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The projects constraints for the mentioned project are as follows:
Time: There is a very limited time period in which the 20 dolls have to be completed for the therapist. Seeing as the process of making a doll can take up to a day this could end up being one of the biggest constraints of the project.
Cost: Because the process of making a doll takes a lot of time as well as money this will be seen as a project constraint. There is a budget of R25,000 for the entire project, with total costs to the company coming to R16,000, it means that Background Bouncing Baby Dolls CC will only make a maximum of R9,000. If the finances for the project is not managed properly it could turn out to be a loss to the company.
Quality: There is only one month allocated to the project so this could cause employees to rush the process of making the dolls and end up making lower quality dolls to finish the project on time. The fact that the employees will have to work overtime could also pose a potential threat to quality as these employees will still be responsible for their normal daytime shifts.
Client acceptance: The client can choose to accept the prototype doll. This will however not mean that the rest of the dolls will be to the same standard as that of the prototype doll because of the time and cost constraints.
The project manager will have to be able to effectively monitor each stage of the project carefully while paying more attention to the above mentioned constraints. Ways in which he can manage it are as follows:
The project manager will have to keep a close eye on all of the possible constraints but pay more attention to the time and cost constraints.
If the employees spend more time than usual making the dolls for the therapist it will cause the project to run overtime. This is a major threat to the overall project as the client can decide not to accept the dolls at a later time than agreed upon.
Seeing that the employees will be working overtime and still have to work their normal daytime shifts, they could suffer from exhaustion. This could pose a threat to the project because they can make mistakes at the last stages of making a doll and they could possibly have to start from the beginning. This will cost the company more and also mean that the project could run over the allocated time period.
A possible influence on the constraints is that an employee could be unable to work due to illness(es) or family responsibilities. This will have to be managed and can be done in the following way:
The project manager could ask another employee to work overtime in the place of the employee who will not be able to fulfil his/her duties.
If none of the employees are able to fulfil this responsibility the project manager will have to resort to hiring external staff to finish the making of the dolls.
This could affect the cost and/or time of the project in a negative manner by either going over the initial budget or going over the allocated time period if the project manager is unable to find someone who can fill this position.
1.2 National Project
Project chosen: Gauteng in R11.5 billion highway upgrade
Stakeholders for the highway upgrade:
South African government
South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL)
The general public making use of the highway
Public transport agencies
Construction companies involved in the constructing and/or upgrading of the highway
Gauteng traffic departments
Finance, work force and time are the most important resources used in the project
Finance: The estimated cost for the upgrading of the highway is R11.5 billion (SAInfo, reporter, 2008) which is a substantial amount. Thus without the required financing the project would not have been able to be completed successfully.
Work force: Because this is a immense project, the work force required for the successful completion will also be immense. If they project managers did not succeed in acquiring the necessary amount of workers/companies the project could either have failed completely or it could have been possible that the project would not have been able to start in the first place.
Time: This is an immense project and thus it will take a long time to complete. Time management will also play a big role in the duration of the project because without efficient time management the project can take a lot longer than the estimated time and directly cause other problems like traffic jams, accidents, etc.
The needs and expectation of the stakeholders:
South African government: The government will need the road to be completed successfully. By doing this the infrastructure of Gauteng will be improved and it will also push up the government's reputation under its people.
SANRAL: SANRAL will need the upgrade to run smoothly and they will have a major benefit in the completion of the upgrade. The success of the project means that SANRAL could save a lot of money on road improvement in the future; given that the overall quality of the upgrade is to standard. It will also save them a lot of money in the long run as they don't have to do continuous upgrading and maintenance as often as they had to before the upgrades.
General public: The general public will also save money in regards to their private transport. If the highway is of a high standard and quality after the upgrade, it means that their vehicles' wear and tear will be less and also extend the overall lifetime of their vehicles.
Public transport agencies: As with the general public and their private vehicles' lifespan increasing and wear and tear decreasing, the same applies the these agencies. If their vehicles suffer less from wear and tear and the highway is of a higher quality than it is now, it means that they will have to service and maintain their vehicles less frequently.
Construction companies: These companies will want to tender for the intended upgrades and thus it will be profitable for them to partake in the upgrading of the highway.
Gauteng traffic departments: With the upgrades comes a higher quality highway and thus means that the traffic departments will have a lot less accidents on their hands. This will mean that they can spend more time on enforcing the road laws and making South Africa's roads a safer place for all.
This project has major risk factor including, but not limited to the following:
Time will be a major risk if time management techniques are not applied correctly and could possibly cause major obstructions in traffic if the 36 months allocated (SAInfo, reporter, 2008) is not managed in a professional and proper manner.
Financing is also a major risk because of the immense costs involved in upgrading the highway - R11.5 billion (SAInfo, reporter, 2008). Without the adequate financial support the project would not be able to be completed successfully, not start at all or the quality of the roads could be under standard and have severe consequences in the future.
If traffic is not controlled, or redirected, efficiently it will cause major traffic jams which will also affect people's daily lives in the sense of exhaustion. This is because commuters will have to get up earlier, sit in traffic for long periods and get home late; causing them to slack off in their personal responsibilities.
The project was not a complete success. The project had to be substantially completed ahead the 2010 Fifa Soccer World Cup but due to a suspension in work between 28 May 2010 and 14 July 2010 not to disrupt traffic flow during the tournament (SAInfo, reporter, 2008). One of the headings in the article also reads "Works 'substantially' complete for 2010" (SAInfo, reporter, 2008). Bearing this in mind, the project was completed, but not in the allocated time.
Project time management plays a major role in each and every project that is undertaken. If time is not managed efficiently it can lead to a whole lot of other risks and/or failures. The highway upgrades were eventually finished, but only after the 2010 Fifa Soccer World Cup, meaning that the project time had to be managed in a better way.
2.1 Project Charter
Project Manufacture 20 life-like dolls for a therapist
Created by Uwes Lamprecht Date 17 March 2013
Phone 0729056276 Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Aim The aim of the project is to manufacture 20 unique premature baby dolls for a therapist for use in her consultations with parents of premature babies.
Objectives Sculpting and moulding each doll onto soft vinyl.
Painting of the dolls.
Inserting mohair in babies' heads.
Ordering baby clothes and materials from the suppliers.
What is the The project is about manufacturing 20 life-like premature baby dolls
project? for a therapist who will use them in her classes teaching parents of premature babies how to take care of their babies.
Business need The client needs life-like baby dolls that looks like premature babies which will be used in the client's classes teaching parents how to look after their premature babies.
Deliverables The project will deliver the client with 20 life-like dolls representing premature babies.
Cost Costs will come to R16,000 and gets subsidised by the client's payment of R25,000. It will take one month and four employees, working overtime, to complete.
Stakeholders Client: The therapist
Senior employee: Project manager
Background Bouncing Baby Dolls CC: Sales director, HR manager, Project sponsor
Roles and Client: Needs to approve of the prototype doll
responsibilities Sales director: Needs to insure that the project is financially viable for the company
HR manager: Ensure that staff employees are able to fulfil their duties and not overwork themselves
Project manager: Plan the project, execute the project, monitor the progress of the different project stages (CTI Education Group, 2011).
Assumptions Dolls will be manufactured in house and after hours.
Four employees will be needed to complete the project as well as a project manager to manage all the project stages.
Communication An initial meeting will be held to discuss specifications and designs of babies. Another meeting will be held with the client once the first doll has been completed to ensure that the client will approve of the dolls. All of these will happen face-to-face.
Constraints Project must be concluded in one month.
Total budget for the project is R25,000
All the dolls must look like premature babies and meet the client's requirements
Risks Staff may not be able to fulfil their required responsibilities
One month could prove not to be enough time
Suppliers might not be able to deliver the required materials in the short period given to them
Budget may exceed the original allocated budget
Documentation Documenting of each stage will be kept on record for the use and referencing back to for any future projects
Decision making The project manager will be responsible for the decision making
process during the project's lifetime. If an important decision needs to be made, the project manager will consult with the client and his company before making a final decision.
Signature JU Lamprecht
Actual Cost (AC) represents the total cost incurred by the project during the duration of the project (Project Management Knowledge, 2010).
Earned Value (EV) is the actual budgeted amounts for specific processes within a project (Project Management Knowledge, 2010).
Planned Value (PV) is the planned budget amounts for each process of the project which is used by the project manager to refer back to during the project to ensure that the project is keeping to the original budget (Project Management Knowledge, 2010).
Looking at the given chart, one can clearly see that the AC is greater than the EV as well as the PV. This means that the projected budget has been exceeded and could affect the project negatively in the future. It could cause the project to run far over budget which could pose a threat to the successful completion and client acceptance at the closing stages of the project.