Steel Framed Composite Floor Building Health And Safety Construction Essay

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The present scenario in metro cities has restricted the horizontal growth, which led to the vertical growth for building construction. Today, fast track construction is a rapidly brings health and safety issues at the construction site.

This paper presents a study on, health wise safety, time and cost wise feasibility of steel framed composite floor building. A case study considered for this work is a large portal framed farm building which was collapsed during construction in 1993. The building measured 64m in length by 24m in width and 4.4m to the eaves. There were 15 portal frames making up the building length. The frame was intended to be stabilised in its final state by concreting the legs of each portal frame into the ground. As a consequence of this design there were no base plates provided to the portal legs, nor was there any longitudinal bracing detailed which causes collapsed the building and have the potential for serious injury or death.

The Microsoft Project-2003 used for time scheduling and the optimum time required at different stages of this building are calculated. The total cost of each structure is calculated as material and construction costs of each structural element only.

The key to achieving healthy and safe working conditions at portal frame building is to ensure that health and safety issues are planned, organized, controlled, monitored and reviewed. Everyone controlling site work has health and safety responsibilities.

Continuing improvement relies upon the goodwill and cooperation of all those who are affected by the legislation. One important principle underlying the legislation is that by bringing all parties in the workplace into consultative and decision-making processes, there will be greater commitment to workplace health and safety.

One of the biggest revolutions came with introduction of hot-rolled steel section and cold formed steel decking as a construction material for high-rise buildings. Steel framed structures with the composite floor would bring considerable economies to the overall cost of the project during its lifetime


The method of erection adopted was to excavate the foundation holes and place blinding concrete to form a level base in each. This work was done by a separate contractor before the steelwork erector arrived on site.

Each portal frame was assembled flat on the ground (i.e. the columns and rafters were assembled into one piece) and was then erected using a crane.

The end frame was erected first with its stability being achieved by attaching guy ropes at four locations along the rafter. The guys were fixed by 20mm steel pins approximately 600mm long driven into the ground. Subsequent portal frames were stabilised by tying them back to previous frames using four timber purlins. The permanent eaves beams, detailed on the drawings prepared by the fabricator, were not incorporated.

Wind bracing was placed between the first two portal frames. When the last frame was erected, stabilising guys, similar to those placed at the other end, were attached.

The frame was then aligned (i.e. the process whereby it is checked that the legs all lined up and were level); this was achieved by using a sledgehammer to move the steelwork. It was then intended to concrete the portal frame legs.

During the process of this alignment exercise however the whole frame collapsed lengthways.

Risk Assessment

A risk assessment or judgment is nothing more than a proper way of examination of what reason behind safety of worker in danger and cause harm to work. Risk assessment/judgment should be a practical workout, directed at getting the right way of controls of safety in place - keep it simple and set the outcomes into practice

2.1 Asbestos

Asbestos-related diseases kill more people than any other single work-related cause. All types of asbestos can be dangerous if disturbed. The danger arises when asbestos fibers become airborne. They form a very fine dust which is often invisible. Breathing asbestos dust can cause serious damage to the lungs and cause cancer. There is no known cure for asbestos-related diseases.

The Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations (NI) 1984 (as amended) prohibit contractors working on asbestos insulation or asbestos coating unless they have a license issued by HSENI.


Regular exposure to high noise levels causes deafness - the longer the exposure and the higher the noise level, the greater the degree of deafness which results.

The manufacturers and suppliers of equipment have a legal duty to provide information on the noise equipment produces.


Many jobs in construction involve the use of hand-held power tools such as pneumatic breakers and disc grinders. The vibration from such equipment can affect the fingers, hands and arms and, in the long term, do permanent damage. Parts of the fingers go white and numb and there is a loss of touch.

The Construction (Head Protection) Regulations (NI) 1990 make specific requirements about hard hats - see HSE s publication44 for detailed guidance on the Regulations. Hard hats are required where anybody might be struck by falling materials or where people might hit their heads at working portal sites.

Electricity -

Electricity can cause non-fatal shocks, falls from ladders caused by contact with overhead or underground power cables. Poor electrical installations or facilities and faulty or defective electrical gadgets can lead to huge fires and sometimes blast result in death or danger to safety and health to others.

Falls from a height -

Falls from ladders results serious harm to people and to protect falls from height, the work is planned or designed and conveyed out by capable people and adopt the hierarchy for managing and dealing with risks.


This section gives advice about other equipment which may be required to protect against injury. [HSE book: 1996].

Hard hats

The Construction (Head Protection) Regulations (NI) 1990 make specific requirements about hard hats - see HSE s publication44 for detailed guidance on the Regulations. Hard hats are required where anybody might be struck by falling materials or where people might hit their heads at working portal sites.

Some of the hazards to consider:

loose material being kicked into an excavation;

material falling from a scaffold platform;

material falling off a load being lifted by a crane or goods hoist or carried on a site dumper or truck;

a scaffolder dropping a fitting while erecting or dismantling a scaffold.


Boots with toe caps and soleplates may be needed to protection from nails and other sharp material drooped

Goggles and safety spectacles

To protection against:

Flying objects, sparks, for example, when disc-cutting;

Ultraviolet radiation from welding; specialist goggles or shields are required;

Chemical splashes.


To protection against tiny dusts particles, cuts and splinters when handling bricks, steel and wood which can cause dermatitis[HSE book: 1992].

CDM Regulations

If the constructional portal building work involves five or more number people or more than 30 working days, CDM regulations applies. This means that farmers should formally appoint a person or people who are competent (a 'competent person' or CP) to plan and oversee the work for health and safety long before it starts. Reputable contractors should be familiar with the requirements of CDM.

CDM may not apply for smaller projects. If it does not, farmers should still make sure that the contractors are capable to carry out the work they are pursued to do.

Steel erection, however extensive, is high risk work and requires specialised skills which most farmers are unlikely to have themselves. In most of the cases, planned work before starting work on construction site, and should include assuring that:

a Free from ambiguity and detailed step-by-step construction direction is available as early as possible, that it is adequate and is understood before work starts.

Support of structures have been cast in accordance with the explicitly;

temporary stability requirements and usable necessary materials are available on site before the starting of work;

Well trained, experienced and capable workers.

The CP may need to amend or amplify the supplier's written details of methods of construction to meet on-site requirements as the work progresses. Any revisions to the method of construction should be checked with the steel supplier before starting the work.

CDM regulations

Set out the responsibilities of those involved in the design, planning and execution of the construction process

Major controlling factor in establishing Health & safety Systems in construction

Prescribe the actions required and establish a clearly auditable trail of documents in the Health & Safety system

Integration of Health & Safety

CDM Regulations recognised the role & responsibility for H & S went beyond actual building work and should be addressed during the planning and design stages of the construction process.

Emphasis has turned to prevention, making firms proactive to improve H & S, not merely legislate & prosecute

CDM Regulations highlight roles, duties & responsibilities of key personnel in process

CDM has 4 Key Players

Employers or Clients

Clients are not required to manage the work themselves but to make sure that others have arrangements in place to control the risks associated with construction sites. This duty is not delegable and accordingly as stated above; the revised obligations impose much wider responsibilities upon employers and clients.

Accordingly clients and employers must become more actively involved in ensuring a healthy and safe environment on site. Although a client can still appoint an agent to assist it with compliance with the regulations, liability for any breach of the client responsibilities will remain with the client. In projects where there is more than one client, for example consortiums or joint ventures, clients can elect in writing that only one will be treated as the client for the purposes of the regulations. If no election is made they will all be treated as a 'client' under the Regulations. Remember that the client has overall responsibility for checking that all parties, including workers who carry out the construction work, are competent to perform their duties.

The client must also ensure that the CDM co-ordinator, designer and contractor receive all information relevant to their tasks so as to eliminate risks to health and safety and also to meet the duties under the Regulations. Previously the client only had to supply information to the planning supervisor.

On notifiable projects, the client is required to ensure

the appointment of the CDM Co-ordinator as soon as is practicable after initial design work has begun and

that the construction phase of the project does not start unless the principal contractor has prepared a compliant construction phase plan and the client is satisfied that the requirements for arrangements to be made for the provision of welfare facilities have been satisfied.

The Regulations do not apply to domestic projects. For example, if you are having work done in your own home, they will not apply to you. However, they will apply to the contractor carrying out the works.

The Co-ordinator

The main role of the co-ordinator is to advise and assist the client in complying with their duties under the regulations. If a project is notifiable then a CDM-co-ordinator and a principal contractor must be appointed. In particular, the co-ordinator must:

Give assistance the client with the naming of competent contractors and designers;

Co-ordinate the design work and other planning;

Advise HSE about the project; and

Produce or update the health and safety file.


The role of the contractor remains essentially the same. The contractor must ensure that suitable arrangements are in place for the management of health, safety and welfare issues. This may include training obligations. The contractor must also consider the extent to which the sub-contractors are also complying with the Regulations and their own health and safety obligations.

Further, the contractor should remember that all members of the project team are under a duty not to appoint anyone, for example a designer, under the Regulations who is not competent. Equally if you know you are not competent to undertake the necessary role under the Regulations you are under an obligation not to accept the appointment.

Other method of erection adopted

The existing steel framed composite floor structure is designed and constructed by other two ways;

Precast concrete frame with precast concrete floor.

Steel frame with precast concrete floor.

Steel Framed composite Floor

In the first case, the structural members of the building viz. column, beam and slabs are designed and constructed as precast concrete members with Siporex slab panels. All the structural members are designed and constructed according to Eurocode-4 and IS. For precast building, an additional column is introduced in between two columns of the whole span. In second case, the structural members of the building viz. column and beams are designed and constructed as similar to case study and the construction of slab as a precast concrete floor with Siporex slab panels. Two significant factors are considered for evaluating composite floor and pre-cast floor building, i.e. optimum time required for the construction and the total cost of buildings. The construction of each structure is divided into various activities, which provide the relative time saving and the optimum time for construction.

Time Scheduling

Steel Framed with Composite Floor:

Time scheduling is done using Microsoft Project 2003. In time scheduling some starting activities such as PCC (7 days), Footing (15 days), and Pedestal (7 days) goes individually but after completing column and beam erections for first lift (33 days), activities for composite floor construction goes simultaneously with second lift erection. Likewise whole structure can be erected with; so many works faces open together.

For the construction of composite floor for all levels, requires 118 days as per time scheduling. It shows that ground and first floor slab activities and for all remaining floors activities are same as first floor. Considering time required for all floors, the building is completed in 180 working days. Total 210 days are required including holidays.