Studying Sustainable Building Approaches And Finishes Construction Essay

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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Assignment is for better understanding of the subject Designing principles and Application in practice in our Higher National Diploma in Civil Engineering. To do this assignment I have referred various books and went through web sites to collect information. And also includes selected building ( Kandy City Center) where I have gone to collected information and examined the application of sustainable features in the selected building Kandy City Center.

First part of the assignment is going to talk about the sustainable building approaches and finishes which will include Floor, Wall, Roof and Ceiling System and Finishes of the Building. It also will include Means of Natural and Artificial Lightening, Shading and Natural or Mechanical Ventilation. Furthermore, assignment will discuss about waste management, rain water harvesting and alternate energy generation system.

Sustainable Materials, Systems and service

Floor and wall

Flooring is a manufacturing supportive specializing in sustainable and environmentally friendly flooring. Produced from environmentally sustainable materials, this will enhance;

Indoor air quality,

Improve the comfort,

Ambiance of the building environments to which they are added.

Mainly we can be grouped flooring into four classes.

.

Timber flooring - It is very attractive finish (Strip Flooring , Wood Block flooring, Parquet flooring )

Wood Mosaic Flooring

Sheet flooring - It is hygienic finish (Linoleum Flooring, Rubber Flooring, Sheet Vinyl Flooring )

Tile flooring - Most economical (Quarry Tiles, Vitrified or semi-vitrified, Ceramics)

Joint less floors - It is most hygienic

Floor Tiles

Ceramic tiles can be glazed or unglazed. Glazed tiles are available plain or decorated and can be used on walls and floors.

Indoor ceramic tile

Outdoor ceramic tile

Indoor ceramic tile

Glazed and unglazed ceramic and stone tile are the most long-lasting floor coverings. The negative aspect these tiles are cold to bare feet but in the warm climate these tiles are one of the best tiles as it is cold. Other detractions are that anything fragile dropped on them is likely to break, and also we can say it's not sturdy and that some tiles are slippery when they're wet.

Also there are huge variety of colours and surface textures of these tiles. They are thicker and less glossy than tiles used for walls and counters. The glaze is water repellant and can be treated so that it has a nonskid surface. Glazed tiles can have glossy, satin, matte, and dull finishes and can be anywhere from a foot square in size to tiny mosaic pieces.

Unglazed ceramic tiles come in the colour of the clay or can be colored with the addition of pigment before the clay is fired. Stone tiles are quarried slate, limestone, flagstone, marble, or granite. Unglazed and stone tiles can be installed unfinished or can be sealed so that they have increased moisture and stain resistance. All tiles are jointed with grout.

Tile and stone floors are installed using a couple of different methods, as shown below. They may be set directly in mortar over a concrete slab or plywood subfloor, or they may be applied to a concrete backer board and/or subfloor, using a thin-set adhesive. The first method is the sturdiest, and the most expensive.

http://www.remodelguide.com/improve/floors/tilefloor/tilefloor_intro.gif

Quarry tiles are a traditional product made in the UK for hundreds of year. They are made from natural clay, squeezed through an extruding machine, and then fired. They are mostly available in terracotta, black and white colours.

Terracotta tiles are also made from local clays. Terracotta means "cooked earth" and these products tend to be very absorbent, so need sealing when used on the floor.

Porcelain tiles are ceramic tiles, but with a very low absorbency. They are usually made from kaolin clays, feldspar, silica and colouring oxides and are fired at about 1200oC. Porcelain tiles are hard wearing and can be used on walls or floors.

Mosaics are very small tiles, usually less than 35cm2. Mosaics can be glazed or unglazed and made from porcelain, ceramic, glass or natural stone.

Natural stone products; limestone, marble, granite and slate are quarried from the earth. Some are extremely hard, and some quite soft. Some may need sealing.

Limestone

Limestone tiles are quite attractive and probably the best way to decorate a room. This beautiful stone provides clean and smooth finish, and in addition to that, there is a range of natural colors, which helps to propel their popularity amongst people.

Limestone is known for being soluble with many acids and even water. However, despite of that it is used in flooring. In addition, the reason for that is the durability of this compressed stone. Besides being sourced for the aesthetic appearance, it is also sourced for its unique strength and versatility.

These limestone tiles are quite expensive, atleast for some of us. Purchasing these stones will be a costly thing, but their longevity ensures that

Limestone is known for being soluble with many acids and even water. However, despite of that it is used in flooring. In addition, the reason for that is the durability of this compressed stone. Besides being sourced for the aesthetic appearance, it is also sourced for its unique strength and versatility.

These limestone tiles are quite expensive, atleast for some of us. Purchasing these stones will be a costly thing, but their longevity ensures that

the investment will be repaid in manifold. The durability and the beauty enhanced by these magnificent tiles will make your investments worthy enough.

The best part is the variety of colors available with the limestones. Availability of so many tones makes it difficult to choose the right one for your room. Surprisingly, the range of tones available with this tone can't be found in any other material. Some of the popular shades offered by limestone tiles are - beiges, grays, bolder pinks and blue hues. These natural colors are capable enough to enhance the beauty of any room. Choosing the most suitable shade for your room's decoration is your responsibility.

One thing that one has to keep in mind is that the thickness and strength of these tiles does vary. Moreover, the same applies to the toughness, some of them are quite fragile and some are very strong. Therefore, before installing them in any area, you should consider the frequency of usage of that place. For example, if it is a hotel foyer, then you will need to find a stone that is able to deal with such heavy & constant traffic.

In the same manner, you have to consider the right kind of stone for wet rooms, such as bathrooms, showers or pools. In such places, it is always better to show some concern about the individual stone type. As we all know, limestone tiles are known for their remarkable resilient nature, and they are ordinarily ideal for damp environment.

Marble

Durability

Marble is a durable material widely used for artwork and architecture. With a dramatic visual attractiveness that even the most discriminating tastes find appealing 

Nothing is quite as impressive or speaks sophistication and luxury as eloquently as granite flooring or a marble counter top. Natural marble and granite not only transforms nearly any ordinary interior décor into instant elegance. Both can add considerably to the real estate market value of a home. Increasing its potential for a quicker sale, at a higher price.

Granite

Granite is durable, functional, and eternally beautiful.

Slate

Slate can be arranged in a running pattern of large square tiles or the pattern may vary with several different sizes of tiles for more effect.

Wall materials

Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of sand, coarse aggregate, Portland cement, and water. The sand used in concrete should be blank-run sand, which is fairly round in shape and of various sizes. The coarse aggregate is gravel or crushed stone. Concrete should have aggregate pieces no larger than one-quarter the thickness of the pour. For example, if the pour is less than 4 inches thick, the aggregate should be less than 1 inch in size. Portland cement is made of clay, lime, and other ingredients that have been heated in a kiln and ground into a fine powder

Brick

Manufactured by firing molded clay or shale, bricks vary widely in color, texture, and dimensions. Despite these variations, they fall into four main categories: common or building, patio, fire, and facing.

Bricks are modular, meaning that they are either one-half or one-third as wide as they are long. The most common nominal modular unit size is 4 inches. Like lumber, bricks are described according to nominal rather than actual sizes. For instance, the actual size of a 4x8 brick is 3 5/8x7-5/8 inches. The nominal size is the actual size plus a normal mortar joint of 3/8 to 1/2 inch on the bottom and at one end.

For outdoor projects that must withstand moisture and freeze-thaw cycles, ask for SW (severe-weathering-grade) bricks. For indoor uses, such as facing a fireplace or a planter, you can use MW (moderate weathering) or NW (no weathering). See Working With Mortar, Related Projects for bricklaying techniques.

Stone

Building stone is divided into three basic types: rubble, flagstone, and ashlar.

Rubble is composed of round rocks of various sizes. Flagstone consists of flat pieces, 2 to 4 inches thick, of irregular shapes. Ashlar, or dimensioned stone, is cut into pieces of uniform thickness for laying in coursed or noncoursed patterns.

Quarried stone is cut from a mountainside or a pit; fieldstone is rock that has been found lying in fields or along rivers.

Mortar ingredients

Essential to all brick and block construction, mortar is a paste made of water, cement, lime, and sand. Lime slows the setting speed, making the mortar easier to work. Mortar by itself is not as strong as concrete, but it has strong adhesive properties. In combination with stone, brick, or block, it creates extra-strong walls. In addition, mortar serves as an attractive spacer between materials and helps hide their imperfections. It also has a decorative function. Joints can be tooled to various finishes (see Choosing a Mortar Joint, Related Projects). Mortar also can be pigmented.

Masonry veneers

Lightweight veneers are made of brick, natural or artificial stone, and terra-cotta (unglazed, fired clay). Except in very dry climates, their use should be restricted to interior projects, such as covering concrete or masonry walls or as a decorative finish over drywall or plaster walls (see Installing Lightweight Brick Veneer and Installing Stone Veneer).

Concrete blocks and bricks

Concrete blocks and bricks are cast from a stiff concrete mix and are heavy. ("Cinder" blocks, made of light-weight clay or pumice, are not as strong.) Hollow cores in the block help conserve material, make the blocks easier to grip and place, add insulation value, and provide channels for utilities. Use N-grade blocks for places where a wall will be exposed to freezing; S-grade blocks where it will be shielded from the weather.

A typical stretcher concrete block -- the most commonly used block--has a nominal size of 8x8x16 inches and weighs about 45 pounds. Corner blocks have finished edges. A bundle of blocks usually has a mixture of stretchers and corners. Use caps to finish off exposed tops of block walls. Mortarless blocks are laid on top of each other without mortar joints. Once the wall is stacked in place, you reinforce it and grout it.

Partitioning

Product Name: Calcium Silicate Wall/Ceiling Board

Product Description:

1) Features: waterproof, fireproof, noise insulation, stable performance, eco-friendly, etc.

2) Main material: cement, quartz powder, mica, lime, paper pulp, glass fiber, etc.

3) Main Dimension: 1220*2440/1200*2400mm(dry wall); 595*595/603*603mm (ceiling)

4) Common Thickness: 5mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm, etc.

5) Density: 1400-1600 kg/m3

6) Edge Profile: square or beveled

7) Packing: in bulk/carton

8) Applications: It's widely used in the partition wall and outer wall system of office building, school, hospital, hotel, restaurant, station, etc.

Eco Friendly brick

The standard ECO BRICK measures between 220 and 240 mm long X 220mm wide X 115 mm deep, and has beveled / champhered edges. BRICK length is controlled by soil and moisture content. 37-38 Bricks of 230 mm length are required per sq. m of 9" walling and 165 - 170 Bricks may be required per cu.m of 9" walling.

C:\Users\User\Downloads\ecobrick_220mm.jpgWhen building with Eco Brick, We effectively can reduce these costs. Its unique interlocking and beveled-edged features leave no requirement for additional plastering. This will significantly bring down the cost of labor, cement, sand and lime. Even in the rare applications that need plastering. Also this is accepted by worldwide as it is Insect proof, Earthquake Resistant, Fire Proof, Less Water Absorbent, Temperature Control, Cost Effective, and comfortable.

When we compare soil bricks were five times cheaper then concrete blocks, as one consider the price of manufacturing of concrete block. The price of one meter square of soil blocks was about three times cheaper. The reason is because with a block press machine these blocks can be manufactured and dried on site.

Roof and Ceiling

Roofing Materials

Manufacturing processes of the various roof cladding materials include

Clay tiles are manufactured from kaolinite clay with various additives. The minerals are vitrified to bind the tiles at a high firing temperature in excess of 1100°C, the higher the temperature the longer the life of the tile. The high temperatures involved lead to a high embodied energy, see the table below. The proportions of 1: 4 Portland cement and aggregate is for concrete tiles and also Mixing and chemical curing take place in temperature controlled conditions.

Natural slate was formed within the Earth's crust many millions of years ago when mudstones were subjected to colossal heat and pressure, causing partial recrystalisation of the minerals during a process known as metamorphosis. These rocks are split along natural faults to produce the roofing slates. Steel is produced from mined iron ore, coke and limestone melted together in a high temperature furnace. The coke turns to carbon monoxide reducing the iron oxide to iron. Approximately 25% scrap material is used in the final steel making process.

Aluminum is extracted from its bauxite ore by a highly energy intensive process, but outside the UK this process is often powered by hydroelectricity. Within the UK a large proportion of aluminum is from recycled feedstock, which gives the product a much lower embodied energy (see table).

Bitumen is the residual material produced after removal of all the volatile products from crude oil, such as petrol and diesel. Asphalt is manufactured from bitumen blended with limestone powder and fine limestone aggregate. Another source is lake asphalt, a naturally occurring material mainly imported from Trinidad. Asphalt tiles make up 75% of the US roofing market, but unfortunately these products have low durability.

Timber shingles are riven or sawn from suitable timber such as oak or western red cedar.

In the table below, the figures in the first two columns refer to a square metre of roof cladding material, thus making it easy to compare various materials.

Environmental Criteria for Selection of Roofing Materialshttp://www.greenbuildingpress.co.uk/archive/graphics/sustainable_roofing.gif

Interlocking Slate Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Stonewold

430 x 380

17.5°

44°

75

Redland              Richmond

412 x 332

22.5°

44°

Min.112 Max.159

Redland                            Cambrian

300 x 336

25°

69°

Min.50 Max.90 Min. at ridge 75

Caplestone

365 x widths of 80

30°

 

95 or 75 over sidelock

Concrete Plain Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Plain

268 x 165

35°

Vertical

65

Ornamental

268 x 165

70°

Vertical

35

Download

268 x 165

35°

Vertical

65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clay Plain Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Rosemary

265 x 165

40°

Vertical

65

Cheslyn

265 x 165

40°

Vertical

65

 

 

 

 

 

Sandtoft

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concrete Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Max. Gauge

Double Pantile

420 x 334

22.5°

 

75

345

Calderdale Slate

420 x 334

22.5°

 

75

345

Shire Pantile

380 x 230

22.5°

 

75

305

Double Roman

420 x 334

22.5°

 

75

345

Bold Roll

420 x 334

22.5°

 

75

345

Lindum

420 x 334

22.5°

 

75

3455

Standard Pattern

380 x 230

17.5°

 

75

305

Plain Tile

265 x 165

35°

 

65

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clay Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Max. Gauge

County Panttile

347 x 267

22.5 °

 

64

320

Neo Pantile

284 x 250

22.5°

 

75

 

20/20 Interlocking               Plain Tile

370 x 223

22.5 °

 

75

267

Villiage

265 x 165

35°

 

65

 

Goxhill Plain Tile

265 x 165

40 °

 

65

100

Arcadia Pantile

342 x 252

30 °

 

72

270

Old English Pantile

342 x 252

30 °

 

72

270

Greenwood Pantile

342 x 253

30 °

 

75

267

Sandtoft Bridgewater         

420 x 340

30 °

 

75

345

Gaelic

342 x 255

30 °

 

75

267

 

Slate Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Max. Gauge

Balmoral

370 x 226

22.5°

 

75

267

Britlock

360 x 340

17.5 °at 120 headlap

 

75 @22.5°

285

Britslate - duchess

610 x 305

20 °

 

75

267 at 75 headlap

Briteslate - Countess

510 x 225

22.5 °

 

120

217 at 75 headlap

Pennine - Standard

480 x 429

22.5 ° at 90 headlap

 

120

202 at 75 headlap

Rivius

400 x 320

22.5

 

75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marley

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plain Tiles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Max. Gauge

Plain Tiles

267 x 187

35 °

Vertical

Roof 65 Vertical 37.5

Roof 100 Vertical 115

Heritage Plain Tile

267 x 187

35 °

Vertical

Roof 65 Vertical 37.5

Roof 100 Vertical 115

Thaxden Plain Tile

270 x 168

35 °

Vertical

Roof 70 Vertical 40

Roof 100 Vertical 115

Marlden Plain Tile

267 x 168

35 °

Vertical

Roof 65 Vertical 27.5

Roof 100 Vertical 115

Ashmore Double Tile

333 x 267

22.5 °

Vertical

77

190

 

Forticrete (Anchor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tile Name

Size

Min. Pitch

Max. Pitch

Min. Headlap

Centurion

230 x 385

10 ° - 12.5 °

44 o

100

Clay Plain

265 x 165

35 °

90 °

65

Gemini

270 x 337

22.5 ° - 30 °

29 ° - 70 °

80 - 95, 75 - 95

Minislate

270 x 337

22.5 ° - 30 °

29 ° - 70 °

80 - 95, 75 - 95

Rivenslate

270 x 330

22.5 °

70 °

80 - 95

Roofing Sheets

Metal Corrugated Roofing

Roofing timber

A roof of which the constructional parts, together with the underside of the covering, or its lining, are treated ornamentally, and left to form the ceiling of an apartment below, as in a church, a public hall, and etc.

Ceiling

Mineral Fiber Acoustic Board

Size: 595*595mm, 603*603mm, 595*1195mm, 603*1210mm.

Thickness: 7mm, 9mm, 12mm, 14mm, 15mm etc.

Edges: Square/Regular

Key Attributes

*High humidity resistance properties

* Excellent light reflectance and durability

* Good sound absorption

* Multi thickness choices from 12 mm to 20 mm

* Suitable for a wide variety of commercial applications

Typical Applications

* Offices and conference rooms

* Lobbies

* Public places

* Corridors

* Department stores

* Specialty shops

* Auditoriums

* Restaurants

Ceiling materials

Price: - Rs.350.00 - 700.00

Material: MDF with cola, teak, mahogany, pine, black wood

Usage: ceiling for office home

Supplier: shifa enterprises, Srilanka.

UPVC Ceiling Panel

Model: 100/200mm/250mm Width Ceiling

Size: Thickness: 8mm, 9mm, and 10mm

Width: 100mm, 200mm, 250mm

Length: as per clients' requirement

Color:  Nature color, Printing, Lamination, and Heat Transfer Printing.

Item

Material

Units

Prices

(SL rupees)

Plane tile (double roman tile)

Two tone tile (double roman tile)

Design tile (double roman tile)

Slate tile (flat tile)

Semi grooved tile (flat tile)

S- type tile

Ridge tile (accessories)

Starts (accessories)

Barge tile (accessories)

4 way apex

3 way apex

End tile

Low weight colour roofing tile

1

105.00

105.00

90.00

120.00

115.00

90.00

125.00

125.00

150.00

150.00

125.00

125.00

Rv037------12"x12"

Pv531-------20"x20"

Pv438-------16"x16"

Pv440-------16"x16"

P910 --------12"x12"

Rv182-------12"x12"

Floor tile (Lanka wall tile most famous products)

1

120.00

520.00

236.00

249.50

112.00

117.00

Item

Material

Units

Prices

(SL rupees)

Dgo1----------08"x12"

Dgobo9------ 08"x12"

Dg06309-----08"x12"

Dg71307d---08"x12"

2ct5000b----08"x08"

Vh67117----08"x08"

4ct5000d----08"x08"

Tc5000c-----08"x08"

Vm0124c----08"x08"

Gcc005------08"x08"

Bathroom tile(Lanka wall tile most famous products)

Wall tile(Lanka wall tile most famous products)

1

89.50

82.50

79.50

85.00

55.00

63.00

57.00

57.00

63.00

90.00

(green, pink, ivory, white, blue, red,

yellow, gray)

Grout

1

140.00

25K Bag

Tile mortar (New Material)

1

450.00

4"x4"

Malaysian super plush sheet

(New Material)

1

470.00

Finishes

Interior finish consists mainly of the coverings of the rough walls, ceilings, and floors, and installing doors and windows with trim and hardware.

Interior finishes come as one of the last stages of construction. Decisions about these materials are important for their potential effect on the health of the people who will in the house, as well as how much money they'll spend to maintain it.

Painting

To perform skilled painting, dry wall, and other construction maintenance and repair work throughout city facilities, buildings and related structures; and to perform related work as assigned.

Means of Natural/Artificial lighting, Shading and Natural/Mechanical Ventilation

Natural lighting and shading

Natural light can be used in many places, including schools and offices. It also is being incorporated into manufacturing plants in order to reduce costs. Solar panels make use of natural light on the roofs of homes, as well. The only problem with using natural light in these locations is that not every area in the world receives the same amount of sunlight throughout the day.

Definition

Natural light occurs as a byproduct of natural chemical processes. This is because when electrons get excited enough to jump an energy level and then return to their original energy level, the extra energy is released as photons, which are light. Light originates from stars like the sun, so solar light is the form of natural light with which people are most familiar and use most. It also can occur as a result of chemical processes on or in the earth.

Benefits

Natural light has several benefits when compared to artificial light. The production of artificial light requires the consumption of some kind of fuel, such as coal or petroleum, to produce electricity. The consumption of these fuels produces emissions and other waste products. In contrast, no fuel is needed to produce natural light, since the light is a byproduct of natural reactions. Also, natural light--because it doesn't require fuel--is free. Resources for artificial light production are limited when compared to the chemical reactions that produce natural light.

Efficiency

Natural light is used in many buildings primarily because it has the potential to make the building more energy-efficient and less expensive to operate. Buildings can be designed to capture the energy of natural light and use it to produce all of the light, and at least some of the heat and electricity.

Academic Impact

The use of natural light also has other benefits. Students in schools with natural lighting perform up to 20 percent better on math tests and 26 percent better on reading tests than those in schools that don't use natural lighting, according to a report by the research and consulting firm Capital E, and sponsored by the American Federation of Teachers, the American Lung Association, and the U.S. Green Building Council.

Artificial lighting

The   types   of   artificial   lighting   you   use   in photography  give  you  complete  control  over  the direction, quality, and strength of the light. You can move these light sources around, diffuse them, or reflect them. You can alter their intensity to suit the situation. There are two types of artificial light sources: spotlights  and  floodlights.  Spotlights   provide   a concentrated beam of light. Floodlights give diffused, softer, more even, spread out light.

Artificial light can be provided in one of two ways, either by a continuous light source, such as an underwater cine light, or by a flash of light from a flash gun. Both sources have advantages and disadvantages.

Artificial light sources produce light of a different and specific color, it's important that you match the white balance to the existing light.

C:\Users\Aroon\Desktop\hgxcbv.jpg

Natural Ventilation

Natural ventilation is the intentional flow of outdoor air through an enclosure under the

influence of wind and thermal pressures through controllable openings. It can effectively control both temperature and contaminants, particularly in mild climates. Temperature control by natural ventilation is often the only means of providing cooling when mechanical air-conditioning is not available. The arrangement, location, and control of ventilation openings should combine the driving forces of wind and temperature to achieve desired ventilation rate and good distribution of fresh air through the building.

Natural ventilation is driven

Waste management

Water waste management is the field of handling waste water, to make it suitable to either be recycled into a water system or to be disposed of in an environmentally-conscious manner. Water waste management is one of the larger problems facing most major cities in the modern world, with overflow causing severe pollution problems and increasing population densities stretching existing infrastructure to the breaking point. Both mechanical and biological processes are utilized in water waste management, to get rid of undesirable particulate matter and to eliminate any potentially harmful pathogens

Rain water harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams. The techniques usually found in Asia and Africa arise from practices employed by ancient civilizations within these regions and still serve as a major source of drinking water supply in rural areas. Commonly used systems are constructed of three principal components; namely, the catchment area, the collection device, and the conveyance system.

Alternate energy generation systems

Solar thermal energy is a technology used for harnessing solar power for practical applications, from solar heating to electrical power generation. Solar power plants generate electricity by converting solar energy to heat.

This is one of the most cost-effective renewable energy systems and can significantly reduce your utility bill. In this article, we'll detail how solar thermal energy works and how we can use it to save money.

Solar thermal energy is the heat that can be gathered from solar power without the use of photoelectric cells. It is a form of energy that can be transferred into water and stored in insulated containers and kept heated constantly by the sun, while retaining energy overnight.

Kandy city centre

Kandy city centre commercial and shopping complex. Several leading banks, a fully equipped supermarket, a variety of restaurants, an entertainment zone, and a well designed state of the art food court will also feature in the Complex. People can easily do there need in one place. This building situated in 2 archer area and there are 9 floors each floor has 45000sqft.

I).This building has 9 floors so lift and elevators are very useful for visitors. There are 14 escalators and 4 lifts in this building. One lift for cargo (1000kg) other three lifts for passengers (900kg).

EscalatorsLifts

Lifts and escalators are saving our time and this is the easy way to going to upper floor so we can save our energy waste.

Health and safety is very important of these lifts and escalators, in lift if there is any electrical failure and if generator not start automatically, there is a switch inside the lift (bell switch) we can pres that and mechanically operate that in roof top after that they can open the door using hole situated in lift door .No need electrical supply to that switch.

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Bell Switch (inside the lift)

Small Hole

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In escalators, every time there is a person near the every escalator to maintain that, if anything happened in that he will care about that, and also there is button call stop button if we press that escalator stop immediately. S6304631

Stop Button

In lifts they install a phone, if anything happened in inside the lift passenger can see that because in that button too small so some people cant see that if there is a phone that is little bit big so everyone can see that and everyone know how to use a phone

In escalators that stop button is in near the foot path and too small, so many people cant see that because there is no any way to understand that, if they can do a noticed to that its better to everyone

II).

Ventilation, evacuation

A fire in a building must be detected quickly and a warning given so that people can escape safely

we must have an appropriate fire detection and warning system

Whatever system we have, it must be able to warn all people in the building in all circumstances.S6304612

In KCC they have good fire detection system

KCC vehicle parking has fire sprinkles

Level 1 to level 7 they use smoke detectors

and heat detectors as fire safety system and

also fire alarm system

They have put notice in fire exit places, that people can see easily S6304618S6304623

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Fire exit way

They have good fire alarm system inside the building S6304622%20-%20Copy

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In that building has open roof, in that roof if any fire accident happen all smoke go out the building.130920101616

Suggestions

The escape route is not a short and also small

I think, they need to make arrangements for the evacuation of elderly or disabled people

Need to Inform and train all employees in how to escape the building, its helped to who passengers also.

Need install an emergency lighting system.

III).

Waste disposal and management

Waste can be divided into many different types.

One important classification is by their consistency.

Solid wastes are waste materials that contain less than 70% water. This class includes such materials as household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfield wastes such as drill cuttings.

Liquid wastes are usually wastewater's that contain less than 1% solids. Such wastes may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals.

Sludge is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3% and 25% solids, while the rest of the material is water dissolved materials.

There are many different methods of disposing of waste.

Landfill is the most common and probably accounts for more than 90 percent of the nation's municipal refuse even though Landfills have been proven contaminates of drinking water in certain areas.

It is the most cost affective method of disposal, with collection and transportation accounting for 75 percent of the total cost.

In a modern landfill, refuse is spread thin, compacted layers covered by a layer of clean earth.

Pollution of surface water and groundwater is minimized by lining and contouring the fill, compacting and planting the uppermost cover layer, diverting drainage, and selecting proper soil in sites not subject to flooding or high groundwater levels.

Materials disposed of in a landfill can be further secured from leakage by solidifying them in materials such as cement, fly ash from power plants, asphalt.

In KCC all sewerage and waste water transferring to the tanks130920101583

They used 6 tanks it is transferring one by one

Clean water and dust separate by above method

clean water use for the chill water system (6000 liters)

Solid wastes are separated and municipal garbage trucks pick up those solid wastes

All storm water is channeled via an intricate system of drainage pipes and discarded to city's drainage system.

Drainage130920101585130920101586

2).

Sound and acoustic

We can use sound and acoustics in commercial and industrial buildings

There have some international standards

International standards

Transformation reverberant sound through "single wall" J. Res. Natl burean stand RP 1998,VOL 42 JUNE 1949 p 605

Transformation reverberant sound through "double wall" J.Res. Natl burean stand, RP 2058, vol 44 January 1950, p 605

International standardization organization "Acoustics, measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements, laboratory measurements of building element ISO 140-5 1978.

International standardization organization "acoustics measurement sound insulation in building and of building elements measurement of sound insulation of small building element ISO 140-10, 1989.

American society for testing and materials, standard test method for laboratory measurement of air bone sound transmission loss of building partitions, ASTME 90, 1990.

International standardization organization "Acoustics measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements, field measurements of air bone sound insulation between rooms. ISO 140-4 1978.

American society for testing and material classification for determine of outdoor- indoor transmission class ASTME 1332,1994

All Warnock "low floor impact noise and foot simulators proceeding inter noise 83, 1983,p1127

International standardization organization "Acoustics, determine of dynamic stiffness, material used under floating floor in dwellings ISO 9052-1 1989

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