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A research from Allan St John Holt, state that accident prevention in construction is not just a matter of setting up list of rules and making safety inspections, although both of them have their place. According to Seyyed Shahab Hosseinian and Zahra Jabbarani Torghabeh (2012), state that identifying the root causes of accidents, the construction accidents can be prevented which is possible by accident investigation techniques such as theories of human errors and accident causation. A research from Rohanputhran (2011), state that potential of causing damage to environment, material and so on were uncontrollable event of accidents. He also cited that the worker must control the activities around them rather than the activities controlling them.
According to Public Works and Services Government (2002), state that responsibility of management and employees at all levels was called as workplace safety and clearly define, monitored and enforced can prevented the accident that to ensure employees must have the right to refuse work that is not safe for themselves or others and not act in ways that put safety in danger and health. State by Allan (2005), cited that to be observed in setting up strategies for management and control of health and safety at work in the construction industry have several techniques to prevent the accident.
3.2 TECHNIQUES OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
3.2.1 Accident Prevention for Reducing the Incidence of Accident at Construction Site.
State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents on construction which are:
22.214.171.124 Training of Operators for Proper Use of the Equipment
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that the most important was the operators must proper use of the equipment they are assigned to operate. Responsible for the traffic plan by group personnel should be trained and they have to inspect, warn and observe the construction workers during operations such as lifting, loading, excavation must performed or when at a high level of traffic density inside the site.
126.96.36.199 Continuous Evaluation of Safety Programs at the Worksite
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that continuous evaluation of safety programs must be provide to address changing conditions at the worksite. According to the changing working environment, the site workers have to follow required safe work practices revised and must avoid and recognize unsafe conditions on construction site.
188.8.131.52 Clearly Identify and Label All Machine Controls and Manufacturers' Safety Features Are Working
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that mechanics at the garage of the site, operators, co-operators or drivers must operating systems according to manufacturers' specifications and make sure that the manufacturers' safety features should clearly identify and label all machine controls to ensure that are install, working, and maintain equipment attachments.
184.108.40.206 All Workers Site Have to be Aware of the Machines
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that before the operator turns on the machine, all workers on the site should to be aware of the machines' established swing areas and blind spots from accident happen. Kept on foot outside these areas by marking them with tape, rope or other barriers must made by third parties that not only workers.
220.127.116.11 Locking Attachments must be Securely Connected before Work Begins
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that before work begins, locking attachments should be securely connected and to lower the boom to a safe position must instructed by operators with the bucket on the ground. Before stepping off for any reason, the machine must be turn off and this should be a routine work.
18.104.22.168 The Worker Should Wait Until Receive the Signal the Operator to Shut Down the Machine and Receive Acknowledgments from the Operator
According to State by G. Emre, Ugur and Murat (2008), cited that to shut down the machine by operator, workers should not be permitted to approach the hydraulic excavator or backhoe loader on foot until signal have been directed and receive acknowledgments from the operator.
3.2.2 Accident Prevention Control and Management of Health and Safety
22.214.171.124 Avoid A Risk Altogether by Eliminating the Hazard
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that to ensure which every people to work in the correct way were it must remove a problem altogether rather than to establish a control strategy become more affective. Safety management and principle demonstrate must have fundamental importance of design and planning for this method.
126.96.36.199 Tackle Risks at Source
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that to make a significant difference to site conditions, it must make design and specification and it is likely to dictate the way the construction work is carried out on site, and particularly to contractors to work potentially unsafe ways. A review at the design stage repays the time spent handsomely because of later savings in time and money, and possibly even lives.
188.8.131.52 Adapt Work to The Individual When Designing Work Areas and Selecting Methods of Work.
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that to improve by ergonomics aims is interface between people and their workspaces, by seeking to adapt the workspace rather than the person and given to layout can reduce risks and improve working conditions.
184.108.40.206 Use Technology to Improve Conditions
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that people must up to date with new developments by plant is being replaced, or when work operations can be mechanized and it can give safety benefit to them.
220.127.116.11 Give Priority to Protection for the Whole Workplace Rather Than to Individuals
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that reliance on personal protective equipment (PPE) as a sole means of risk control is rarely acceptable. One of many reasons for this is that it may not always be possible to identify everyone at risk and issue the PPE to them.
18.104.22.168 Ensure Everyone Understands What They Have to do to be and Healthy at Work
According to Allan St John Holt (2005), state that induction training on sites is required and safety awareness neither is nor inherited to make sure what the hazards and control measure are that everyone knows.
3.2.3 Preventing Vehicle Accidents on Construction
According to E-Facts state one of the most hazardous industrial activities and higher rate of injury from construction work or construction industry than in other industries. Falls from height and fatal accidents with vehicles were the most frequent causes of death in the construction industry. Ensure that all workers receive appropriate information, education, training and provide good documentation of hazards and risks discovered in most important to preventing vehicle accidents on construction. According E-Facts state that have four (4) preventive actions that might be preventing vehicle accidents on construction that which are:
Management of Workplace Transport
22.214.171.124 Safe Workplaces
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in safe workplaces which are:
Before visitor entering to the site, site management must take note the background information of them in visiting drivers report.
Vehicle traffic routes and pedestrian must be possible segregated.
Provide a traffic plan for the site.
Supervisor must ensure that pedestrians and vehicles are segregated where possible.
To achieve the segregation it must provide a physical barrier and if not, adequate warnings must be in place.
To reduce the risk of collisions, one -way traffic system must be introducing.
For vehicle and pedestrian activities must be check and appropriate in the layout of routes.
The employee must ensure there are suitable pedestrian crossing points on vehicle routes.
126.96.36.199 Safe Vehicles
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in safe vehicles which are:
Ensure that a safe and suitable vehicle is being used.
Ensure that the Vehicles must be included with appropriate safety features and comply with required standards after purchase.
For all vehicles must be carrying out the maintenance and inspections.
It necessary for vehicles must require and apply speed limiter.
To prevent vehicles from moving when fork lift trucks are loading or unloading, it required the control systems on that vehicle.
It necessary to warn drivers if reversing too near to an object with apply radar sensors on vehicle.
Ensure that loads are properly secure.
Access to and exit must be check that there is a safe for vehicle.
Audible warning must be providing on vehicle for example on reversing lorries, and flashing beacons on vehicles to increase their visibility.
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in workers which are:
To ensure that drivers are capable of working safely, it must check that selection and training procedures.
For pedestrians, the high visibility clothing should be worn and vehicles cannot be segregated adequately.
Drivers should be medically fit that with hearing, vision, and good mobility. To allow driving vehicles must from people who have been selected, trained and authorized to do only.
Drivers should be competent to operate their vehicles and carry out daily maintenance.
188.8.131.52 Management of Workplace Transport
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in management of workplace transport which are:
For loading and unloading vehicles work must in safe systems of work.
Restrict access of personnel from reversing areas, where it is unavoidable, with the exception of a trained signaler to assist the driver, if required.
Training certificates and driving licenses must be checked.
The delivery vehicle drivers must do correctly briefed on site rules.
Plan of the workplace at entrance and appropriate points showing vehicle routes, one way systems and so on must be displayed on plan properly.
To operate the vehicles safely, the drivers must make sure have been trained before it.
To protect the driver during unloading or loading of heavy goods vehicles, it must apply operational procedures that are safe systems of work.
Vehicle maintenance, refueling and so on must have working procedures and check that they are respected.
State by E-Facts that they have common causes and action to stop vehicles accidents which are Vehicles or Their Loads Striking People, Particularly When Reversing, Vehicles Striking Services and Obstructions, Manufacturers' Instructions for Safe Use Being Disregarded, Inadequate Training of Drivers and Signalers, and Unsafe Loading and Transportation of Materials on Vehicles.
184.108.40.206 Vehicles or Their Loads Striking People, Particularly When Reversing
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in vehicles or their loads striking people, particularly when reversing which are:
Vehicle and pedestrian routes must be separated.
Signage to warn pedestrians of hazards must be provided.
All visitors or contractors must be receiving the information of site procedures.
Sound and reversing lights on vehicles must be checked.
Check that nobody is at risk of injury before moving off, particularly in the area obscured by the skip when going forward, and behind the vehicle when reversing.
220.127.116.11 Vehicles Striking Services and Obstructions
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in vehicles striking services and obstructions which are:
Protect overhead power cables that cannot be relocated away from traffic routes, such as by providing "goal posts" so that vehicles cannot make contact with them.
Design one way system.
Situate loading bays away from overhead cables.
Foresee sufficient and wide enough traffic routes.
Crash barriers must provide.
Keep to designated vehicle routes and follow site rules and safe systems of work.
Structures exposed or potentially hazardous traffic must be predicted.
On traffic routes must prevent from blind sports or tight corners.
Drive at appropriate speeds for site conditions.
High wiring, lighting, pipes or electric cables must be far from location of traffic routes and if unavoidable provide safe systems to avoid contact.
18.104.22.168 Manufacturers' Instructions for Safe Use Being Disregarded
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in manufacturers' instructions for safe use being disregarded which are:
For each vehicle, it must follow the manufacturer's guidance regarding the capacities.
Before operating an unfamiliar vehicle, the manufacturer's instruction book must read first.
22.214.171.124 Inadequate Training of Drivers and Signalers
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in inadequate training of drivers and signalers which are:
Skills training for drivers.
Information and instruction must be provision for drivers.
Supervision of vehicles and drivers.
Regular vision tests.
Suitable selection process for drivers
Basic vehicle maintenance training.
Impairment testing was requiring of drivers from drinks or drugs.
126.96.36.199 Unsafe Loading and Transportation of Materials on Vehicles
State by E-Facts, which they have several actions to preventing vehicle accidents in unsafe loading and transportation of materials on vehicles which are:
When vehicles are parked and chock the wheels, set the parking brakes properly if they are on an incline.
Stability on slopes, particularly relating to braking, and the differences in performance when loaded and unloaded must be understand properly.
Get off the dumper when it is being loaded and ensure that the skip is not overloaded.
Check that loads are evenly distributed and that they do not obscure visibility from the driving position.
Drive at appropriate speeds for site conditions.
Load only on level ground with the parking brake applied.
3.3 EXAMPLE OF ACCIDENT CASES IN CONSTRUCTION SITE
Accident involving the failure of installation of frame scaffolding installed at the building site.
Figure 3.1: Scaffolding collapsed
Figure 3.1 shown the Pavilion condition at the construction site, where scaffolding on the building collapsed and resulted in two construction workers killed in Jalan Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur at 9 January 2007.
Figure 3.2: Crane accident; Source: Anuar Saidin (2009)
Figure 3.2 shown the crane accident that becomes horrific accident at the construction site, two workers died building the tower crane cable break at 8 March 2009 in Bangsar Kuala Lumpur, Harian Metro (Anuar Saidin, 2009).
Two Workers Dead & Ten seriously injured in Industrial Accident at Work Place
Figure 3.3: Industrial Accident at Work Place; Source: Hector, (2007)
Figure 3.3 shown the Industrial Accident at Work Place that recently on 10/1/2006, it was reported that one Malaysian & one Burmese worker were killed, and 12 other Indian Migrant Workers were seriously injured when scaffolding at the construction site (their workplace) collapsed. They were hit by the slabs, which fell from the seventh level. Twelve slabs, each weighing about 50 kgs, were said to have fallen from a platform on the scaffolding (Charles Hector 2007).