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In this chapter of literature review, a critical literature review has been conducted about the sustainability, its concepts in a very elaborate manner. Further review has also been conducted on the possible reasons on implementation of this sustainability on high rise buildings all over the world in the recent years and how UAE is coping up with its sustainability strategy. It has also critically reviewed about the misconception of sustainability among the construction professionals and its advantages and disadvantages on high rise buildings.
The word "sustainability" is the most predominant word that is being in use across the globe since past decade. Not a professional is unaware of this word may be hypothetical but indeed it is the sublime truth. The sustainability has now become paradigm in the field of engineering and has been a burning topic in which many are doing researches which might carry out even for few more future decades.
For the construction industry the 'sustainability' has become a common word and is also a mandatory concept that is being persisted by the client in the contract itself such has become its importance. To by far the construction has also been one of the prime contributors for the environmental pollution in many ways.
In general terms 'sustainability' means the ability to maintain as per the dictionary definition. It may also be defined as 'making use of natural resources without impacting the ecological balance/environment.'
As in the words of Hazel, from his observation he has been identified the sustainability in three important aspects such as Environmental sustainability, Social Sustainability and Economic Sustainability.
Fig1. The above figure represents the three fundamental aspects that define sustainability (Hazel, 2010).
Environmental sustainability is the one which is achieved by making practices in such a way so as to make use the natural resources in prioritise basis and at the same time to reduce the pollution by controlling the emissions of CO2 gases and constructional or any other wastes generated that causes pollution.
Social Sustainability is the one which is achieved by identifying the needs of all those were interconnected with the project, the whole supply chain. The local communities and the end used should also be handled.
Economic Sustainability is the one which deals with effective implementation of practicing the proper usage of available resources such as nature, human and energy.
2.3 SUSTAINABILITY DEVELOPMENT:
According to Sakr and Haggar (2010), the UNEP United Nations Environment Programme) has mentioned that UN Commission on Environment and Development is the first body to initiate and develop a concept called "Sustainable Development" which later on evolved for the setting up a conference by the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) in the year 1987 which has been changed the understanding of all professionals across the globe. The main agenda of this conference is the Sustainability in regarding to socio-economic and environmental dimensions for developing a better world. According to Redclift (1987), sustainable development is the "development which meets the needs of the existing ones without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". These sustainability has three major areas to be looked (Suhaida Mohd Sood, 2011) they are:
Firstly, the People who should have equal rights and justice to use of environmental resources.
Reduce or eliminate the Environmental degeneration.
Reduce the impact of current actions on the future generations.
Sustainability development is for setting up a vision for the economy to achieve the major challenges such as social and economic development, environmental protection. The OGC (Office of Government Commerce, 2007) has defined as the sustainable development is planned to represent better quality of life by making use of the available resources efficiently, which in turn will bring about social progress, whilst maintains a decent economic growth and also provide care towards the environment. It is also defined in a published research on Sustainability Construction, by (DTI, 2004) that sustainability development is the one which strives to improve the quality of life for all without increasing the consumption of natural resources beyond the capacity which might affect the environment adversely. According to Wilkinson and Reed (2007), sustainability development is just not only reducing the consumption of natural resources but also to make sure that they manage more than the conservation of natural resources.
There are three elements that need to be maintained accordingly in order to contribute to the development of sustainability such as society, economy and resources. By applying these three aspects, Wilkinson and Reed (2007) have suggested a approach called 'triple bottom line', this concept was intended to clearly rationalise the development which facilitates economic growth, whilst maintain social inclusion and also guarantee the environment impact to minimum level.
Fig2. A concept of sustainable development Triple Bottom Line, Wilkinson and Reed (2007, p.7).
In the 21st century Sustainable development is the main criteria of any construction. Almost all countries are concerned about the sustainability. Green building is the word that comes when we think about sustainable design. Green building means constructing the building in safe surrounding environment which will not create negative impact on the natural environment and constructing the building by using the materials of friendly environment and locally available. The notations "sustainable building", "Green building" and "high performance buildings" are the same which describes the development and building with much more responsibilities for better growth of socio-economical development without affecting environment (Grace, 2006).The main concept of this type is to reduce the pollution as much as possible.
Many countries having understood the importance of sustainability, green buildings started to set up special authorisations and accreditations for green buildings which were began initially by BREEM (UK, 1990) and then later initiative has been taken by US by setting up LEED. Since then many countries have set up the authorities for sustainable development which was listed in the below table (Suhaida Mohd Sood et.al, 2011):
Nabers / Green Star
AQUA / LEED Brasil
Green Star NZ
LEED Canada / Green Globes /
Built Green Canada
BERDE / Philippine Green
Republic of China
Green Building Label
DGNB / CEPHEUS
Green Star SA
Indian Green Building Council
(IGBC) / GRIHA
Green Buildng Council
Indonesia (GBCI) / Greenship
United States of America
LEED / Living Building
Challenge / Green
Globes / Build it Green
/ NAHB GBS /
Protocollo Itaca / Green
Building Counsil Italia
United Arab Emirates
Pakistan Institute of
Table 1: List of all countries with sustainability measurement authorities.
2.4 SUSTAINABILITY IN TALL BUILDINGS:
The word 'Tall buildings'/ 'High rise buildings' can be generally be used for buildings more than 20 storeys. These tall buildings can also be defined with respect to height of surrounding buildings, so the notation varies from city to city in defining tall buildings/high rise buildings. In general, In small cities even a 12 storey buildings can be considered as tall buildings, in UK any buildings with more than 20 storeys is considered as tall building and in cities like New York, Hong Kong and UAE a tall building is 40 storeys or more high. These tall buildings are generally found mostly in cities for accommodating large number of social living such as residential buildings, retail ones, office buildings and also for hotels. All these are provided with multi storey car parking and buildings services included in their buildings.
A building can be termed as sustainable building if the building design is in such a way that it incorporates a balance between social, economic and environmental issues in all the stages of a building such as in design, construction, operational and till the end of the life of building. A sustainable tall buildings is also defined as the on which reduces the emission of CO2 and a buildings which has less impact to pollution of land, air and water thought its life span and is an economical to the social community.
So the main challenge is to make sure that in the future, the construction industry should focus on construction of sustainable tall buildings with zero emission of CO2 and every country having their own building regulations must look into these aspects as well into regulations. Generally these tall buildings are less sustainable when compared to low rise buildings as these tall buildings have more consumption of natural resources besides having some advantages as lesser land is made use for accommodating large no: of people in it. So, balancing of both advantages and disadvantages must be taken care which is only achieved if the construction of these high rise buildings is developed with sustainability concept.
The sustainability of these tall buildings are measured by considering different aspects into consideration such as environmental processes, structural designing and other key performance indicators. These are being monitored by the special authorities in different countries such as Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEM), DETR etc, which were mentioned in the earlier pages.
2.5 SUSTAINABILITY IN UAE:
Construction industry is considered to be one of the crucial sectors for the development of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Civil construction projects within the UAE are still progressing fully stream. Construction on an oversized scale has turned UAE into one in every of the quickest growing country within the world. The speed of construction in UAE is extremely fast compared to western countries. There are variety of enormous scale projects that are presently beneath construction or are going to be made within the future together with building and civil infrastructure projects.
The right way of marching towards the bright future is to promote a multidisciplinary group with different skills to enhance the development in a sustainable way (Mohamed, 2010). In UAE where construction of tall buildings is quite a common one, there is necessity to guide these constructions in a right direction so to march towards sustainability. The percentage of high rise buildings in UAE are increasing at a proportional rate and the alarming fact is that how many of these buildings are really sustainable. All these questions have led a way to set up a initiative to set up a conference where all construction high profile professionals and technical experts were brought under a single hut by Trakhees - Civil Engineering Division of Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation (PCFC) on February 26, 2008 (Amar, 2010) where the prime resolution taken is to adopt the green or sustainable building development practices into implementation in UAE and other gulf countries.
Not only in UAE but also across all over the world many researchers have done excessive researches in the recent decade to identify the possible ways to achieve sustainable high rise buildings. The important aspects which are considered for sustainable tall buildings are discussed in detail in this paper.
2.6 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN:
Sustainability in general terms is to create an economic system with enhanced performance with long term safety.Sustainability is the one which mainly focuses on the climate change, energy conservation, protection of natural resources and environmental enhancement.
When it comes to sustainable tall buildings alongside with sustainable materials, the constructions professionals must also strive hard to make a sustainable design such as bringing the structural sustainability to the high rise buildings at the design stage itself and also to apply these sustainable techniques and applications in concrete/cement industry which is one of the lead contributor to the environmental pollution. The intent of new ideas are to be developed by the architects and developers for sustainable design of 'Bioclimatic Skyscrapers' in which the well designed tall buildings can be an energy efficient and eco friendly which offers a controlled environment in whole life span of building.
With efficiencies in design and construction of these tall buildings there can be a significant difference in both environmental and economical perspective. The structural engineers and other professionals should try to reduce the usage of material by effective design and try to make the best use of steel and concrete at foundation and structural levels wisely. In the present day there are many software packages such as BIM (Building Information Modelling) where whole building is taken into consideration and it shall run all the possibilities in terms of design, energy efficiency, lighting and much more and even before at the time of inception itself a clear idea on how this tall buildings can impact the environment can be understood (Salman, 2011).
According to Will prank, in his research, he stated that for tall buildings sustainability, there are four important aspects that need to be taken into consideration they are climate changes, energy consumption in offices, solid waste and sewage and energy use and ownership of building.
The UK government has also set up some certain important things that the construction industry must take into account during the construction which can be adopted to all countries, they have developed a strategy 'Building a Better Quality of Life (DETR, 2000)' which consists guidelines, some of them are:
Minimising Energy use
Preserving and enhancing biodiversity
Conserving water resources
By proper application of these sustainable designs during construction may bring wider environmental and social benefits.
2.7 SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS MATERIALS AND APLLICATIONS:
By constructing sustainable buildings the use of natural resources in limited means like using water saving faucets and plumbing elements, energy efficient lighting units and passive solar design and by using environment friendly materials in the construction of walls, floors, ceilings, etc. All these materials keep the building sustainable for all types of weather and by constructing such buildings we can reduce the carbon monoxide footprint of the building on environment and even it provides the direct cost savings to the building owners. There are many materials that were used in construction of green buildings; some of them are explained below:
2.7.1 USE OF METAL:
Use of 'Metal' as it is environmental friendly because these are recyclable and long lasting building material which also offers excellent solar reflective benefits. It is energy efficient choice for roofing and wall panels when constructing a building envelope. The energy generation systems are the most expensive materials of green building. The initial cost of construction of green building is high but it is worthable and justified when these attain the energy savings for the building on long term basis.
2.7.2 USE OF NANO MATERIALS:
Nano- Materials are the one, the materials with size less than 100 nanometers. In general terms it can be defined as the materials which are 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of human hair are termed as Nano- materials. The advent of nanotechnology has made the existence of these nano materials; these have changed the entire ideology of materials sizes, its properties. These nano materials have a unusual mechanical, magnetic, electrical and optical properties unlike other general materials. The use of nano materials is being predominant in many of the industries such as electronic, medical, and engineering and many more. In general, these can be found in our general items such as cosmetics, electronic parts, paints, textiles etc.
The nano materials is one the most sustainable materials and is being used much frequently in the construction industry mostly in tall buildings. In many of tall buildings construction these materials were used across the globe. In California, a architect named peter has designed a 40 storey buildings in a such a way that no steel material is used in it, instead he suggested a design consisting cross fibre which is made up of carbon fibre which are nano materials by which the strength of building has been much stronger than steel by hundred times. The buildings is called as "Woven building'/'Carbon Tower'. By applying hydrophobic nano coating to the exterior windows of tall buildings, the dirt and water can be repelled automatically; the manual cleaning of high rise building exterior windows may be reduced to maximum extent.
The most important application of these nano materials for tall buildings is use of 'Nano Paint', by applying this nano paint to tall buildings, they act a environmental controlling agent, they act as air purifiers and reduce the effect of pollution and also does not allow UV rays to enter the building. The 'solar nano technology' which is also suitable sustainable application, the nano crystal present in the solar panel which is ultra thin converts organic and inorganic solar cells into electricity at a fraction of time and these are of very light weight and can be installed very easily. In the near future, these nano materials may be used much more extensively for betterment of construction industry and more sustainability in terms of effecting the environment.
2.7.3 RETROFIT OF EXISTING BUILDINGS:
Herbert Girardet has explained in his research on tall buildings that it would to the wise decision to start the concept of sustainability for new buildings, but it is also important on how the tall buildings which were already constructed without any sustainable concepts in design as these tall buildings generally have a life span of about 30 yrs or more, so for making these existing tall buildings a sustainable ones is the prime task.
Renovating the existing building would be a tedious task. The main aim of energy efficiency is to reduce the energy consumption considerably by 30-40%. Some of the energy efficient aspects that needs to considered during retrofitting are:
Retrofit complete building with energy efficiency light bulbs, room sensors, etc.
Adoption of solar panel technology
Removal of extremely hazardous asbestos by applying insulation.
Providing efficient window seals to prevent cold air/hot air leaving from building.
Make sure that these retrofit buildings get a silver rating from LEED Green Building Council (GBC).
Here the buildings needs are to be understood initially and accordingly the changes such as changing from commercial to residential type or either ways should be explored fro sustainability and check the environmental aspects such as the buildings can be refurbished without a change in usage. It has made to reuse the buildings structure and over-cladding which tends to improve the energy efficiency of towers and the facade changes might benefits the thermal properties of building.
The design methods changes from country to country depending upon the environmental conditions such as structural engineers in California, Hong Kong they need to cope up with earthquake and in cities like London and UAE its is the winds that needs to be taken into consideration. The efficiency of building frame is the one which impacts more on embodied energy of tall building.
There are many Sustainable materials that can be made use of Tall buildings such as adding sustainable concepts to Steel by effective design, trying different compositions in concrete by utilising waste materials like Basic oxygen steel slag, Ash released from burnt coal thermal power plants and incinerator ash, the use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate(RCA) instead of normal concrete can exhibit similar compressive strength and bearing (Noriega, 2011).
2.8 SUSTAINABLE PROCESS:
A sustainable process is the combination of all the above mentioned ones, for the better sustainable process, according to the Office of Government Commerce (OGC, 2007), the best practices identified are:
The contribution which the planning system can make for mainstreaming best practice
Promotion of long term planning for dynamic improvement
Role of Government incentives for innovation
Promotion & adoption of best practice, including potential for the use of voluntary agreements
Best means of sharing experience between designers, builders and utilities
According to UK-GBC (UK-Green Building Council, 2007a), the following deliverables can be accomplished, if sustainable construction is practiced effectively
Collaborative team work: This mode of working will increase the construction industry value, whilst exploits the expertise of the supply chains, which will indeed lead to the development of the aspired, whole life value products.
Environmentally acclaimed designs: Environmentally friendly design is synonymous with the sustainable construction. Apparently, there would not be any case where in, a building, infrastructure, or a public place can be considered as a sustainably well designed project, if the project is not in line with its contribution to - the triple bottom line (environmental, social and economic sustainability).
Drive towards innovation: The effort towards the practicing of the sustainable construction drives towards new innovations and will impose some inherent changes, which will drive towards the continual improvement of the construction industry.
The construction industry has become one of the main contributors to the environmental pollution as the emission of carbon monoxide and other pollutants are the bi-products of many construction materials and equipments and construction process. From the literature review it has been about the sustainability and its origin, the role of sustainability in tall buildings. It has also been discussed about the possible sustainable process that can be implemented in construction of tall buildings.
From many researchers on sustainable materials and sustainable designs, some of them are discussed in this paper. From this information on sustainable development in tall buildings it can be understood that there are many efficient ways in implementing the sustainable concepts to the tall/high-rise buildings. These sustainbel concepts should be incorporated at the design time itself by the structural engineers and it can be understood that the role of construction professionals is the key ones for implementing the sustainability in tall buildings as these professionals must have an idea to design, construct and operate a sustainable building.
From this it can be understood that there is necessity to further investigate the role of construction professionals and their view on sustainable tall buildings, for this to happen a questionnaire is to be prepared and has to be circulated to all construction professionals in UAE and get their view on sustainability in tall buildings. From the results, after critically analysing the theoretical approach is compared to the practical outset and a conclusion can be dawn on how effective are the sustainable tall buildings and UAE and what driving measures are need to achieve more sustainable buildings in the future years.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
In this chapter of Research methodology, an overview of the research methods has been discussed in detail and how an academic research should be progressed is also explained. The proposed research mainly requires two types of research methods that can be employed; they are quantitative and qualitative approaches. In this chapter the various types of data collection methods were also being discussed and how the questionnaire is also being structured such that all the necessary information of the project is induced in the questionnaire and how this questionnaire is analysed was also discussed in detail.
3.2 RESEARCH METHOD:
The sublime of the any research is the capacity to adhere the components of harmonising work and to accomplish the research successfully. The selection of research method is very important and is the key success factor for any project research, as in the words of Zora Neale Hurston, "Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose" (Zora Neale Hurston, 1943). For any academic research, the main two of research methodologies that were extensively used are Quantitative and Qualitative researches.
According to Wilson the qualitative research is defined as a research strategy which is set out often using the unstructured research approaches usually with a smaller sample size of carefully selected individuals to deduct non statistical insights into motivations, attitudes and behaviours. The main objective of qualitative research is to create a methodology for identifying, understanding, critically analyzing and explaining the management phenomena at a social or organizational level. (Delattre et al, 2009).
Different approaches used in qualitative research in collecting data are grounded theory, narratology, ethnography or shadowing, and storytelling. Qualitative research is the analysis of thoughts and feelings of people, some of the techniques used in data analysis are interpretive techniques, coding, recursive abstraction, mechanical techniques. The methods used by qualitative researchers for gathering information are participant and non-participant observation, reflexive journals, field notes, structured and unstructured interview, analysis of materials and documents.
Although this approach is similar to the quantitative approach, the main difference with this method of approach is that it relies on text and image data, thus it influences to demonstrate the analysis of data in an exclusive way and also it draws on various strategies of enquiry. This procedure can be used in the fields of planning, education, business management, environmental aspects, etc. Therefore, it is expressed that the qualitative research technique accents word rather than measurement in the analysis and collection of data.
In general the qualitative research strategy constitutes these following key factors:
The qualitative research presents explanations to the research question rather than measurement to the research.
The researcher has to practice self-scrutiny and should account for the actions and the role they play in the research. (Mason, 1996)
Usually smaller sample size is used which may not entirely represent the larger population and it is suggested that care has to be taken to select the required sample size.
In general the data collection process is more flexible and less structured than the qualitative research strategy.
3.2.2 Quantitative Research
According to Maxwell (2005), research method evolves primarily from the specific research objective(s) and cannot be totally resolved until the later are properly confirmed. The quantitative research can be defined as an objective and typical research strategy which involves the use of statistics and numerical data. This research strategy presents the relationship between the hypothesis and experimental research through the numerical data collected (Nachimas et al, 1996).
Quantitative research is one such approach which holds the ability to satisfy the above condition. There are three different categories, which come under the quantitative research approach, they are; Interviews, open question survey and structured questionnaire survey. This approach also bears the advantage of providing a scope to render an easy representation of statistical data in a graphical form, keeping in view the nature of information that will be obtained.
Wilson (2003) argued that the quantitative research strategy generally consists of these key elements, unlike the qualitative research strategy the data collected through this research is more structured and is less flexible. The sample sizes selected for this research process are usually larger in size as it involves large populations. The better advantage of quantitative research is that the reports generated by this process are usually easier to evaluate than the reports generated by the qualitative research strategy. In the quantitative research the results can be compared in an easy manner.
Wilson (2003) argued that the quantitative research strategy generally consists of these key elements:
The analysis in this research strategy is very objective and is statistical in nature.
The better advantage of quantitative research is that the reports generated by this process are usually easier to evaluate than the reports generated by the qualitative research strategy. In the quantitative research the results can be compared in an easy manner
Unlike the qualitative research strategy the data collected through this research is more structured and is less flexible.
The data or the information collected through this process can be quantified.
The sample sizes selected for this research process are usually larger in size as it involves large populations.
Besides of these two research methods there is a third category which is a combination if both qualitative and quantitative research strategies.
3.3 SELECTION OF RESEARCH METHOD:
The quantitative and the qualitative research techniques dissent in the concepts of methodology and the model of qualitative and quantitative research characteristics can be used to decide on a best strategy which would fit in with the research in question (Miller et al, 1997).
Qualitative Research Strategy
Quantitative Research Strategy
Research is more flexible and less structured
Research is more structured and less flexible
Usually subjective in nature
Generally objective in nature
Smaller sample size and selected samples may not represent the larger population at times
The research strategy uses larger sample sizes
Political and speculative
Used for testing hypothesis and is value free
Can be applied for case studies
Can be applied for surveys
Table 1: Characteristics of Qualitative and Quantitative research strategy
Source: Miller et al, 1997
From the understanding of these research methods the nature of information needed for this study is mostly collection of quantitative data from the project participant using closed questionnaire. Although according to (Fellow 1997), the use of data collected by others is relatively cheap and saves time but this study clearly required a primary data to achieve its objectives.
To address the objectives of this research, there are three types of research techniques which can be taken into consideration they are Interviews, open question survey and the structured survey, to say precisely, the methodology used in this research is mainly quantitative type of approach. Among which a quantitative approach using a structured questionnaire survey is chosen for this study.
3.4 DATA COLLECTION METHOD:
In any research method this data collection is the key aspect, this selection of data collection emphasis the overall project approach. There are mainly two types of data collection, they are Interviews, questionnaire. In these there are different approaches.
As in this project the adopted type of approach is questionnaire type of approach, there is a need to discuss on different types of this questionnaire classification, there are mainly three types of questionnaire, they area closed ended, open ended and combination of both. This questionnaire type approach is the one in which a set of questions are given to a respondent and ask him/her to answer. According to (The Survey System, 2007), a questionnaire survey can be framed by including different type of questions; they are likert rating scale type questions, single option questions, multiple option questions and questions asking suggestions, etc.
According to Denscombe, (1998), it is suggested that questionnaire survey has the potential for deriving solution to the problem area selected for the research with lower cost and all information can be gathered as a secured pre-coded data. (The Survey System, 2007), observed that the questionnaire survey has its own benefits as it provides respondents the liberty to answer anywhere and also can have the opportunity to consult a colleague or any source. However (Moreo et al., 2000) suggested that there is a possibility of not getting response from the respondents for the information we are seeking, through these questionnaire surveys. For seeking the relevant information necessary for drawing conclusions on the present attitude of the responding construction professionals, it is required to undertake close attention to see that all areas of investigation are incorporated into the questionnaire survey.
In the open-ended questionnaire consists of set of questions which are being put forward to the responds and ask them to write down their opinion accordingly to the question. In this approach an empty space is provided for each question so as the respondents can pen down their information. The advantage is that an exact view of the particular respondent to that specific question but when it comes to analysis of data it becomes more complex to analyse each and every question form large num of questionnaire responses.
When coming to closed-ended questionnaire are the one in which for all the questions respondent has to answer are provided with prewritten answers so that the respondent can choose from the options below. The structure for this type is mostly multiple choices and scale questions and as they have some set of format the data can be analysed in graphical ways and are the best suited for generating the statistical data for quantitative approach, by this a large number of respondents are acquired for better analysis. These both types of approaches can also be combined in a single questionnaire as the type of approach can be chosen for each question as which can be best suited. Most of the researchers tend to use this combined approach.
In this project research, the closed type of structured questionnaire is being considered in which an initial draft will be presented to some sample of consultant organisations and construction companies in the UAE construction industry. Their response will be summarised and analyse to establish the suitability of the questionnaire and its wordings. By taking some useful guideless, a further check will be conducted on the formation of questionnaire and even check its spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, validity and practicability and appropriateness.
3.4.1 Questionnaire Pattern:
From the brief methodology process, it has been understood that quantitative approach is the best chosen research method for present research. The closed type of structured questionnaire is to be considered to data collection.
For this to happen, a questionnaire is drafted mainly into four categories. In the first part a set of questions are designed such that it will seek to provide background information about the respondents and their organisation enquiring about the company's size, for example if it comes under any of the following categories of large scale or medium scale or a small scale company. The second part will deal with general issues about the application of Sustainability in UAE and their organisation and also few questions on how this sustainability is being applied in Tall buildings.
In the third part, few more questions were outlined on the present sustainability materials that were used in construction industry at operational levels and in the final part few questions were asked on how important the role of construction professionals in implementing sustainability and asked their suggestions by which aspects the sustainability can be improved.
This questionnaire is being sent to various respondents using an electronic means (as e-mail) so as to ensure a speedy process in despatch of information rather than sending them by postal service thereby saving time. Along with this questionnaires a covering letter will also be attached stating the purpose of the research and even giving an assurance to the companies that all the information they provide will be considered as confidential and is purely for only academic purpose.
During the consideration of population size of construction professionals and industries in UAE/Gulf Countries, there are about many industries. Among them at least 100 construction professionals from clients, project managers, contractors, engineers, consultants from the various organisations within the UAE/Gulf countries construction industries are selected randomly for distributing the questionnaires.
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS:
The data collected from these questionnaires will be critically analysed and summarised and all the data is interpreted in charts and logical style format. From these statistics a logical argument is drawn from the results obtained from critical comparison with the findings of the current literature. This is mainly to have a better idea of what their thoughts and views in person. The objective is to unravel the data and present it in an academic format that is credible to professionals within the field of construction. In doing so it will emphasize key variables and problems in implementing this sustainability in tall buildings and understanding the role of construction professionals in sustainability implementation, if any drawbacks, benefits are present; which can then be formulated to become edifying information.
Finally, from these statistics a logical argument is drawn from the results obtained from critical comparison with the findings of the current literature. From all these approaches we can draw a conclusion and possible recommendations shall be made from the research findings so as to validate on how the role of construction professionals can be inputted fro achieving high rate of sustainability in construction of Tall buildings in UAE and across the globe.
In this chapter of Research Methodology, by discussing about the different type of research methods such as qualitative and quantitative, the quantitative type of approach with an closed structural questionnaire survey has been chosen for this dissertation as this type of approach would be the best suitable one with respect to both time and approach and mostly all these questionnaires has been sent through E-mail as to reduce the time span and to choose much more IT services effectively so that the respondent should be flexible to answer the questionnaire. The responses collected are being represented in a charts and logical style format so as from these statistics the data can be compared with the literature review and make a conclusion accordingly.
4.0 RESULT CHAPTER
This chapter mainly discusses to unravel the results from the questionnaire sent to various construction professionals in UAE and among all Gulf countries. This details analysis is done by presenting the responses in the statistical analysis. This data has broken down in detail critically by representing them in graphs and tables by making use of Excel and MS Word.
4.2 Explanation of the results
4.2.1 Respondents Size:
After drafting the final questionnaire, the questionnaire was sent to various construction professionals with in UAE by mails. Initially to select the respondents the yellow pages has been to be used but as many of the researchers are facing difficulties in this type of approach as they are not able to get the responses as they intended. So in order to get the genuine response from the construction professionals a step forward has been taken to make use of much more new methods such as choosing the new search engines like "Â LinkedIn" where most of the professionals from different sector will come to single platform to discuss and share their experiences. In this search engine some specific groups like "UAE construction", "Construction Network UAE" has been chosen and the members from various companies within UAE are selected and had distributed the questionnaire to them.
The questionnaire has been distributed to 100 construction professionals through email. Out of these 100 questionnaires 42 complete responses have been obtained and a 1 responses was incomplete response.
Sample Size originally distributed = 100
Response received (complete response) = 42
No: of incomplete Responses =1
Hence, the response rate is = 42/100 x 100 = 42%.
4.2.2 Role of the Respondent:
In this first section of questionnaire, it was asked about the role of the respondents such that it emphasis their role of each construction professionals as to identify number of decision making level respondents. Out of all the respondents of 42 members there are 14 Main Contractor/Clients, 7 subcontractors, 12 others, 5 project managers, 4 structural engineers and no respondent is either architect/supplier. The detail graphical analysis is shown below:
4.2.3 Response rate from 3 different category sizes of companies:
In order to find the size of the company, a questions is being asked to the respondents as what is the size of their company they are working for which out of 42 responses, 1 response had selected Small size company and 15 people are from Medium size company and most of them are form Large scale companies constituting of about 26 people. The detail analysis can be shown in the below graphical representation in percentages.
Figure 4.2.2: Graphical Representation of size of the samples
4.2.3 Area of Expertise and expertise in High Rise Buildings:
This question is mainly asked as to know about the major areas of practices their company involves so as finding out in which areas of construction they are proficient. From the below figure clearly the companies areas of practices are illustrated.
In relation to their area of practice, another question is also being asked to the respondents in the survey as to mention their experience in the construction of tall buildings for which the response is such a way out of 42 respondents, 9 companies have responded that they are in construction of tall buildings for about 0-5yrs, 11 have responded for about 5-10years experience and 7 of them have responded as they have 10-15yrs of experience in construction industry and importantly more number of the respondents about 15 companies have responded that they have about 'more than 20yrs' of experience in the construction of tall buildings which has made the survey results more stronger as the most of companies have been more than 20yrs of experience as they are well aware of the technology that has been transforming form day to day within construction of these tall buildings and also in construction sector. The below figure gives a graphical representation of the various companies experiences with in the construction industry.
4.2.4 Level of Knowledge on Sustainability in Tall Buildings:
In the Second section of questionnaire, In order to find the level of knowledge of BIM, a question is being intended to ask the respondents to mention their level of knowledge of on sustainability in construction of tall buildings. The responses were shown in the below figure graphically.
Out of 42 responses, almost 55% of the people said that they have applied it on limited basis, and about 17% of people have said that they applied it on regular basis and 26% of the companies have mentioned that they heard of this approach but never applied it and only 2% of them have responded for the option of never heard of this approach.
When coming to find the usage and implementation of this sustainability concepts in their construction industry, a question was formulated asking for how many years have they been implementing this type of sustainable approach into their construction company, the responses were clearly shown in the below figure graphically.
Out of 42 responses participated in the survey 14% of respondents have said that they have been implementing this sustainability approach since 1year, 24% of respondents have been using for about 2 years, and 17% of respondents have been conformed their implementation for about 3 years and another 4% of have also been implementing since 4 years and more importantly about nearly half of the respondents i.e., 41% have been implementing sustainability for about more than 5years which proves that many respondents were well aware of the importance of sustainability and would have a better idea of its various application and it benefits and drawbacks in project perspective on a long run.
4.2.5 Major areas of application of Sustainability approach:
After having known about their level of knowledge of Sustainability and their implementation awareness in projects, there is a need to breakdown further to find out the areas of application of this sustainability in their companies. In order to find this a question was posed to the respondents in the survey asking about their major areas of application of sustainability approach in their projects. The graphical representation of the responses can explain the major areas of application of Sustainability clearly in the below figure:
Out of 42 Respondents, to a major part many companies of about 38% have expressed that the Sustainability concepts were implemented in Architectural Designing. 9% of companies have said they have been using it in Structural Designing, 12% of companies are implementing it in execution stage, 10% of companies in MEP applications and 14% of companies are applying at procurement stage and 17% of companies have chosen the option 'Others' which they might be using in various other stages of construction. From these responses it can be understood that the most of the companies are implementing Sustainability approach in the Architectural designing stage itself which is a better approach.
4.2.6 Reason for Implementing Sustainability approach into their company:
After having understood the main areas of sustainability implementation, a question is being asked to the respondents as what is the main reason to choose this sustainability approach in their projects. In the below figure clearly the responses were shown in graphical manner:
4.2.7 Is 'Sustainability' a Client requirement?
This question is mainly intended to ask the participant professional to find out whether the Sustainability has been a client requirement or else anything. Out of 42 responses 7 responses have said that Sustainability has become as a main requirement by the client and most of them of about 81% i.e., about 34 respondents have answered as 'sometimes' and only about 2% ( 1 person) have responded that it was never an requirement by the client. In the below figure it can be shown graphically:
4.2.8 Awareness on sustainability in Tall Buildings:
This question is mainly intended to know on what portion of people in their company fell that sustainability is to be a mandatory in construction of tall buildings. By this question it would be clear on how many constructions professional are really aware of this whole sustainability concept in Tall buildings. The below figure illustrates the response rate graphically:
Out of 42 respondents, only 3% have felt that all of their people are well aware of Sustainability in tall buildings, to a major part of 18 respondents have felt they have of about 50-75% of Idea on sustainability and 16 respondents answered that they have a fair idea of 25-50% of implementation go Sustainability in tall buildings. 5 respondents have selected that only 0-25% of construction professionals in their company are aware of sustainability in tall buildings.
4.2.9 Increase in the Demand on implementing Sustainability in Construction Industry:
This question is asked to find out the demand on implementing sustainability in construction industry. It was asked in such a manner that as if that do they agree to a statement "there has been an increase in demand in implementing sustainability in construction industry" and ask their views. In the below figure we can find the responses of the participants in graphical manner:
Among the 42 responses received, almost half of the people i.e., about 23respondents have agreed to the statement and 10 respondents have strongly agreed which on whole 79% of the respondents have agreed to statement that there has been an increase in implanting Sustainability concepts in present construction industry. About 14% (6 people) of Respondents has taken a neutral stand and 2 respondents have strongly disagreed and 1 respondent have disagreed which on whole of about 7% of respondents have not agreed to the statement.
4.2.10 Concepts of Sustainability by individual and extent of implementing in whole life of project:
A question is asked on how familiar are every respondent on the concepts and methods of Sustainability implementation into their projects. This is mainly intended to access the knowledge gap and understanding of every individual on sustainability concepts on specific project. The graphical analyses of the responses are shown below:
Out of 42 Responses, 21.5% of respondents have said rated it as 5, as they are very much familiar with the methods and concepts of sustainability, 28.6% people said they are familiar with the concepts as they rated it as 4,and 9.5% has rated 2 as they said they not so much aware of the concepts of sustainability and to a major part almost 38% of respondents have said they have an fair idea on concepts and methods of sustainability and only 2.5% have said they are unfamiliar rating it as 1 said no idea on sustainability.
For the another question asked on how effectively they've been implementing this sustainability concepts in the whole life-cycle of project in tall buildings, they were mixed responses, out of 42 responses which were asked to say yes or no, 18 people have said 'Yes' and 4 have said 'definitely yes' which computes to around 22 which is more than half of the respondents have said they are implementing sustainability concepts in tall building projects which is encouraging. In the other half almost 16 respondents have taken the 'neutral' position and only 4 have answered 'No' to the question. The detail analysis is shown below graphically for better understanding:
4.2.11 Role of Construction Profession on Sustainability Implementation:
In the Section - 3, A question is asked on whether the role of construction professional is the key for sustainability implementation on tall buildings projects. The question is formulated in a such a way as a statement to the respondents to Agree or Disagree the statement. The responses are shown in graphical way in the below figure:
Out of 42 Respondents only 2 people have Disagreed the statement and I has taken neutral stand and 1 has strongly disagreed the which consists only 5 respondents have not agreed the statement. To a Major part 22 people have agreed and 16 have strongly agreed to the statement which is about 91% of respondents have insisted the importance of construction professional in sustainability implementation in tall buildings or any other projects.
4.2.12 Major Problems in Sustainability on Tall Buildings:
After asking the importance of role of construction professional in sustainability implementation, a question is asked on to identify the main drawbacks for non-implementation of sustainability in projects. For this a question is formulated in such a way as to choose the major drawback from set of 6 major issues which were identified in literature review in the questionnaire. The detail analysis is represented in the below chart graphically:
Out of all 42 responses most of them (13 no's) stated a major reason as 'Initial High Investment costs during construction' as major constraint for implementing sustainability in their projects. The next most reason is 'Lack of standard governing Body' which was chosen by 9 respondents and next to it 7 has chosen the reason as 'Complicated procedures and extended relationships' and 4 have chosen 'Lack as widely accepted solution/software' as reason while another 4 have stated 'Lack of upper management support' as main reason. Also 5 respondents have stated 'different national approaches to sustainability' as main reason. On a overview it can be inferred from this responses that the all these are a major concerns to most of the respondents.
4.2.13 Possible solution for New Sustainability strategies:
A question is formulated in such a way to ask the respondents to suggest what sort of new policies or programs would make it easier for you to become more involved in incorporating Sustainable building strategies. For this question the responses were mixed as almost all the 4 options have got equal sort of responses which emphasis the necessity of exploring all the 4 options in much detail and elaborate research to be conducted to identify the better solution. But form the responses it could be understood that mostly 17 people have chosen 'Educational/Training Program' as suitable strategy and next to it 14 have picked 'Sustainable Design guide & Construction Standards' as their option. The detail analysis is shown in the below chart:
4.2.14 Key personnel in Implementing Sustainability:
For a question asked on which construction professional has a major role to play in implementing sustainability in tall buildings or any other project, the responses were as shown in the below chart:
Out of 42 responses majority i.e, of around 31 respondents have picked 'Architect' as important person in inputting sustainability into projects which can be justified. Out of the rest 11 responses 4 have chosen 'Site construction manager' and 4 have chosen 'Structural Engineer' and 2 have chosen 'others' and one has chosen 'Planning Engineer'.
4.2.15 Advantages on effective role of construction professionals in sustainability:
A question is being asked to the respondents on what might be the possible advantages/benefits that would be possible for any project on effective participation of construction professionals in implementing sustainability concepts into their projects. The responses were shown graphically in the below chart:
Out of 42 responses, 2 people have said interoperability can be reduced, 3 have said that it could be much for effective and faster by this approach, 4 have answered as the ease of application and flexibility could be possible. 7 of the respondents have said it could bring whole project under a single platform. Of about 12 responses have chosen by this approach the CO2 foot prints can be reduced effectively. Most of the responses of about 14 have picked that 'A standard approach can be created' which could be a better foundation for the future.
4.2.16 Readiness of Implementation of Sustainability approach in Projects:
This question being the final one, asks the participant on his readiness on Sustainable approach in the Tall buildings construction in their project. The responses can be shown graphically in the below chart:
Out of 42 responses received, 17% of the respondents answered as 'May be not' as they are not interested in implementing Sustainability in tall buildings. Around 15% of the respondents answered that they 'can't decide' as they are looking forward in the later years. About 45% of the people are 'Fairly Ready' as they are waiting for this approach being into practice and about 24% of the respondents were 'Fully ready' and are committed to implement this type of approach into their company.
5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS:
This chapter 5 mainly discusses the analysis made in chapter 4 and from those detail analysis the main research problems are being selected and discussed in detail in relation to the literature review. In this chapter an outline is created on the major findings and how these can be such an important factors in the present project are explained and suggestions are being made for future research if needed.
5.2 ANALYSIS OF THE RESULT:
From all these 19 questions in the questionnaire, an outline of the research findings can be formulated by analysing the results obtained to this questionnaire. The main research findings in this project are:
Increase in demand in implementing Sustainability in all sectors within the construction industry.
Awareness among the Construction Professionals on implementing Sustainability needs to be educated.
Sustainability has become a client requirement for most of tall buildings.
Emphasis the Role of Constructional Professional is key for any Successful Sustainable Project.
To identify the Major problems in Sustainability in tall buildings and to implement sustainability in whole life cycle of project.
To create set of new policies and specific standard approach for involvement of construction professionals in implementing sustainability in tall buildings.
5.2.1 Increase in demand in implementing Sustainability in all sectors within the construction industry:
In relation to the question posed to the companies with regard to their areas of application of Sustainability approach in their projects, the best way for drawing a conclusion for this question would be analysing these responses according to the size of companies and their approach in relation to sustainability. When we see on a whole a major respondents have selected architectural designing and structural designing as the major areas of implementing Sustainability approach but when we classify these responses according to the size of companies, many medium scale industries have been using this approach only in architectural designing and structural designing but the large scale industries have been exploiting BIM in all areas of the construction sector along with the architectural and structural designing they have also been using this approach in MEP works, procurement and also in execution level out of 4 respondents who have selected Mechanical and electrical 4 respondents were from large scale industry and they have also been using this sustainability concepts in procurement stage also and in many other areas with in construction sector. This gives a clear idea that the large scale companies are making serious efforts in implementing sustainability concepts in their projects by using it in all possible ways.
5.2.2 Awareness among the Construction Professionals on implementing Sustainability needs to be educated:
From the responses received for the question asked to identify the percentage of construction professionals aware of this Sustainability concepts and methods, it cab be understood from the questionnaire that to a larger extent majority of the respondents have said their company people might have a only a fair knowledge about of sustainability concepts and methods. Most of them of around 34 respondents have stated they have fair idea about the concepts and around of 5 respondents have said they were unaware of these concepts and only 3 have responded they were aware of all concepts and application methods of sustainability. From these responses it can be inferred that the most of the construction professionals in industry were not fully aware of the methods and concepts of sustainability which is alarming one.
From the literature review also it can be understood that many researchers have underpinned the importance of awareness of among the constructional professional that most of the professional working in construction industry were not aware with sustainability concepts and methods of application at various level in construction industry.
5.2.3 Sustainability has become a client requirement:
On a question posed to the respondents on how often has been the sustainability has been an express requirement of the client in his projects, the better conclusion for this question can be made by analysing this question more critically as segmenting the respondents according to the size of the companies. Our of 42 respondents, 1 respondents who said it was never a client requirement belongs to the small scale industries and around 34 respondents who said that it may sometimes be a client requirement depending on the type of project were a to the Maximum a mixture of medium scale and few Large scale companies and the 7 respondents who said BIM is for sure a mandatory client requirement in their projects were of large scale companies. Form this it is very clear that the clients were also much looking forward to implement sustainability concepts into their projects, especially for projects with high capital cost it has become an express requirement.
5.2.4 Emphasis the Role of Constructional Professional is key for any Successful Sustainable Project:
Based on the results in the survey, for a question asked on the whether the role of construction professional is key for project successful implementation of sustainability, out of 42 respondents only 3 have disagreed to the statement concluding that it is no way interrelated to construction professionals. To a major extent of about 90% have agreed to the statement to which 22 have agreed to tit and 16 respondents have strongly agreed to the statement which proves that most of them have determined that the role of construction professional is the key for implementing sustainability in tall building. Also on asking of whom among the construction professional should be a major responsible person in sustainability, most of the respondents have suggest it is the architect and next structural engineer and then execution/site manager.
As mentioned in the l