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The concepts and methodologies of BIM date back as far as 30 years-and then primarily within the manufacturing and aerospace industries. BIM as design and construction term was introduced about 15 years ago to set the then-emerging, information-rich, architectural computer-3-D modelling apart from traditional, and mainly paper-based, 2-D design and drawing. BIM intended to assign both software approach and method of designing and constructing a building by the use of highly coordinated and internally consistent computable information about the building; all the way from conceptual design, through construction, to post construction and asset management. A correctly assembled BIM is a reliable, digital, three dimensional, virtual representation of the project to be built, for use in design and in construction document production, scheduling, planning, performance predictions and in cost estimates. Three-dimensional demonstration of a centralized database containing all items that will consist of the actual building including their location, dimension, relation to other items, composition and cost in a digitally interpreted environment for engineers and architects. Assumption is done in such a way that all the input is accurate and resolves the builder in an easy assimilated view of the intact representation, its interrelations, and of any positional issues. And most importantly, it will also provide the information and the understanding necessary to resolve positional conflicts and other issues during the design phase, rather than later, on the building site.
COMPONENTS OF BIM
BIM is composed of several data involving legal, geospatial, financial, designer, owner/occupier, sustainers, Specifier and environmentalist data.
Fig 1 Components of BIM
The field of BIM players breaks down into makers of three distinctly different sets of tools:
The 3-D modeller is the true BIM tool, working with solid, parametric objects in sufficient detail to virtually construct the building. Not all views of the project have to be in that detail, however. The financing entity may want to see what the building will "look" like-as may the owner- and for that all you need is a surface modeller-or a viewer-to which all shapes are hollow. All it knows about is surfaces, which is all it needs to recognize in order to show concepts, and detect clashes for instance, and as such is of tremendous value. Analyzers are normally third-party software that speaks to the main BIM tool, meaning it can import and then analyze data from the 3-D modeller to determine the model's energy efficiency or day lighting, among other things.
BIM is an approach which essentially requires a technology to be implemented effectively. The combination of CAD, Object CAD and Parametric building modelling with respect to the effect and effort makes the building information modelling possible. Fig 2 shows the graphical representation of all these technologies which leads to BIM.
Fig 2 Graph showing the technology
The figure preceding shows the entire effect of each of these technologies shown in vertical axis measured against the effort required for those results in the horizontal axis.
BIM has been consistent in the industry with its competitive advantages -
Increased speed of delivery
Minimizes the errors
New revenue and business opportunity
5D cost estimation
Fig 3 Hierarchy of BIM phases
Building information modelling supports the continuous and immediate availability of project design scope, schedule, and cost information that is high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated. But it is not itself a technology, it is supported to varying degrees by different technologies.
Building information modelling is based on intersection of 2 critical ideas:
1) Keeping critical design information in a digital form makes it very simple for updating and sharing .It is more valuable to the firms creating and using it.
2) Creating real-time, consistent relationships between digital design data using innovative parametric building modelling technology can save significant amounts of time and cost and increases the project productivity and quality.
Below given is a detailed look at how Building Information modelling works and how the different phases such as design, construction and management of building lifecycle are benefitted.
BENEFITS IN THE DESIGN PHASE
During the course of a building project, an architect must handle the project scope, schedule, and cost evenly. Changes to any of these variables can have a negative effect on cost, time and money. Using the traditional methods, access to design and geometry related information is usually fairly steady. But cost and scheduling information is only occasionally available because of the period and attempt necessary to create it. By means of building information modelling, all of this significant information is immediately accessible, so that project-related decisions can be made more rapidly and effectively.
Building information modelling allows changes to the project at anytime during the designing or documentation process without difficulty, thus the team gets more time to work on other high-value architectural problems. This leads the documentation and designing work of the building to be carried out simultaneously, instead of doing successively, this is due to the design plan is captured at the point of conception and embedded in the documentation as the work proceeds. Whenever a change is made to a project, all the consequences of that alteration are automatically coordinated throughout the project and is documented. This allows the design team to function faster, because this consumes the time and effort spent on delivering the visualisations and regulatory approval documents. The automatic coordination of changes offered by this building information modelling eradicates the coordination mistakes thus it improves the overall quality of the project and helps companies with more repeat business.
BENEFITS IN THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE
In the construction phase of the project lifecycle, building information modelling makes available the real-time information's on building quality, schedule, and cost. The builder can accelerate the quantification of the building for estimating and value-engineering purposes and for the production of updated estimates and construction planning. The cost and consequences of proposed products can be studied and understood easily thus the builder can prepare plans showing site use or renovation phasing for the owner. Building information modelling consumes less time and money is spent on administration process in construction because document quality is high and construction planning better. Thus the end result is that more of the owner's construction money goes into the building than into overhead costs.
BENEFITS IN THE MANAGEMENT PHASE
Building information modelling also makes available the concurrent information in the management phase of the building such as performance of the building, its occupants and contents, and the economic aspects of the building. Building information modelling provides a digital record of renovations and improves more planning and management. It accelerates the alteration of standard building prototypes to site conditions for businesses, such as retail, that require the construction of similar buildings in many different locations. Physical information about the building, such as tenant or department assignments, furniture and equipment inventory, and financially important data about leasable areas and rental income or departmental cost allocations are all more easily managed and available. Reliable access to these types of information improves both revenue and cost management in the operation of the building.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
BIM is updated during construction to create as build record. Geometry is linked with the text and tabular information in equipment and maintenance manuals and it becomes a record to support the facilities management.