Sustainable Development And Performance Of Green Buildings Construction Essay

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3.1. Introduction

The Sustainable development for designing buildings and spaces (indoor and outdoor-outdoor) based on the local climate, to ensure thermal and visual comfort, utilizing solar energy and other environmental sources as well as natural phenomena change. Basics of bioclimatic design are passive systems integrated into buildings to exploit the natural resources for heating, cooling and lighting of buildings.

The bioclimatic design although it is embedded in the architecture that characterizes every place in all the land - considered by many as a new "vision" in architecture and ecology associated with more, rather than energy savings and may result. However, bioclimatic architecture has become in recent decades fundamental approach in building construction worldwide, and now in most states is a key design criterion of small and large buildings which is taken into account by all scholars architects and engineers. And this is due to lower energy requirements for heating, cooling and lighting of buildings arising from the practice of bioclimatic architecture and the multiple benefits involved: energy (saving and thermal / visual comfort), economic (cost reduction electromechanical ), environmental (pollution reduction) and socially. [1] 

Specifically, the energy benefit resulting from the application of bioclimatic design rendered in the following ways:

 save energy by significantly reducing losses due to improved hull protection and behavior of components,

 production of thermal energy (heat) through the solar system of direct or indirect gain by contributing to the thermal needs of the attachment sites and partially cover the heating requirements of the building,

 creating the conditions for thermal comfort and reduce the requirements for the thermostat setting (lower temperatures in the winter and higher in summer)

 maintain the internal air temperature at high levels in winter (and correspondingly low in summer), thus reducing the load to meet the energy requirements of the ASs in use of the building.

The use of solar energy and environmental resources in general, according to the bioclimatic design is achieved within the overall thermal building operation and relationship building - environment. And the thermal operation of a building is a dynamic state that:

 depends on local climatic and environmental factors (sunshine, temperature, outside air, relative humidity, wind, vegetation, shade from other buildings), but also the conditions of use of the building (residential, offices, hospitals, etc.) and

 based on the corresponding energy behavior of structural elements and (by extension) of embedded passive solar systems, but also the energy profile resulting from the operation of the building.

The performance of bioclimatic design depends on several parameters, which makes him a "sensitive" to external and non-technical factors. [2] 

For this reason, key criteria for the application of bioclimatic design must be:

Simplicity of use applications and avoiding complex passive systems and techniques,

 the small contribution of the building user to system operation,

The use of widely applied systems

 the use of techno-economically efficient energy technologies.

3.2. The cost of building green

To calculate the cost of a building is clear that we must take into account [3] :

the cost of construction design

the cost of the study

the construction costs

the cost of operation and

The cost of reuse / demolition.

In any case the cost of a building depends on:

The region's climate

Design

plot and orientation

mode by users

Proper maintenance in the long run.

In general, a building constructed according to the principles of bioclimatic design does not cost more than a conventional building to constructed. Furthermore, the operating cost of such a building is significantly (from 30 to 50%) lower than in a conventional building. [4] 

In particular, many of the costs mentioned above in cost - benefit analysis is common for a construction based on the principles of bioclimatic design and a simple common structure:

Both structures involve investment costs as it will place, possibly a building under bioclimatic have little additional cost due to special friendly materials

environment,

also carry the same operating costs, e.g. salaries of the workers will remain the same

Both structures have a cost to cover emergencies and costs for financial transactions until the construction of building.

3.3. Potential benefits with building green

The bioclimatic design is considered by many as a new "vision" in architecture. Developed primarily to boost the construction industry

buildings more environmentally friendly. Perhaps it can be said to be related

the ecology more, despite the energy and savings may bring. [5] 

However, bioclimatic architecture has become in recent decades

basic approach to the construction of buildings worldwide, and in

most states is a key design criterion of small and large buildings in

which is taken into account by all scholars architects and engineers. And

was due to lower energy requirements for heating, cooling and lighting of buildings arising from the practice of bioclimatic architecture. The bioclimatic architecture delivers multiple benefits, such as energy (saving and thermal / visual comfort), economic (cost reduction E / M facility), environment (reducing emissions) and socially. The benefits resulting from the application of bioclimatic design attributed to following ways, based on the method of cost-benefit presented in previous sections of this chapter [6] :

Cash benefits: production of thermal energy (heat) through solar gain directly or indirectly by contributing to the thermal 70

needs of attachment sites and partial coverage of claims heating the building,

Non-monetary benefits:

saving the considerable reduction of losses due

improved hull protection and behavior of structural

data

creating thermal comfort conditions and reducing the requirements for regards the regulation thermostat (at lower temperatures during winter and higher in summer)

maintain the internal air temperature at high levels in winter

(And correspondingly low in summer), resulting in the reduction of load to meet the energy requirements of its subsidiary

systems by the use of the building.

Unlike the "solar" design, the extent to which the bioclimatic

planning now leverages local climate variable, which provides a

flexibility in the ways and possibilities of architectural expression

application through very simple techniques and procedures to complex and passive solar systems, which is demonstrated by tracking bioclimatic buildings in Greece..

External benefits: improving the environmental conditions of friendly

friendly materials and construction is probably the key external

benefit offered by the bioclimatic design. Through the study of

this new way of construction, and resulting social benefits such as

Man learns to respect the environment and nature. [7] 

Lorenz et al. (2007) listed a number of green buildings features that can result in economic effects. See Figure 1.

C:\Users\Dora\Desktop\Table 1.JPG

Figure : Green Building Features and the results in economic effect

3.3. The value of green in real estate

In the following analysis is done using financial market model with 2 goods,

energy certified buildings and conventional buildings. We assume that consumers (in our case users), expressing their preference to energy certified buildings with the intention to pay a price higher than conventional buildings, mainly due cost savings. In the diagrammatic presentation below is discussed

short run the price formation of each class of property. [8] 

Figure : The right chart: Market for non-certified buildings and the left chart with new energy supply certified buildings

The first chart shows the market for non-certified buildings with a stock Qnc

(non certified) with price Pnc. In the next chart, the property market introduced new energy supply certified buildings. Having assumed that the construction of certified real estate resulting in higher costs, manufacturers will produce small quantities, so the new supply curve Sc (certified) will be left of Snc. Moreover, given the intention of consumers to pay a higher price for green buildings, the curve demand for the new product is shifted upwards. In the new market formed Pc value which is greater than the Pnc. The difference between the values ​​resulting from the added value of incorporating energy-certified buildings, green or otherwise value. With the new data because of the excess money that can be reaped by producers,

would turn to build properties with green features, resulting in

long period the stock of green building to increase and therefore the price

to decline. But due to particular characteristics of the property market, such as

limited space and time winding lags on any changes in the economic

change, the replacement of conventional buildings with green placed in the distant future. Therefore, the state with the interventionist role, should expedite the process. The tools available in the state is obliged either to property owners energy upgrade their properties, or to impose an environmental tax on those not meet the specifications.

According to the survey of McGraw [9] Hill Construction, the investor benefits from construction of green buildings are important, as important is the improvement in performance them within three years. In all categories of research has dramatically increasing awareness of the performance of green buildings. [10] C:\Users\Dora\Desktop\Table 2.1.JPG

Figure : Advantages of various categories in Green BuildingC:\Users\Dora\Desktop\table 2.2.JPG

3.4. Estimation Methods

In the world literature there is still no safe method for estimating the added value is due to the properties of green nature. The first attempts at this direction include valuation and control of natural capital (air, water, soil), but has a wider assent for methods. But it is generally accepted that most agent environment is an important variable in assessing both investment plans, and in assessment of risk associated with them. [11] Making the assumption that the green value is associated mostly with the energy cost savings, we can compute the discounting economic benefits resulting from this saving. [12] 

This methodology based on the research of Mr. Anastasiadis: [13] 

Calculate the energy balance of the property to be assessed in relation to the building reference, and ranks in the corresponding energy level. The energy balance given by the following relation:

WSE Subject = E ref - E B

SE : Wasted/Saved Energy

Eref : annual energy cost of the reference building [kWh/m2]

EÎ’ : annual energy cost of the property under consideration [kWh/m2]

Note that to qualify a property as energy efficient, the price SE must be

positive.

The next step involves the calculation of the energy balance / the

property which will be used as the benchmark for calculating

value of the property under consideration. Concerns property with the same or similar characteristics under consideration.

WSEcomp = Eref - EB

Calculate the difference between the energy balances of the property under consideration by of comparison.

ΔWSE = WSEcomp - WSEsubject

It is considered that the building has energy efficient with / being compared, the difference DWSE has a negative value, which translates as the energy saved per year per square meter. Then the discounted energy expenditure at current prices.

DC=ΔWSE∙CEt=1N1+f1+it

DC : saving attention to energy expenditure

CE : Current energy costs

N : Calculation Period (years)

f : Growth energy costs

i : inflation Rate

The final amount calculated (DC) is added (green) value incorporates

green building, which the market is able to pay as a "premium" to acquire of.

The weakness of this method is to determine the accounting period, as the attempt to use period equal to the life of the property may give perverse effects because the rates of change both in energy costs, and the inflation vary with economic cycles that are shorter of the life cycle of buildings. In this case, a calculation period put the 10 years, which according to the international practice, the maximum retention time property in investment portfolios. [14] 

A more appropriate method for estimating the green value should take into account the life cycle cost analysis of the property, according to which the estimated environmental impact of the entire life cycle of the property, ie stage manufacturing inputs and outputs in the life time of the final disposal of over by materials after demolition. The study includes the calculation of indicators representative for property assessment to its energy efficiency,

waste production, the relationship between the economy and energy cost benefits, which are necessary information for decision making. [15] 

3.5. Conclusion

The real estate market today is invited to meet the modern requirements to ensure a sustainable future for generations to come. The need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels for many is the hottest topic of the season. At the same time, the economic system requires incentives to implement new practices that will lead to a gradual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and these incentives translated into economic benefit. The "Green Value" is the motivation that will drive factors of space in this direction.

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