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From the previous chapter analysis and discussions, it is seen that the objectives of this study are achieved. Therefore, in this final chapter of the research project paper, the overall conclusion and summary of the study will be made. Along with that, any recommendation for this study as well as recommendation for pursuing this study will also be described in this chapter.
7.2 Conclusion of the Findings
The followings are the conclusions derived from the literature study and questionnaire survey conducted.
7.2.1 Objective 1: To identify the causes of the construction project delays
The first objective of the study has been identified. A total of fifty three factors that causes delays were identified. Some of these factors were the top ten most important factors that contributed to the causes of delays in Sabah include: late in revising and approving design documents, delays in sub-contractors work, poor communication and coordination, change orders by client during construction, inadequate contractor's work, delay in approving major changes in the scope of work, shortage of labors, ineffective planning and scheduling of project, conflicts in subcontractors schedule in execution of project, and mistakes and discrepancies in design documents. The factors were grouped into seven groups of causes of delays.
Group of contractor related delays was ranked the most significant groups that cause delays, followed by group of client related delays, consultant related delays, material related delays, labor related delays, and equipment related delays and external related delays.
7.2.2 Objective 2: To identify the effects of the construction project delays
There are six factors that affect delays in Sabah construction project which includes: times overrun, cost overrun, dispute, total abandonment, arbitration, and litigation. The results of analysis shown time overrun and cost overrun were two most common effects of delays in construction project.
7.2.3 Objective 3: To suggest the methods of minimizing project delays.
In Sabah, the respondents agreed that the effective methods in minimizing delays are: site management and supervision, effective strategic planning, clear information and communication channels,collaborative working in construction, proper project planning and scheduling, frequent coordination between the parties involved, complete and proper design at the right time; use appropriate construction methods, accurate initial cost estimates, proper material procurement, and proper emphasis on past experience.
Following is the recommendation to minimize delays, derived based on the
analysis result of top twenty significant causes.
Contractor related delays have contributed a large part for significant causes of delay. The result of the study indicated that financing projects is one of the major sources of project delays. Therefore, contractor selection stage must receive more serious consideration. It is essential to choose a contractor with strong financial background. Apart from that, the selected contractor must have sufficient experience, technical capability, and sufficient manpower to execute the works. A mechanism that closely stipulates feasibility study, contractor selection must have to strictly apply. Any red tape during the tender bidding should be removed to improve the local construction industry.
Poor site management is one of the most significant causes in causing the construction delays in Sabah. This factor is responding to the issues that arise at the site and causes negative impact on the overall work progress. This contractor to achieve a better site management.
Poor subcontractor performance is among of the significant causes in causing the construction delays in both regions. The incapability of subcontractor to complete the work can result problems to the main contractor. The project can be delayed if the subcontractor under performs because of inadequate experience. High degree of subcontracting in Malaysia leads to high risk of delays and this leads to inefficiencies in the Malaysian construction industry (Sambasivam and Soon, 2007). Therefore, the selection of subcontractor must consider the past records particularly on their performance.
Client related delay also contribute a large portion among these twenty significant causes of delay. Clients must make quick decisions regarding any matter that arise during the project execution. Low speed of decision is due to incompetent person who handle the project from the side of client. In addition, the person might be having too much project to be handled in at the same time. Therefore, government should establish a standard number of projects to be handled in one time. One staff should handle appropriate number of project. Sufficient number of professionals should be provided in client part. Hence, this can avert the slowness of decision making made by Client.
Project feasibility study must receive a serious attention and must do carefully, particularly for government funded project. Planning at the early stage of construction is crucial to minimize any major risk of difficulties during the execution of works. Effective project planning and implementation require a competent and experience personnel. Where possible, project managers need to have experience and qualifications in project or construction management so that they can effectively utilize well the project management tools that are available (project planning and scheduling tools).
The consultants play a very important roll in Design-Related Delays because as they are in charge of the design process in conjunction with the owner of the project. Design related issues such as changes in drawings, incomplete and faulty specifications have a very damaging effect on project completion times and invariably lead to cost escalations as well. These are issues that can be controlled with proper design process management and timely decision making. It is a well know fact that decisions made early in the life of a project have the most profound effect on the project's objectives of delivering a safe, quality project within the time and budget allocated.
Insufficient knowledge of the sites causes many delays in projects. Investigation of site conditions, together with the design of groundwork and foundations, should be thorough, complete and clearly presented before commencement of construction so as to reduce the impact of any unforeseen ground conditions.
This finding could help the practitioners in construction industry to gain better understanding about the problems time of projects during construction stage. By taking care of these potential causes in their present and future projects, construction participants can reduce and control the extent of delays and cost overruns.