced technology for the effective and efficient execution of the public administration. From late 2008 the project went through the planning phase till date.
It is crucial to take into consideration the safety, security, efficiency, life-cycle costs, working conditions and the need for flexibility to address changing computing technology. Accessibility, aesthetic, functional, etc are the various project goals. To operate super computers under an extremely secure environment security and safety is one of the key concerns of the project as for the need. Greater demands for energy by the super computers raise the need for the energy efficient and sustainable goals.
2.1 Mapping the process:
To deal with the planning, scheduling and controlling of the CTG project the Royal Institute of Builders Architect plan of work used will be used. RIBA was established in the in 1964 and the as it is widely accepted as in operational model throughout building industry.
Accordingly the CTG will be categorized in the following steps:
Preparation Inception Feasibility
Design Outline Scheme Detail Proposal Design Design Stage
Preparing to Build
Product Bill of Quantities Tender Action
Project Operations on Site Completion
Inception: Inception involves briefing of the very basic and initial process of the project. It deals with the generating the summary of requirements of the project, need of the project etc. with detail discussion with the client organization. An Architect is appointed and various meeting for discussion with the architect and client and other consultants is held to detail in the project brief. (www1)
Feasibility: Feasibility is about exploring all possible options to reach the project goal. Evaluating detailed requirements for the project, to know about statutory approvals on land, zoning, planning, designing and budgeting for taking the decisions and freezing the project brief. As CTG is a nuclear project it is very sensitive in nature and thus a detail study related to its safety, eco-friendly plans, and sustainability needs to be taken into consideration. In order to define the project stages, making certain that it is feasible in all aspects viz. functionally, design wise, technically, and budget wise the client organization is provided with an feasibility report including the market feasibility, cost feasibility, and financial feasibility issues etc. (www2)
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Once the above stages and briefs are freeze begins the design stage.
Outline Proposal: It involves setting out goals such in order to achieve the project objectives. For the CTG project the client has already specified the goals viz. accessible goal, aesthetic goal, Cost effective goal, functional goal, productive goal secure and safe goal, and sustainable goal. Thus in this stage various aspects to outline these goals are determined. It might also include appointing different consultants for the project such as the landscape consultant, structural consultant etc. From the research and accompanying report the client then authenticates the whole process and then the mapping proceeds to the next stage of designing.
Scheme Design: From the collected information such geological study of the site conditions, climatic conditions, project briefing etc a bubble diagram, zoning, draft estimate of cost and time span of the whole project is worked out by the design team. As per the demand of the client one or more conceptual drawings will be produced by the architect from which the most feasible, promising and cost effective proposal can be chosen. Different presentation tools and software are used to clear the idea and for the perfection of the presentation.
Detail Design stage: One the conceptual design freezes the detailing of the whole design as a project begins. Absolute design of every component of the building is prepared in co-ordination with the different consultants such as the structural consultant, Mechanical electrical and plumbing consultant, landscape consultant, environmental engineer etc
2.4 Preparing To Build: Once the design and preparation stages are thoroughly finalized only then the preparing to build stage is executed. Any change in the above shall result in the drastic change in the later stage. Preparing to build involves following stages:
Product Information: It involves specification of materials fro the project in consultation with the clients. Also the scheduling of the project and evaluating the estimation and costing are defined. Final statutory approvals and other related information are collected in this stage.
Bill Of Quantities: As the title suggests this stage involves preparing bill of quantities and tender documents for the next stage of tender action. Quantity surveyor and the architect help the client in prepare BOQ and bidding document.
Tender Action: The Owner selects and hires the Contractor. If the Owners are choosing from among several Contractors, the Architect can help to prepare bidding documents as well as invitations to bid and instructions to bidders, the conditions of the contract, and the form of agreement between the Owner and the contractor. (www3)
Project Planning: According to Kerzner (2006) effective planning of a project and the execution of the plans to perfection is one of the most important and difficult functions of the project manager. Project planning involves not only formulation but execution of plans through efficient and effective of available resources throughout the duration of the project. Lockyer and Gordon (2005) cited A project plan in its simplest form is an attempt at a time table for all activities which make up the project. It forms the first major step in the project management process, and sets out 'how', 'who does what' and 'when'. At the next stage of sophistication it will also state 'to what level of performance and quality' and at 'what cost'. At a yet higher stage of sophistication it will also be related to the availability of the resources required to carry out the activities. (Lockyer and Gordon, 2005). Following are the tools for project planning in CTG:
Work breakdown structure: This provides all the project participants with a hierarchically structured division of the work required for a project (Lockyer and Gordon, 2005).This tool is used to breakdown a complex project in to smaller activities or work packages in order for ease of allocating resources and responsibilities to participants for managing the different parts of the project (Lock, 2007). This is suitable for a project like the CTG because its complexity and size will make it very difficult to manage without downsizing the project in to smaller parts and a lack of detailed WBS may bring about cost and time overruns (Lock, 2007). The building project is divided in to the various elements which will enable elemental cost planning and cost control. Organizational Breakdown Structure: This is the design of an organizational structure in order to fit the particular project. It only represents the departments that are going to be directly involved in carrying out the project task and is based on the functions that participants are to perform (Lock, 2007). And the extent of the level of the OBS is influenced by the size of the organization and the project. Based on the WBS of the CTG, the organization is structured based on the activities that are to be carried out on the project.
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Fig.1 group3 OBS
Gantt chart: It represents the duration of an activity in a project in a graphical way. The advantages of Gantt chart over other tools are that it does not require skilled employees to work it out, is easy to understand and use.
Critical Path: To determine the whole duration of the project CPM is most used method. It describes a chain of activities to be submitted on time to complete the project on time. If used in CTG, it can be helpful in meeting behind schedule of the time, resources, and activities to the mark.
Operations on site: This is physically the last stage of construction. Its about the various on-site activities as the name suggests. In CTG the operations on site can be classified as follows:
Site setting up: the site is fully prepared before the construction work starts by cleaning the site, fencing it, making proper road networks and linkages, building site office and storage shed, formation level and scarification of existing pavement.
Structural work: It includes the sub-structure and super-structure work. Like shoring, excavation, foundation retaining wall construction, and construction of ground floor and basement floor in the sub-structure while the work structure above the ground level to the top floor including the frame work, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, interiors, walls, glazing and wood work.
Finishes: wall plastering, coloring, decorating, the roof coverings and claddings, sinages and ornamental decorations are cover under the finishes stage of the CTG project.
Services: various mechanical, electrical and plumbing services, fabrication, installation, and connections are provided. Also as the CTG is a nuclear Project special security provisions along with health and safety are covered under the Services.
External work: This being the final level in site operations it operates the final procedures in the project such as hard and soft landscaping, external lightening, site cleaning, paving, equipments installation rooms fencing and handling over the deliverables.
Completion: This stage is completely aloof from the construction stage. Here the deliverables are hand over to the client. Completion involves clearing of the bills, checking if the deliverables are as per the contract.
2.6 Post construction: This stage deals with the inspection and monitoring of the building after the completion. It can also be called as feedback stage as it verifies if the equipments and installations work as per the design and serve the purpose and checks the building efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the energy consumption, and functional spaces.
3.0 Process protocol:
The Process Protocol in its generic form, allows the objective comparison of projects, providing the basis for both company and industry knowledge database development. It is therefore important that its philosophies are adopted to provide a framework and as a result the process will necessarily be adapted and refined to suit the organizations needs and working practices. (www4)
By investigating the current practices in the manufacturing and classifying the information technology In the Level I Process protocol the design and construction process was improved. While in the The Process Protocol level II the sub-processes following the processed in process protocol I are developed. (www5)
3.2 Aims & objectives of the Process Protocol: The main objective of the Process Protocol is to influence the construction industry its process and sub-process illustrating its organizational framework for process improvement. (www5)
3.3 The Stages in Process Protocol:
The design and construction in process protocol has different phases compiled under four stages as follows:
Pre-project Pre-construction Construction Post-construction
0. Demonstrating the need 4. Outline Conceptual 7. Production Information 9. Operations &
1.Conception of need Design 8. Construction Maintainance
2.Outline Feasibility 5.Full Conceptual Design 10. Feedback
3. Substantive Feasibility 6.Co-ordinated design
Study & outline Financial procurement & full
Authority financial authority
3.4 Mapping The CTG by Process Protocol:
The process protocol will divide the CTG project into four stages and ten phases which will
Stage 1: Pre-Project: The Pre-Project Phases (0-3) relate to the strategic business considerations of any potential project, which aims to address a client's need. It is at this stage that increased benefits can be achieved with the alignment of the Process Protocol with the Gateway. Egbu. C (2010)
Phase Zero: Demonstrating the need: At this phase the classification of key goals of project and need of the project are found raising and defining business needs. Development of implementation plan after identification of stakeholders in the CTG.
Phase one: Conception of need: The Concept design brief are prepared with potential solution for feasibility plan are done. Financial approval, knowing the state rules, site study like climate, accessibility and strata study will be carried out by appointed consultants.