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Irena Ustinov is the operations manager of a recently refurbished multi use arena. We as a group have been asked to put together a report to help clarify the situation between her and the event promoter. Neither is sure who is responsible for the health and safety policies within the venue. The promoter thinks that the venue will draw up the safety management plan but Irena does not think this is the case.
We have been asked to create this report in a problem based learning style (PBL), to do this we met as a team for weekly meetings where we discussed various aspects of the report and how we would complete it. First we brainstormed for ideas that we thought should be included in the report. We confirmed what we already knew about the problem in hand and we researched to fill the knowledge gaps. (See appendix 1 for weekly progress reports)
Problem Based Learning-PBL
At our first team meeting, we initially brainstormed about what we thought we the report should include. Some of the ideas we came up with as a team was:
food and beverage health and safety/HACCP
electrics and equipment use.
As the weekly meetings progressed and we gained a better understanding of what was required for the assignment from the lectures we came up with further ideas that we felt would be suitable. These were:
medical requirements/first aid
key personnel for event safety
In order to start the assignment we decided as a team which topics were more relevant than others and which one we would cover in detail. We found the brainstorming part of the assignment very helpful as it made sure we thought of everything that we could have possibly covered in the report. It also helped the whole team get on the right frame of mind as to what was required for the report.
We knew from class and the assignment brief that the safety, health and welfare at work act 2005 would be important to our report. It gave us a really good idea as to what we should include in the report and what was legally necessary and just best practice in the industry. We knew that we must refer to a safety statement in our report.
From our on-going research we found that other regulations and guides would be vital to complete our report; General Application Regulations 2007, The Event Safety Guide (The Purple Book),
Learning Issues/Knowledge Gaps
We found it difficult to decide what we needed to talk about during the report, what was relevant and not relevant. As a team, we discussed what the key elements of the report should be. We found the 2005 legislation difficult to understand so to rectify this we decided to use the many industry codes of practice instead to give us a better idea as to what the legislation was referring to.
Another learning issue we had was trying to figure out the difference between a safety statement and safety management plan. Were they the same? This issue was resolved for us in class.
The main areas which we decided to research further and include in our findings are; key personnel, medical requirements for a venue, fire safety, temporary and permanent structures, risk assessment, crowd control and emergency planning.
The event controller has overall responsibility of the management of the event. It is his/her responsibility to make key decisions such as emergency evacuation. (Appendix 5 for management contact)
The structure of command and control should be as follows;
Event Controller (of promoter) (Name/phone number)
Security Coordinator (either in house security or contractor) (Name/phone number)
Venue Operations Manager (Name/phone number)
Safety Officer (Name/phone number)
Venue General Manager (Name/phone number)
Venue Front of House Manger (Name/phone number)
Security supervisors (Name/phone number)
Medical Requirements for a Venue
At any given time, this venue can hold up to 25,000 people. Mass gathering of any kind will no doubt lead to a proportion of attendees requiring medical attention. Paragraph 715 of The Event Safety Guide, also known as The Purple Guide, (1999) suggests that about 1-2% of a given audience will look for medical assistance during the event and 10% will require further treatment on site. Out of the total number of attendees requiring medical assistance, approximately 1% will need subsequent referral to emergency services and nearby hospitals. It should be a joint effort between Irena, the venue manager, and the event organiser/promoter to provide the right kind of medical facilities within the venue for the event.
However there are times, especially with a packed venue, that accidents will happen and therefore there are certain medical necessities that are required within a venue by law. The medical procedures and services that will be available to staff and attendees when the venue is in used should will be discussed the plan.
According to the health and safety legislation in 2005, an employer or in this case the event organiser, under their general duties must obtain where necessary "the services of a competent person (whether under a contract of employment or otherwise) for the purpose of ensuring, so far as is reasonably practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work" (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005,2005). Dublin City Council apply this to events and note that it is event organisers who must employ a medical manger that is responsible for "the provision of medical/first aid and ambulance assistance, as appropriate, to those involved in an event, including event staff and members of the public." This is even more important to have considering that Irena's venue can hold a capacity of 25,000 people. (Guidelines for Event Organisers, Dublin City Council, 2012) On top of this, there has to be a Site Medical Officer for attendances over 5,000. They have to be a qualified doctor and have A&E experience.
Irena should provide a dedicated first aid/medical area within the venue but the exact level and type of provision will obviously depend on the event promoter and the type of event they are organising. It is the responsibility of the event organiser/promoter not Irena to contact the Health Board well in advance of the event and discuss what emergency medical services should be provided on top of on-site first aid. The code of practice for Safety at Indoor (Department of the Environment and Local Government, 1998) states that the Health Board should be provided with the following information at the planning stage; time of events, its duration, expected capacity and their profile and details of any other voluntary organisations/ agencies that will be providing medical assistance or first aid at an event. These factors, pus many more, will affect the level and type of medical assistance that the event promoter should provide. (Appendix 13)
Medical incidents can be categorised as minor or major incidents. All of the literature we consulted agreed that minor incidents can develop into major ones if the situation is not correctly managed and pre-planned procedures are not followed. The venue will of course have carried out its own risk assessment and have an up to date safety statement so they will already know the level and type of medical facilities that should be needed at different categories of events. However, each organiser/promoter has to carry out an event specific risk assessment and create their own S.M.P.
Low risk events with small attendance may only lead to attendees presenting with minor medical issues. The health service authority will not need to be present and they will have previously reached an understanding with the organisers as to how low risk the event is and advised that qualified, voluntary medical/first aid agencies such as St. John's ambulance or The Civil Defence will suffice. Minor issues can be, but are not limited to; squashing in the crowd leading to injury or fainting, trips or falls, lacerations or cuts, and attendees falling ill. It must be noted that services like St. Johns Ambulance and Legion of Mary contain an ambulance in case any minor incident may need further treatment at a near-by hospital. Regarding ambulances, they should have a designated parking spot at all times close to the first aid area and have a clear exit route that will never be blocked. (Dublin City Council, 2012). In this case an incident report form must be carried out. (Appendix 6)
For large events which have a high risk of major medical accidents, the health service authority will advise that there should be extra medical assistance in the form of the local emergency services and ambulances, as well as the voluntary agencies that are present at all events. Examples of major medical incidents are; major fires, a serious accident involving more than one attendee, uncontrollable crowd control problems, a bomb scare or structural collapses. In any of these cases, both event organiser and venue manger will hand over control of the event and venue to the Gardaí and health authority. The procedure for such eventualities will have been planned for in the safety management plan and the official way in which we should alert the statutory emergency services is outlined in section 7.2.1 of Guidelines for Event Organisers. (Dublin City Council, 2012) (Appendix14.)
The following has been prepared in compliance with the Guild to Fire Precautions in Existing Places of Entertainment and like Premises, 1994, Code of Practice for the Management of Fire Safety in places of Assembly, Code of Practice for Safety at Indoor Concerts, 1998 and by legislation
Fire Safety and Precautions
There are two key elements to fire safety in the venue. Firstly that the venue itself abides by good practice and statutory standards. Secondly that excellent fire safety management is in practice on a day to day basis in the venue.
An Event Safety Officer should be appointed and should have overall responsibility in terms for fire safety and precautions within the venue.
'The Buildings Control Act 1990 applies to new buildings, extensions and material changes of use'. They set out needs that must be followed.
'Means of escape
Internal fire spreads (Linings)
Internal fire spread (Structure)
External fire spread, and
Access and facilities for the fire services.' (Code of practice for safety at indoor pop concerts, 1996.)
Fire Safety Measures
A number of measures should be taken in the venue to prevent a fire occurring alongside the fire safety management plan. Some active measures should come in to act on detection of a fire for example fire alarms, sprinklers, smoke extractions. Whereas some flaccid procedures should also play part for example fire proof fabric and furnishings, fire doors and fire curtain (stage) etc. according to I.S 3217:1989 Code of Practice for emergency lighting the entire venue should have green emergency lighting. Also all emergency routes must have the correct signage.
Emergency Escape (www.hsa.ie, 2012)
Certain materials backstage i.e. Sets, costumes etc. contain high risk. Extra fire safety precautions must be undertaken to prevent risk of fire. A mass amount of electrical loadings on the stage may contain certain higher fire risks. The venues stage should have a high ceiling to allow proper smoke ventilation.
Fire Fighting Equipment
Adequate fire fighting equipment must be provided around the venue. This consists of horse reels and fire extinguishers spotted at strategic places around the building. This equipment ought to be placed at places of fire risk for example the switchboard room, areas of high electrical loadings, backstage/side of stage etc. This equipment can only be used by persons trained to do so.
Fire extinguisher(www.hsa.ie, 2012)
Pyrotechnics and Special Effects
Pyrotechnics and special effects contain higher fire risks. These materials should be considered and controlled prior and during use to ensure the safety of attendees and performers. If used the material which the debris falls on will need to be tested to ensure it does not create a fire. Other special effects that have high risk are smoke machines and laser lights. These risks must be considered prior to use. Any use of pyrotechnics should be discussed with Gardai and local authorities before use. If strobe lights are being used the correct signage must be provided to warn attendees with epilepsy. Pyrotechnics will be used in compliance with the 'Explosives Act 1985'.
Seating and Change of Layout
Regardless of whether a show is seating or standing it must meet certain criteria with respect to means of escape. When seats are being used they have to be secured so that they do not move or get in the way of patrons in the act of an emergency. The floor area should be monitored and kept clear. Adequate space for wheelchairs should be provided for so that they do not inhibit attendees from means of escape.
Good housekeeping will assist the fire safety management plan. For example emergency routes should be kept clear, flammable and liquid gases must not be stored on the premises, no smoking inside the venue, electrical appliances have to be monitored and kept in proper working order, fire resistant doors must be used throughout the venue and no flammable materials (e.g. furnishings) are to be present on the premises.
Section 18(2) of the Fire Services Act, 1981 states- 'It shall be the duty of everyperson having control over premises to which this selection applies to take all responsible measures to guard against the outbreak of fire on such premises and to ensure as fire as is reasonably practicable the safety of persons on the premises in the event of an outbreak of fire'. (Code of Practice for the Management of Fire Safety in Places of Assembly, 1989)
All staff must be trained on preventive methods annually by a professional in fire safety. Staff must know all emergency egress routes. These plans will be present throughout the venue. Employees must be trained in how to use fire extinguishing equipment (powder/water extinguishers). All staff must know assembly points. Staff should be aware of kilo codes as they will have a copy with their portable radio therefore they will know the nature of the emergency that has arose in the building. Certain member of staff should be assigned to ring the fire brigade on discovering a fire. Restaurant staff must have special training on safe operating procedures and on procedures in the event of an emergency. At minimum twice a year fire drills should be held to ensure staff can safety evacuate public and themselves from the venue in a timely manner.
Emergency exit routeSample Egress Venue Plan
Fire and Evacuation Procedures
On discovering a fire, when the fire alarm goes off or any other emergency it would be recommended that it will be the stage doormans responsibility to ring emergency services. It will be decided by the safety officer and senior management on duty whether the premises will need to be evacuated. At all times all emergency exits should be kept clear and exits left unlocked at all times when the venue is occupied.
Each bar, shop and the restaurant must have a fire safety book. Everyday two employees (in bar, restaurant, shop) must be nominated that in the case of an emergency these employees (alongside security and ushers) will assist attendees to the assembly points.
Prior to the show commencing there should be an announcement highlighting the emergency exists (See appendix 4). Also on completion of the show a safety statement should be shown on led screens leading customers calmly and safely out of the building. In the case of an emergency the relevant kilo code should be said across the radio channel. Also for employees not on radio the following announcement should occur over the P.A system 'Mr. Jones has entered the building'. (See appendix 2).If it is a false alarm the following message will occur 'Mr. Jones has left the building'. This will allow employees to be on standby without alarming the public.
There should be three designated ambulance parking spaces when the venue is at capacity. When possible there should be a lockdown of the roads inside the grounds of the venues so emergency vehicles can enter and exit as fast as possible.
Risk Assessment and Crowd Dynamic Report
At the start of every month it would be recommended that a crowd dynamic report should be undertaken(See appendix 8) to ensure there is adequate staff (security, management, first aid, St.John's Ambulance etc.) present for each performance. Also prior to every event an event specific risk assessment should be done by the promoter to ensure the safety and well being of performers, attendees and staff.(Generic risk assessment for venue of 25000 Appendix 7)
Temporary and Permanent Structures
In accordance with the General Application Regulations 2007 the venue should ensure that the following guidelines are taken into account.
Loading- Loading Bays and ramps must be suitable in size for the loads to be transported. Loading bays need at least one exit point to allow any employee in danger of being struck by a vehicle to escape, the provision of a ladder to a higher area or a side opening will satisfy this requirement. Larger loading bays need an exit point at each end. To avoid accidents, a one- way traffic system is recommended. (Kinsella 2008)
Temporary Surfaces- The venues may have a certain amount of temporary structures in or around the ground such as temporary seating, staging, marquees or stalls. These structures should be certified by a competent person or structural engineer to ensure that they are stable and do not pose a risk to public safety.
Removal of Temporary Structures- The work on the removal of all temporary structures associated with the event will commence immediately following the event and will be fully completed together with reinstatement works required on the site, within a period no greater than one week following the event.
A structural audit should be carried out annually to examine all relevant areas of the ground. The Safety Officer should ensure that all recommendations of remedial work are carried out and that visual checks take place before each event and are recorded.
(See appendix 12)
In accordance with the General Application Regulations 2007 the venue should ensure that the following guidelines are taken into account.
Lighting-Natural lighting is the preferred option but all places of work must be fitted with adequate artificial lighting. The type of lighting fitted should not of itself cause a hazard to workers through glare. In order to make maximum use of natural light, all windows must be cleaned internally and externally on a regular basis. The standard of lighting provided obviously depends on the type of work activity involved and if any doubt exists as to the quality of lighting required for a particular work activity the advice of an appropriate professional should be sought. (Kinsella 2008)
The testing of house lighting, floodlighting and associated power supplies such as generators together with emergency back-up lighting is an integral part of the Safety Office's checklist.
Electricity- Employees are entitled to be consulted by the employer when protective measures against risk from electrical hazards are being taken. The carrying out of certain defined tasks is left to an authorised person. The authorised person will be engaged in electrical installation work and must be adequately trained and have the necessary level of expertise to carry out the task. Danger under these Regulations means risk of death or serious injury to health from electric shock, burns or explosion.
Installations- Installations must be regularly checked and repairs carried out only by competent staff. All portable equipment must be listed and checked on a regular basis for faults. Persons installing electrical installations must be competent to do so and have adequate experience of similar installations. The installer must have full training in safety procedures and the ability to recognise when it is safe to work. All new installations must be fully tested before use and a certificate of test completed; these tests must be carried out in accordance with the national rules for electrical installation.
(See appendix 12)
There should be a communications system capable of clearly relaying essential messages to both staff and attendees in all parts of the ground in place, in both normal and emergency conditions. The sophistication of the system should be in keeping with the size of the event i.e. the anticipated attendance. The venue should ensure that they have a backup system in place e.g. serviceable 'loud hailers' in order to cover a communications systems failure.
Control Room- The Control Room should be located to give a good direct view of the major part of the ground.
Communication facilities in the Control Room should include:
Radio communication facilities / control base.
External and internal telephones connected with other sections to facilitate communication of messages concerning public safety, in event of failure of the radio communication system.
Fire alarm system repeater panel.
Access to the Control Room should be limited to;
Senior Garda / PSNI Officer
Any other person the Event Controller considers necessary
Radio Communications Codes- Kilo Codes. Should the alert state rise, then the Event Control will notify all radio holders with a location and one of the following Kilo Codes.(See appendix 5 )
PA System- Important announcements relating to crowd safety should be preceded by a loud signal in order to grab the attention of the crowd. This signal should be distinct from all other signals and made known to the crowd before the start of the event. The public address announcer should be in close proximity to the Event Controller and ideally remain in the Control Room with the Event Controller. Decisions on the broadcast of messages will be made in consultation with the Event Controller. In the event of mains failure, provision should be made for an alternative power supply.
According to the Health Service Execetive SE (1998) publication managing crowd safety; all who run venues, organize events or manage places that attract crowds should have a health and safety management system, which anticipates, monitors and controls potential crowding risks.
A key characteristic of events of all types is the assembly of a group of people. The objective of crowd control at events is to create a joyous and exciting experience while avoiding a frightening and dangerous situation. This depends on how well that assembly is managed. Crowd management system should include the planning and supervising of the assembly and movement of people within a venue.
Irena, as operations manager, and the promoter have a responsibility to enforce crowd safety, effective crowd management and ensuring that all practicable steps are taken. The application of the best practice of health and safety management is required.
Crowd Control Measures
Rutherford Slivers, J. (2008) claimed the way in which crowds behave and respond is a combination of physical and other factors. The dynamics of the crowd will depend, in a large part, on the activities of the crowd and this, in turn will be influenced by the characters of both the crowd and the groups or artists performing.
Two important factors to be considers in crowd management are audience profiles and crowd dynamics. The following should be considered:
The audience profile. Male/Female percentage, age, physical behavior, consumption of drugs/ Alcohol
Character of the artists or groups performing/ Type of concert
Crowd reaction/ activities.
The characteristics of the crowd should be understood. This will allow the risk manager to supervise and monitor conditions and implement the appropriate response. The physical behaviour factors that could influence a crowd should be analyzed and the controls necessary to avoid negative outcomes practiced.
The crowd control measures to be put in place for effective crowd management can be determined by the type of concert or the expected audience that will be in attendance. Below is a range of broad general categories of each event type. Additional and further sub-divisions of the categories may also be considered. (See appendix 8)
The way in which the event organization prepares and provides facilities for the attendees will influence not only attendee's behaviour, it will shape the event experience and attendee's level of satisfaction with that experience. Some of the physical factors that should be considered include; the design of the venue must allow good entry and exit while providing adequate movement within the venue. The audience capacity and seating plan can be altered which will determine the level of crowd control needed. Adequate facilities for refreshments and sanitary requirements should be provided and clear, effective means of communication with the audience used. Ensure that entrances and exits are clearly signposted and operated efficiently. Ticketing policies have a direct effect on safe management of the audience or simply to gather accurate attendance. Access control is an important crowd safety strategy as well as specific seating plans and credentials to limit access to certain areas within an event site.
According to Tarlow (2002), It is not the attendee's job to make sure disorder or hazardous conditions are prevented; it is Irena's and the promoters. However, the attendee can become a partner in managing these risks if their needs and behaviours are anticipated and shaped with clear and carefully designed systems and interactions.
The main responsibility is crowd management. Their roles are closely inter-linked with separate security teams. Both are based communication and lack of interaction can lead to ineffective crowd management. The number of stewards required should be based on the risk assessment for each event. This will allow all high-risk circumstances to be covered. Steward training is vital so that they can carry out their required duties. For audience management they should be positioned correctly throughout the venue such as barriers, points of entry and exits, sitting areas etc. Steward must not be stationed for long periods near loudspeakers, they must also be provided with ear protection in accordance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. (See appendix 3 for security evacuation procedures)
Irena should become familiar with the following pieces of legislation when it comes to crowd control:
Means of Ingress and Egress (Appendix )
Criminal Justice (Public Order) Act, 1994 (Appendix 10)
From our research it is evident that to create a safety management plan, it is a joint effort between Irena and the promoter. As the operations manager of the venue it is Irena's responsibility to create a safety statement based on a risk assessment of the venue. For each event the promoter/ event manager should tailor this risk assessment to suit a specific event. The promoter will draw up a full safety management plan for what is needed for each event. A new safety management plan needs to be created for each different event and Irena should be aware of the contents. On the other hand the safety statement should remain the same as it is based on the venue, however it should be regularly reviewed and updated.
As a method of learning we found PBL very helpful and effective in addressing the given scenario. We found the sequential process of PBL (brainstorm, facts, knowledge gaps, action, revisit) useful to us as it allowed us to review and discuss areas that we may have forgotten had we not used this learning tool.
FOR ATTENTION OF ALL STAFF
EVACUATION CODE WARNING
IN THE EVENT OF FIRE OR OTHER EMERGENCY IN THE VENUE THE FOLLOWING ANNOUNCEMENT WILL BE MADE
'MR JONES HAS ENTERED THE BUILDING'.
ON HEARING THAT ANNOUNCEMENT STAFF WILL PREPAIR TO EVACUATE THE VENUE WITHOUT ALERTING THE PUBLIC.
BARS AND RESTAURANT CLOSE AND SECURITY TAKE THEIR POSITION AT MAIN EXITS.
FOR ANY REASON IN THE ABSENCE OF SECURITY STAFF BAR AND RESTAURANT STAFF WILL MAN EXITS.
IF EVACUATION IS NECESSARY ALL DOORS ARE OPENED AND ATTENDEES ARE DIRECTED TO NEAREST SAFEST EXITS.
SECURITY STAFF AND USHERS WILL FOLLOW THEIR OWN EVACUATION PROCEDURES AND CHECK THE BARS, RESTAURANT AND TOILETS BEFORE LEAVING.
IF NO EVACUATION IS REQUIRED AND THE EMERGENCY IS OVER THE FOLLOWING AOUNCEMENT WILL BE MADE
'MR JONES HAS LEFT THE BUILDING' THIS SHOWS THE ALL CLEAR AND THAT THE EMERGENCY IS OVER.
DUTIES OF SECURITY STAFF
ON DISCOVERING A FIRE IN ANY PART OF THE BUILDING SECURITY SHOULD RAISE THE ALARM BY;
BREAKING THE NEAREST FIRE GLASS UNIT.
DIRECT ATTENDEES AWAY FROM THE FIRE.
INFORM HEAD OF SECURITY.
INFORM USHER AT STAGE DOOR BY RADIO OR HOUSE PHONE THE LOCATION AND SEVERITY OF THE FIRE.
CONTAIN FIRE IF IT IS SAFE TO DO SO WITH EQUIPMENT PROVIDED.
MAN EMERGENCY EXITS.
IF THE ORDER TO EVACUATE IS GIVEN BY THE SAFETY OFFICER HELP ATTENDEES EXIT THE VENUE SAFELY.
WHEN VENUE IS EVACAUTED RECHECK THAT YOUR AREA IS CLEAR.
INFORM HEAD OF SECURITY THAT ALL ATTENDEES ARE SAFELY EVACUATED AND GO TO THE ASSEMBLY POINT.
Safety announcement prior to show
On each show commencing the following announcement will proceed;
'Good evening ladies and gentlemen we would like to welcome you to Venue X before the performance commences we would like you to take note of the following announcement; in the event of an emergency we would like you to proceed calmly and quickly to your nearest exit, we hope you enjoy the show, thank you'.
Appendix 5 VENUE X KILO CODES AND KEY PERSONNEL CONTACTS
A copy of the following should be given to all staff members on radio so they can discreetly alert and discuss the issue over the radio without fear of alarming the public. For example 'KILO 7 Security be on standby until further instruction', meaning a suspect package was found. Also a list of key personnel contacts for emergency contact.
STAGE INVASION BY CROWD
MINOR CROWD PROBLEM
MAJOR CROWD PROBLEM
Front of House Manager
Bar & Restaurant Manager
Head of Security
Sample Incident Report Form
INCIDENT REPORT FORM
FOR VENUE X
NAME OF SHOW
TYPE OF SHOW
TOTAL ATTENDENCE NUMBER
AVERAGE AGE OF CROWD
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ON DUTY
NATURE OF INCIDENT
NAME OF INJURED PERSON
WAS PERSON AN EMPLOYEE OR ATTENDEE
ADDRESS OF INJURED PERSON
DETAILS OF INCIDENT
ANY OUTSIDE PARTIES INVOLVED IN INCIDENT
ANY POLICE COMPLAINT OF INCIDENT
PROVIDE DETAILS IF YES
CCTV AND/OR PHOTOGRAPHS TO SUPPORT CASE
REPORT CARRIED OUT BY
CROWD DYNAMIC PROFILING (CD)
CODE: CROWD DYNAMIC RATING
Heavy surf, heavy mosh, lots of lateral movement,
Older, heavier audience at barrier
Sustained surf, mosh, sway and heavy lateral movement
Mixed audience at barrier
Surf likely, some mosh and lots of audience movement
Younger audience at barrier
Minimal surf, lateral movement, jumpy audience
Younger audience at barrier
No surf, jumpy crowd, lots of sway & movement
Younger audience at barrier
Jumpy crowd, less sway & movement
Mixed audience at barrier
Sway and some movement
Mixed audience at barrier
Mixed audience at barrier
Static audience, no movement
This safety statement sets out the health and safety policy of Venue X and the means in which the policy is to be put into practice. The purpose is to offer a safe and healthy place to work for all employees and to convene all of the responsibilities and obligations to attendees.
Venue X's safety statement is put in order with compliance of the Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Act, 2005. The Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Act, 2005 is concerned with the prevention of incidents and the safety of all employees. This is done by;
Identifying hazards and calculating risks
Assigning personnel with health and safety at work duties
Providing safe equipment and clothing
Continuously training employees in health and safety
To make health and safety a priority within the company
This is being prepared for employees, customers and contractors and should be read in conjunction with the health and safety plan for Venue X.
The responsibility for a safe place to work lies on management and the promoter of Venue X. There is particular interest in:
Establishing and sustaining a safe and healthy working environment for employees
Providing the correct amount of training to allow staff to work safely
Providing correct equipment to enable staff to do their job safely and effectively.
Constantly reviewing and testing policies to ensure the safety of the employees and company.
As an employee of Venue X each employee has the responsibility to work in a safe manner. Employees must:
Cooperate with management in sustaining a safe work environment.
Report any hazard to management.
Attend all mandatory training.
Know evacuation plan and the use of fire fighting equipment.
Never part take in any boisterous activity that could lead to a hazard.
Criminal Justice (Public Order) Act, 1994 Under Part III of this Act the Gardaí have power to control access to certain events and to allow for surrender and seizure of intoxicating liquor, etc. The Gardaí may erect barriers on any road, street, lane or alley not more than one mile from the venue in which an event is taking place. A Garda has power to divert persons and, where possession of a ticket is required for entrance to the event, to prohibit people who have no tickets from passing the barrier. Powers are also provided to search a person going to an event and to seize any intoxicating liquor, disposable container or any other article that could be used to cause injury.
The provisions of the Act relating to public order offences are designed to ensure good order and have implications for the general public, the Gardaí, promoters and event controllers as well as stewards and others concerned with public safety. Under the Act, the definition of "public place" includes "any premises or other place to which, at the material time, members of the public have, or are permitted to have access, whether as of right or by express or implied permission or whether on payment or otherwise". The Act should be consulted on matters relating to the preservation of public order.
. Event Safety Strategy
The Promoter should prepare a written strategy for the safety of persons who attend indoor concerts. The event safety strategy should be made known to and understood by all staff and workers who may be involved in the running of concerts. It should be noted that this strategy is not a substitute for, and is separate from, the obligation of an employer to prepare a safety statement for employees in accordance with the provisions of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989, and associated regulations.
The event safety strategy should identify the safety objectives and the means of achieving these and should be kept under review by management and revised as necessary. The strategy should incorporate the following:
(i) A statement of the management structure and procedures employed for ensuring the safety of persons attending the event, including event planning, post-event review etc.
(ii) Crowd management strategy and arrangements, including stewarding and crowd control facilities
(iii)Fire safety strategy, including plans of premises and fire safety register
(iv)Structural safety, including structural assessment, design and verification/certification
(v) Electrical safety statement (see Chapter 8);
(vi)Emergency medical services provision, including operational plan
(vii) Communication arrangements including Control Centre
(viii) Venue evacuation plan (
(ix) Access routes for emergency vehicles
(x)Record maintenance, including contacts and consultations, admissions, maintenance of fire safety systems, injuries, incidents and accidents
(xi) Sketch of the venue and surrounding area; and
(xii) Monitoring and review of the event safety strategy.
Safety, Health and Welfare at work General Application Regulations, 2007
Part 2 Ch 1 no. 16
Loading bays and ramps
(a) loading bays and ramps are suitable for the dimensions of the loads to be transported,
(b) loading ramps are, as far as possible, safe enough to prevent employees from falling off,
(c) loading bays have at least one exit point, and
(d) loading bays longer than the width of 5 vehicles have an exit point at each end where technically feasible, or alternatively an appropriate refuge is provided which may be used to avoid persons at work being struck or crushed by a vehicle.
Part 2 Ch 1 no. 8
(a) places of work receive, as far as possible, sufficient natural light and are equipped with artificial lighting adequate for the protection of the safety and health of the employer's employees,
(b) lighting installations in rooms containing workstations and in passageways are placed in such a way that there is no risk of accident to the employer's employees as a result of the type of lighting fitted, and
(c) places of work in which the employer's employees are especially exposed to risks in the event of failure of artificial lighting are provided with emergency lighting of adequate intensity
Part 3 no. 75
(1) This Part, without prejudice to section 16 of the Act, applies as appropriate to persons who design, install, maintain, use, or are in control to any extent of-
(a) an electrical installation or part of an electrical installation in a place of work, or
(b) an electrical network, including the generation, transformation, conversion switching, controlling, regulating, rectification, storage, transmission, distribution provision, measurement or use of electrical energy at a place of work
An employer shall ensure that-
(a) all electrical equipment and electrical installations are-
(v) protected, and
so as to prevent danger, and
(b) all electrical equipment and electrical installations, including distribution boards sockets, transformers and connections, are suitably protected from ingress of moisture or of particles and foreseeable impacts, as appropriate to the location without prejudice to Regulation 77.
Adverse or hazardous environments.
No. 77. An employer shall ensure that electrical equipment which may foreseeably be exposed to adverse or hazardous environments, including in particular-
(a) mechanical damage,
(b) the effects of weather, natural hazards, temperature or pressure,
(c) the effects of wet, dirty, dusty or corrosive conditions, and
(d) any flammable or potentially explosive atmosphere, including any mixture of air and a flammable substance in the form of gas, vapour, mist or dust,
is constructed, installed, maintained and modified or so protected as to prevent danger arising from the exposure.
Taken from The Event Safety Guide, a guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events (UK HSE, 1999)
735. The decision on the level of medical provision and whether the NHS (HSA) ambulance service will be directly involved, or not, at any particular event will depend on a number of specific factors including:
size of audience;
nature and type of event and entertainment;
nature and type of audience - including age range;
location and type of venue - outdoor or indoor, standing or seated, overnight
camping and the size of the site;
duration of event - hours or days;
additional activities and attractions;
proximity/capability/capacity of local medical facilities;
intelligence from other agencies regarding previous experience of similar events;
availability and potential misuse of alcohol or drugs (illicit, recreational, or controlled);
external factors including the complexity of travel arrangements; time spent in queues;
availability of facilities on site including welfare, befriending and other social services;
range of possible major incident hazards at or associated with the event (structure collapse, civil disorder, crushing, explosion, fire, chemical release, food poisoning);
availability of experienced first aiders.
Taken from Guidelines for Event Organisers (Dublin City Council, 2012)
7.2.1 Alerting the Statutory services
It is important that the initial alert to the statutory emergency services is as exact and precise as possible; this will allow the responding agencies to dispatch the required resources promptly. The relevant information required can be summed up by the use of the acronym E.T.H.A.N.E.
Prompt Information to be supplied
E â€¦Exact location of incident
T â€¦...Type of incident
H â€¦..Hazards on site
A â€¦..Access and egress routes
N â€¦â€¦Numbers involved
Eâ€¦â€¦.. Emergency service(s) required
Emergency action plans and procedures for dealing with major incidents will form part of the event management plan which is agreed in consultation with the statutory agencies, this process ensures that such plans are compatible with the operational needs of the emergency response services.
Department of The Environment and Local Government (1998) Code of Practice for Safety at Indoor Concerts. (online) Available: <http://www.environ.ie/en/Publications/LocalGovernment/FireandEmergencyServices/FileDownLoad,18105,en.pdf> Last accessed 22th Oct 2012.
Dublin City Council (2012) Guidelines for Event Organisers.(Online) Available: <http://www.dublincity.ie/RecreationandCulture/Events/Documents/DCCEventOrganiserGuidance.pdf> Last accessed 22th Oct 2012.
Dublincity.ie (2012) Buildings Control Act, 2007 (online) Available: <http://www.dublincity.ie/WATERWASTEENVIRONMENT/DUBLINFIREBRIGADE/FIREPREVENTION/Pages/FireSafetyLgn.aspx> accessed [12-10-12]
Irish Government (2005) Health, Safety and Welfare Act 2005, No. 10 (online) Available: <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2005/en/act/pub/0010/index.html> Last accessed 22th Oct 2012.
Irish Government (SI 732/2007) Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007. (online) Available: <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2007/en/si/0732.html> Last accessed 22th Oct 2012.
Kinsella, J (2008) Health Safety and Welfare Law in Ireland, Gill and Macmilan Ltd: Dublin
Qub.ac.uk (1999) The Event Safety Guide (second edition) (online) Available: <http://www.qub.ac.uk/safety-reps/sr_webpages/safety_downloads/event_safety_guide.pdf> accessed [9-10-12]
Rutherford Slivers, J. (2008) Attendee Management. In: Risk Management For Meetings and Events. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemane. 288-309.
Tarlow, P. E. (2002). Crowd Control. In: Goldblatt, Dr. J Event Risk Management and Safety. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 88-105.
UK Health Service Executive (1999). The Event Safety Guide, a guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events. 2nd ed. HSE books.
HSA.ie (2012) Fire Prevention (online) Available: <http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Topics/Fire/Fire_Prevention/#top> accessed [5-10-12]