South Eastern University Of Sri Lanka Construction Essay

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A construction project life cycle can be divided into various stages. RIBA plan of work is the most widely recognized systematic breakdown of a construction project. The RIBA plan of work describes the activities from appraising the client's requirements to post construction. The stages are also used to identify consultant services and indicate the resource allocation by work stage.

Client's requirements come out by their consultants to the construction industry. Design according to the requirement is proposed by the consultant and a decision will be taken about the design after considering the design, budget of the client, requirement and the duration. And then the contractor will be selected and the work will be handed over to them. Then contractor contracts according to the consultant's advice. And then the construction will be handed over to the client. During this process many stake holders involved, many documentations are prepared and many important decisions are taken.

So a clear picture of the construction process showed through this broken up stages. And then missing of steps or problem occurring are avoided by this RIBA plan of work.

RIBA Plan of Work

The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally. The Outline Plan of Work organizes the process of managing and designing building projects and administering building contracts into a number of key Work Stages. The sequence or content of Work Stages may vary or they may overlap to suit the procurement method.

Stage

Purpose of work and decisions to be reached

Tasks to be done

People directly involved.

Commonly used terminology.

1. Inception

To prepare general outline of requirements and plan future action.

Set up client organization for briefing. Consider requirements, appoint architect.

All client interests, architect.

Briefing

2. Feasibility

To provide the client with an appraisal and recommendation in order that he may determine the form in which the project is to conditions proceed, ensuring that it is feasible, functionally, technically and financially.

Carry out studies of user requirements, site conditions, planning, design, and cost, etc., as necessary to reach decisions.

Clients' representative, architects, engineers and QS accordance to nature of project.

Stage C begins when the architect's brief has been determined in sufficient detail.

3. Outline Proposals

To determine general approach to layout, design and construction in order to obtain authoritative approval of the client on the outline proposals and accompanying report.

Develop the brief further. Carry out studies on user requirements, technical problems, planning, design and costs, as necessary to reach decisions.

All client interests, architects, engineers, QS and specialists as required.

Sketch plans

4. Scheme Design

To complete the brief and decide on particular proposals, including planning arrangement appearance, constructional method, outline specification and cost, and to obtain all approvals.

Final development of the brief, full design of the architect, preliminary design by engineers, preparation of cost plan and full explanatory report. Submission of proposals for all approvals.

All client interests, architects, engineers, QS and specialists and all statutory and other approving authorities.

Brief should not be modified after this point.

4. Detail Design

To obtain final decision on every matter related to design, specification, construction and cost.

Full design of every part and component of the building by collaboration of all concerned. Complete cost checking of designs.

Architects, QS, engineers and specialists, contractor (if appointed).

Working drawings

Any further change in location, size, shape, or cost after this time will result in abortive work.

5. Promotion Information

To prepare production information and make final detailed decisions to carry out work.

Preparation of final production information i.e. drawings, schedules and specifications.

Architects, QS, engineers and specialists, contractor (if appointed).

6. Bills of Quantities

To prepare and complete all information and arrangements for obtaining tender.

Preparation of Bills of Quantities and tender documents.

Architects, QS, contractor (if appointed).

7. Tender Action

Action as recommended in relevant NJCC Code of Procedure for Selective Tendering.

Action as recommended in relevant NJCC Code of Procedure for Selective Tendering.

Architects, QS, engineers, contractor, client.

8. Project Planning

To enable the contractor to programme the work in accordance with contract conditions; brief site inspectorate; and make arrangements to commence work on site.

Action in accordance with RIBA Plan of Work.

Contractor, subcontractors.

Site operations

9. Operations on Site

To follow plans through to practical completion of the building.

Action in accordance with RIBA Plan of Work.

Architects, engineers, contractors, subcontractors, QS, client.

10. Completion

To hand over the building to the client for occupation, remedy any defects, settle the final account, and complete all work in accordance to the contract.

Action in accordance with RIBA Plan of Work.

Architects, engineers, contractor, QS, client.

12. Feedback

To analyse the management, construction and performance of the project.

Analysis of job records. Inspections of completed building. Studies of building in use.

Architect, engineers, QS contractor, client.

Feedback

The stages of RIBA plan

3.1 Inception

This is the beginning of the construction process. Client and Architect are the main stakeholders involve in this stage of a construction project. The client is the person who needs that construction to be built. Client mainly consider about his building needs and objectives. Consulting an architect at the earliest planning stages opens the door to cost savings, both in the construction and operation of the building through innovative design solutions. Appointing an architect to manage project and coordinate the work of consultants and contractors can save time and money in the long run. Details about the construction such as Function of the building, size, location, financial limit and time scale of the project should be given to Architect to start his work.

An architect's contribution to a building plays a very important role in the whole construction process. It can influence the perception, performance and add value to the construction. Brought in early and given the opportunity to understand the construction or work process, an architect can design a building, a master plan or interior that is tailored the clients' current and future needs, delivering architecture that is practical and functional but also a pleasure to work in and visit. There are lots of solutions for a project and architects should able to offer their own approach towards designing process.

Very important and critical decision to be taken in this stage is choosing the right architect and design team. Proper time and consideration must be given to the selection process and to making the right choice that will lead to a good working relationship and ultimately an excellent design solution. The relationship between client and the architect should continue till the end of construction process .It can contribute significantly to the success of the project. They should discuss about the requirements, the timetable, the budget, and the nature and cost of professional resources required and their cost.

Preparing a good brief is very important to go to the next stages of the construction process. Review the drawings and reports prepared by the design team, carefully checking client requirements against the design.

Consideration must be given to following factors when preparing the brief.

Environmental

Legal sourcing materials and labour

Financial

Energy saving

Weather saving

Zero wastage

.

Feasibility

This is the second stage of RIBA plan of work. In this stage client or his representatives, architect, QS, and engineers busily engaged in finding weather this project is feasible with the clients need and cost. The factors which affect the client's requirements are his economic position, financial limit, modern technologies and legal action by the government authorities. They carry out studies to determine the feasibility of the client's requirements in economically, financially, Technically, Environmentally. Architect and his design team provide appraisals and recommendations regarding the form in which the project is to proceed.

But the project is mainly determined on basic cost information. At this time the client has a major duty to taken a very important decision whether to go ahead with the project or to give up the idea. Client can include professionals, such as architects, QS and arts consultants to assess the client alternative design, construction approaches and the cost implications. Also Architects design new buildings, the spaces around them and alterations to existing buildings. They also advise on the restoration and conservation of old buildings, layouts for groups of buildings and most of what is referred to as the built environment. They liaise with current users, clients, and construction specialists and their designs take account of information about cost, safety and social factors from other specialists in the team. They advise clients on the practicality of building projects and seek permission and approval to see if the proposals can be put into practice. The architect will also need to identify the site restrictions, such as preservation orders, and any probable planning conditions.

Cost and the quality are the major factors affecting the architect's decisions. These factors make difficult to architect. During the feasibility stage several factors are to be considered in the construction process. The main factors are;

Area(floor area of a building)

Quality

Shape and aesthetic features

The constrains imposed by planning authorities

The delivery time of the project(completion date)

Project cost

Balance between initial cost and long term cost

Often the client is pressing for an estimation of cost before any drawings have been produced. Quantity surveyors measure, estimate and advise on the cost of the designs produced by architects. The quantity surveyor can prepare approximate cost information which can be called as preliminary estimate. Based analysis of previous building of a similar type using interpolation method. Quantity surveyor uses preliminary estimating methods for estimate approximate cost. The most common Estimating methods are;

Unit method

Cube method

Superficial or floor area method

Story-enclosure method

Finally, quantity surveyor can give cost information about the construction process with the help of estimating methods.

Outline Proposal

In this stage client's requirements have been definitely established and conformed as practicable. Stakeholders directly involve in this stage other than client, architect and QS, are land surveyors and some other specialists. main tasks to be done in this stage are developing the brief further and carry out studies on user requirements, technical problems that will be faced at site operation, planning, cost information. In this stage architect begin to consider various design solutions in which the cost can be limited as to the client's budget. Land surveyors involved in surveying the site and preparing necessary details on this sector. QS has to involve in estimating the outline cost plane in which he has to consider the cost of similar elements of other projects to determine the cost of the construction project. Cost limit is conformed and outline cost plane is produced with the broad cost allocation for major parts of the building. Elements to be considered in this cost estimation are,

The cost of substructures (foundation)

Superstructures (including internal finishes and fittings)

Plumping

Mechanical and electrical services

External works

Furniture

Special features of construction

Cost planning process requires great skill in applying judgment and expertise. Although a similar past project, or projects have been chosen to guide the cost allocations in the new project, the allocations must be adjusted to take account of obvious and significant differences such as user capacity and scale, Obvious design divergences, Construction method, Market condition, time, Different type of locations. The end of this stage should provide a solid basis for the further and continuing development of the project in detail.

Scheme Design

During this stage major planning problems will be solved and the outline designs will emerge. Brief is completed and design is developed to decide on particular proposals, including planning, constructional method, outline specification, and cost, and to obtain all necessary approvals, such as approvals from local planning authorities. The drawings and specifications also should design according to the building regulations then only they can get approval from the planning authorities. Modifying the detailed design after this point will result in abortive of work.

So they should critically examine the selected design in terms of

Appearance

Method of construction

Specifications

The sketch designs will include sections and elevations, and services and finishing will be considered in addition to the form of structural framework. For instance, if it is a framed building, it will be necessary to consider the relative merits of steel or reinforced concrete. Sketch plans are produced to prepare a detail cost plan, according to the above requirements. Consultants also investigate the requirements.

The QS checks on his approximate estimate figure and, with the aid of extensive cost information, reappears the initial cost plan with provisional target cost figures set down for each element or major part of the building. The quantity surveyor may adopt an elemental approach, a comparative technique or a mixture of both.

QS are employed to an increasing extent during the design stage to advice architects on the probable cost implications of their design decisions. Advice is needed on the relationship of capital costs to maintenance costs and on the cost implications of design variables and differing constructional techniques. The quantity surveyor frequently acts as specialist adviser to the architect on all matters concerned with building cost and it is vital that he should be involved at the earliest possible stages in the design of the building. The brief is completed and the design team develops the full design of the project.

Detail Design

In this stage final decisions are made on all matters relating to design, specification, construction and cost. It is most necessary that these should be approved by the building client to avoid the possibility of future alterations. But any further changes after this stage will result in abortive work. Every part of the building must be carefully designed, its cost tested and the design adjusted if essential. Some detail designs and specifications are available at this stage, the most suitable and accurate estimating technique is the approximate quantity methods. Outline schemes will be prepared by consultants and designing by sub-contractors and temporary estimates supplied in some cases.

The QS will be called upon to give comparative costs of different forms of construction, modules and service layouts and will adjust the distribution of costs in the cost plan if vital. It is to be hoped that these comparative cost studies will include possible running and maintained costs wherever they are likely to have a significant effect on the outcome. Continuous costs checks by the QS or will ensure that the development of the design remains compatible with the cost plan, and this process is sometimes described as cost resolution. When all the design drawings have been prepared and cost checked, a final cost review should be made by the QS and a report submitted to the architect.

At this stage the cost of the project can be influenced significantly by the choice of materials and constructional methods for example, steel; aluminium,timber, concrete or metal cladding panels; inclusion or otherwise of a parapet wall; and many other replacements. Continual reference to a cost plan is vital as the details of each part of the project are completed with possible change to design a distribution of cost as the process of reconciliation processes. At the end of this stage a final overall cost check can be made.

Production Information

Production Information is the 6th stage in the RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Plan of Work. In this stage the architect creates a detailed and coordinated set of documents -Production Information Package - which contain production drawings, schedules and other descriptive factual. These documents may be used for tender purposes and are mostly updated or improved at the construction stage. Design development is complete and the output is structured and documented as drawings and specifications to procure materials, equipment and construction resources to undertake the building work.

Where the estimated cost of the designed element is within the cost target in the cost plan, the design should be confirmed in writing as suitable for the preparation of production drawings, often described as the production information stage.

The final working drawings (production drawings) will now be prepared from which BOQcan be produced. Consultants, subcontractors and suppliers will be required to provide full information at this stage including realistic quotations. The QS continues his cost check on the data produced against the final cost plan. He will advise the architect on any financial or contractual matters assonated with the project, including the terms and conditions of the main contract and subcontracts and on the selections of tenders, and will be considering his work in stage G-the preparation of the bill of quantities. Consultants, sub-contractors and suppliers are required to supply full information including realistic quotations.

A useful checklist of objectives, information requirements and procedures at each stage of the cost planning process has been prepared by the Essex branch of the RICS, together with supporting specimen documentation.

Bill of Quantities

Bills of quantities (BOQ) are the most common form of pricing strategy used where the contractor undertakes construction works on the basis of full designs issued by the employer. This practice note outlines what a bill of quantities is and provides a recommended procedure for evaluating tenders where the prices are based on a BOQ. The recommended procedure suggests that a priced BOQ is not included in the tender submission and is only called for from the highest ranked or scoring tenderer during the tender evaluation process so that the acceptability of the rates can be confirmed prior to the award of a contract.

A BOQ (sometimes referred to as a schedule of quantities) is a list of items giving the measured or estimated quantities and a brief description of the work to be performed under the contract. The quantities and descriptions are derived and measured from the drawings and specifications. The BOQ allows for the insertion of a rate against each item and the extension and totalling of the prices.

Once a contract is awarded, the priced bill of quantities provides:

The means by which the works can be valued and paid for during construction, and

Depending upon the form of contract that is used, the basis for determining the changes in prices arising from changes to the scope of work or delays and disruptions.

The contractor is paid an amount for the item of work in a bill (which is the rate for the work multiplied by the quantity completed).

However it has long been recognized that in preparing this basic information, the quantity surveyor process a great deal of detailed information, much of which could be made available to the contractor. This would be of use not only in tendering therefore always worthwhile in the early stages of any job spending some time considering the role the bills are required to play and what additional information could be of use to the particular parties involved.

A Bill of Quantities is a detailed description of the items that make up the component parts of a building. The primary function of a bill of quantities is to assist the builder in the preparation of the tender price. Quantities are also prepared for a number of other reasons including:

Provide a frame of reference/check document of drawings and specification.

Establish cost of

Total building value

Trade costs

Individual building items/components

Materials ordering

Scheduling of construction work

Preparation of progress payments

Cost control

Preparation of cash flow

Although primarily designed as tendering documents, bills of quantities have an important contractual role to play in the pricing of variations. These variations, with the original contract sum, will form path of the final account. Additionally, bills of quantities are usually used in the computation of valuations for in term certificates. These are however a number of additional roles that the bills can play of these the two most important are the vocational identifications of the work and the information of a basis for cost planning.

Tender documents includes;

Letter of invitation

Instructions to tenders(general and specific conditions)

Conditions of contract

Standard forms(sample)

Form of bid and qualification

Bidding data construction data

Specifications

Drawings

Schedule of additional information

Return envelop

Tender Action

Tendering procedure aims at selecting suitable contractor and obtaining from him at an appropriate time and acceptable offer, or tender, upon which a contract can be let. The main types of tendering methods are;

Open tendering: Advertise through mass media, maximum competition

Selective tendering: Send tender document to selected tenders

Serial tendering: Select contractor for one phase of project and same contractor for other phases based on the original rate

Nominated tendering: Select contractor by client

The following documents should be sent to the selected tenders:

Two unbound copies of the bills of quantities.

Drawings in accordance with the requirements of

Two copies of the form of tender.

An addressed envelope for the return of the tender suitability marked on both sides with the word 'Tender' and marked with the name of the job and the time and date to be delivered.

If the priced bills of quantities are to be returned at the time of the tender, an addressed envelope to contain the bills, marked with the name of the job and with a space for the contractor's name on the outside.

We strongly recommend that, if it is proposed to use the method of dealing with errors in tenders as outlined in Alternative 2 of section 6 of the code of procedure for single stage selective tendering, priced bills of quantities must be returned with the tender. In the letter accompanying these documents the following information and instructions should be given:

Date and time tenders are to be returned.

Place where all other drawings may inspect and with whom arrangements have to be made for the purchase of additional copies of special drawings if required by specialists.

Arrangements for inspection of the site.

Time and place of opening of tenders and whether contractors may be present.

When priced bill of quantities are to be submitted at the time of tendering, assurances that these will not be opened unless the contractor's tender is under consideration and that priced bills will be returned to unsuccessful contractors.

Instructions that contractors are to acknowledgment receipt of all documents.

Conventional tendering procedures have been criticized on the grounds that they fail to take full advantage of modern techniques and inhibit the optimum use of the contractor's expertise. All tendering procedures aim at selecting a suitable contractor and obtaining from him at an appropriate time an acceptable offer, or tender, upon which a contract can be let. Negotiation may be the best approach in certain circumstances, such as additions to existing contracts and specialist work. Tendering a complex process whereby the tendering contractor who is anxious to secure a particular contract needs to pitch his tender at the right level, having regard to the resources and method of execution without reducing his profit margin to an excessively low level. Tender procedures are;

Preliminary inquiry

Issue of tender documents

Pricing of tenders

Receive tenders

Open tenders

Examine lowest tender

Dealing with errors

Confirm tender or withdraw

Confirm tender and correct genuine errors such as arithmetic errors

Select lowest tender

Sign the contract

Project Planning

Successful project management requires team leadership and coordination, diligent project planning, and effective oversight of the delivery process. The Project Management section offers guidance for the entire team to successfully and effectively carry out a high performance building project.

It is critical to establish the qualities of the project that are necessary to satisfy client and end user needs and expectations for the finished project, once it is delivered and in use. Value for the money in construction involves completing a project on time, on budget and to a level of quality that meets those determined needs. A well-programmed project will continue to provide value and meet user needs throughout its lifetime and will contribute positively to the environment in which it is located with a wide range of social and economic benefits. Early investment in planning, programming and design can help deliver these benefits and avoid unnecessary costs and delays.

The responsibility for delivering high-quality products rests with the entire team. When programming, the whole-life value should be considered and not just initial capital costs. Over the lifetime of a building increases in building quality result in better performing facilities with reduced costs. A small amount of additional upfront planning by the client, design and construction teams can have enormous benefits to the project value and make everyone's job easier.

The major part in project planning is selection of subcontractor. Subcontractors are mainly selected by these following methods. The selection methods are;

Contractor employed subcontractor

Specialist

Nominated

After the selection of subcontractor, there is an investigation on site will be held. The purpose of the site investigation area follows;

To find seasonal volume changes in the soil

To determine the nature of the subsoil

To determine the bearing capacity of the subsoil

To predict the likely behavior of the subsoil under seasonal and ground water level changes

To ascertain the possibility of ground movement

Operation on site

Physical operations are take place in this stage. Client and consultant administrate the contract and physical operations. The contractor has a duty to implement and complete the works. So, they have a duty to clear the site. This may involve the followings;

Demolition of existing building

Grubbing out of bushes and tress

Removal of soil to reduce levels(Top soil excavation)

After the site clearance, the construction will start. The contractor is mainly involved in this stage. He has a major duty to complete the project within the time limit.

Completion

Completion of clearing the course of the preparation of the project construction unit accounts count more than the prevalence of risk calculation, high-set fixed price, high fee credit cards raise the standards of the phenomenon of project cost. Therefore, investment in the construction stage to do a good job controlling factors in all the parties concerned finishing work for the smooth conduct of the completion of a comprehensive settlement of the conditions of preparation. Construction phase of the project cost control of the scope of process control, the control points during the different stages of the project measures, visa, change and completion of approved claims to be re-settlement summary. In addition, the price can be transformed into the responsibility of the contents of the contract after completion of the works will be the form of money. Handle all types of construction and finishing costs for the completion of clearing to be played effectively.

Case Study

4.1 Project Details

Project Title : Construction of Building Complex for faculty of Management and commerce

Client : South Eastern University, University Park, Oluvil.

Consultant : Engineering Consultants (PVT) LTD No.03, Swama Place, Nawala Road, Rajagiriya.

Contractor : KD Ebert and sons Holdings(PVT) Limited, 5/41,madivela Road, Embuldeniya.

Value of the cost : Rs 112, 355, 184, 37

Date of Commencement : 01.07.2010

Contract period : 18 calendar months

Date of Completion : 01.01.2012

Project Outline

The Government of Sri Lanka has built this two story building for the faculty of Management and Commerce at South Eastern University of Sri Lanka (Oluvil). Once constructed, the buildings will be used for the academic purpose of undergraduates of faculty of Management and Commerce .The two storied Building Complex, consist of pad foundation, column & beam concrete structure, brick masonry wall, clay tile roof and finishes with tile on floors, plastering on walls .

This building will include

Auditorium

Staff room

Lecture Hall

IT lab

Leisure room

Canteen

Car Park (In Front Of the Building)

Store room

Open Space(in middle of the three buildings)

E:\Documentz\Downloads\29122011(004).jpg

Figure : The Building of Multi media

Inception

This is the starting point of construction of building complex at SEUSL (Oluvil). in this stage Government has passed financed to carry out the project. Vice Chancellor who is the client of the construction considers about his building needs and objectives. VC Initiated the project, conveying all the requirements to the architect to prepare the design .VC appointed 3 members of his academic staff as the representative for the whole process. As the designer of the project Architect absorbed all the requirements of the client. Architect should fulfill the client's needs and requirement as the main designer of the project. So, he prepared a detailed and comprehensive brief to give some idea to VC and his representatives about the project on design and cost.

4.4 Feasibility

In this stage they checked whether this project is feasible or not. The VC and their representatives briefed all the requirements and their ideas and handover the brief to the Engineering Consultants (PVT) LTD to consult the project on its feasibility. By considering main factors that would affect the feasibility of the project, architect of the consultant firm identified client's requirements and prepared a design for the project. Client discussed with the chief engineer and conveyed his requirements to him. Chief engineer have an idea to prepare structural design according to the client's requirements. QS have played a major role in this stage. He gave an idea to decrease the size of the auditorium with the consideration of client's budget. This idea was accepted by the VC and auditorium was built only capable of 100 students which was planned to have over 200 students. QS Prepared the first approximate cost estimation with a help of his previous similar project. With some important changes in their brief VC got the permission from the government to continue the project. Finally another detailed brief was prepared mentioning all the changes done at this stage.

Outline Proposal

In this stage, SEUSL requirements are established and confirmed by the Engineering Consultants (Private) Limited. Here architect also prepared alternative design plans according to the client's requirements In order to select a correct and suitable one. According to this VC and his representatives selected a best one which suits their needs. Structural engineer advised the architect on all structural problems to create a correct design plans. Architect mainly considered about the functions and aesthetic views. So he did not consider about the structural problems caused by him. It is the main duty of the structural engineer to discuss about the structures of the building. Service engineer gave alternative services and design layouts to the architect. QSs prepared cost estimation for alternative designs. Cost specialist helps the QS to giving the value of construction materials.

Scheme Design

Brief is completed in this stage and the design is developed by the architect. So the brief can not be modified after this stage. All the necessary approvals are obtained from the local planning authorities. After the approvals the Consultants continued their works. Architect prepared a full and final design of the project because the brief is competed and confirmed by the VC. So the architect prepared a finalized project plan and consulted the local planning authorities. The approvals are more important for the construction project. Engineer analyzed client's requirement mainly on structural sides and advised the architect on most suitable design solutions. Quantity Surveyor also shares his cost estimations for the selection of suitable design.

Detail design

All the designs were completed by the design team. After that the construction materials, machines and other components are purchased in order to start the construction process. Selection of labour force also held in this stage. The proposed design plan is finalized by the architect and the approval from the local planning authorities. Quantity surveyors revised the cost estimate and it was finalized. The structure of the project is also finalized by the engineers.

Production information

After the approval received finalized design plan was given by the architecture to the QSs, finalized structural plan was submitted by the services engineer to QSs and services plan was submitted by the services engineers to the Quantity surveyors in order to make availability for QSs to make the BOQ.

Bill of Quantity

This stage is under taken by Quantity surveyors. Consultant Quantity surveyors prepare the BOQ. Preparing BOQ is an important event. Each and every detail of the material used and construction process that are have to be cost are stated in that in clear manner.

4.10 Tender Action

Here the open tendering has taken place. Tender document is published in Sunday Observer. Contractor Quantity Surveyors prepared the cost estimate in the Bill of Quantities given. KD Ebert and sons Holdings(PVT) Limited, was been selected as the best contractors. The common percentage of profit added on the price in BOQ by this contractor is 15%. And the percentage added for wastage is 3%-5%. So it has become the best low cost tender. Then the consultant searched the financial status of early projects of that selected contractor to ensure the suitability of the contractor. Contractor got the information from the supplier about the material and their cost and selected the suitable one.

Project planning

Work schedule is prepared according to the decided manner by contractor in this stage. And the subcontractor is employed by the contractor. The site investigation also held on in this stage.

Operation on sight

After the project was handover to the contractor, they planned the construction project with the help of their professionals. They allocated specific month periods to the construction of the element of the building shown in the table.

Table : Time allocated for the construction process

Elements of building

Months allocated

Sub structure

3 months

Super structure of ground floor

4 months

Stair case

1 month

Upper floor

3 months

Roof Covering

2 months

Finishing

3 months

External work

2 months

Total

18 months

Consultants always concentrate the contractors' activities and advise them. Architecture and Quantity surveyor done researches on contractors work whether it is been done in order to fulfill the client's requirement. Three representatives of the client have visited the site once a month during the construction period and check whether the works have done during the month as planned and they submitted a report to the client.

Two changes in the construction design have been done in this project by fulfilling the requirement in an alternative way in order to make the cost lower. Changes are held after the agreement done among the consultant and contractor. A main design change in constructing the building was held. It is to make easier the work, to have a common wall instead of having two separately. And seepage bed is dug instead of making a drain for the drainage system. It is costly and difficult to make a long drain.

Completion

During this stage VC checked with the consultant QS whether the structure has built in order to fulfill his requirement. The quality, cost, the duration of the work were checked. And then finally payment was settled by the client. And also the project was handed over to the Vice Chancellor.

5.0 Conclusion

This RIBA plan of work is the most widely recognized systematic breakdown of a construction project. Studying these steps makes clear the construction process. Main and common stages taken place in the current construction world are related through the case study. Current views on the involvement of Stakeholders in each stages, their roles and responsibilities, tasks and decisions to be taken in each stages and documentations to be taken at each stage are examined in this report. So involvement in each stage very clearly can be carried out with this knowledge.

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