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Directive 2008/98/EC is a basic document that formulates the definition of waste, when waste stops to be a waste and becomes a row material for other processes defined as: preparing for reuse, recycling, recovery. Disposal is regarded as the lowest priority option, when all other options are consumed. In the same time the most important principal in managing the waste is to make sure that the environment will have to suffer minimum negative impact, as a result of those activities: "it requires that waste be managed without endangering human health and harming the environment, and in particular without risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals, without causing a nuisance through noise or odors, and without adversely affecting the countryside or places of special interest." (Directive 2008/98/EC). Hierarchy principals and order of priority, as per figure 1 below, are introduced into the legislation of all EU Member States, together with mandatory requirements for preparation of the Waste Management Plans and putting in place the Waste Prevention Programs.
Also, the Directive 2008/98/EC puts strong accent on two important principals like "polluter pays principals" and "extend producer responsibility" which includes hazardous waste and waste oils. The targets for Construction/Demolition waste are: by the year of 2020 to prepare for reuse/recycling or other recovery operations, non-less than 70% of total waste produced by the industry.
EU Directive find its reflection in Irish Legislation with the targets set in the Government's policy statement on waste management - Changing Our Ways (October 1998) to recycle 50% of C&D Waste by the end of 2003 and 85% by 2013.
Application of the waste hierarchy for the proposed Nursing Home project
Nursing Home Waste Management Plan should be a guide for all stakeholders in order to achieve the 85% recycling target of all waste generated by the project. Prevention of the waste will be maximised by involving designers in the process at the very early stages. The project will be design with consideration of waste minimisation adopting tools like:
Design use of prefabricated construction ( panel walls, prefabricated floors, bathrooms and others)
Design use for elements that will come from deconstruction of old building (doors, windows, bricks, joists and rafters, bathroom utilities)
Design sizes of the building elements to fit standard material size in order to minimise cut-offs.
Design the time-break stages for the project which will open possibilities for smoothing demand of row materials and avoid over-ordering.
Design and use of on-site marketplace.
Next priority option is to prepare for reuse of the material that will arise after deconstruction of old Nursing Home building. A store place for these materials should be organised on site. Examples:
Bricks and blocks should be removed from the walls, separated from stacked concrete and stocked on palettes for further reuse,
Doors and windows will be cleaned, repaired, repainted and stocked for reuse.
Tiles, toilets, bathes will be washed, decontaminated sprayed if necessary.
Timber, joists, rafters will be freed of nails, cleaned and reused.
Furniture and wall cabinets will be accurately removed, selected repaired and reused.
Recycling is an option to be considered for materials than are not possible to reuse due to considerable damage, wear, or lack of application in the new project. Metals and metal pipes, timber, glass, paper and cardboard, masonry, concrete. For those types of the waste material, specially labelled skips will be organised on site, and staff will be trained in using them.
Recovery can be applied to excavated soil and rocks, asphalt or tarmac, blocks and concrete. Top soil will be used for lawns and green areas developments, concrete can be crushed and reused for making new concrete or on road works, asphalt or tarmac will be recovered and used for new passages, sidewalks, roads.
Disposal is the last, but inevitable, option to be considered for the project, because all of the above processes will generate same waste, that, in the end, is not further recyclable, or recycle facilities are not available. Same quantities of plasterboard, insulation, dust, sand-soil-mixed will go to landfill, but those will be less than 15% from all waste generated by the project.
Responsibilities, training and sub-contractor management on site
The Client provides funds for the project; also he is the one who will appoint the Main Contractor with task of implementing all stages of the project, from start to finish. They will have a sign agreement that will contain obligations, time schedules, responsibilities for the bodies involved, and penalties if same deviation from the agreement may occur. From this point, the Main Contractor is responsible for making things happen, and he is free to bring on board another bodies - Subcontractors, with the task of completing a specified part of the main project. Main Contractor will have a common or individual agreement or contract for all Subcontractors involved in the project. This document is the main instrument to manage subcontractors because it is produced by the Main Contractor and design to reflect his interest. In this way Main Contractor can manage subcontractors by including in the agreement all relevant points, time constrains, obligation and responsibilities. A place apart, in this document, has to be devoted for the implementation of the SWMP. Subcontractors should be familiarised with all of the recommendation from the SWMP, and will be directly involved into the waste prevention/minimisation strategy at all stages of their activity. Subcontractors should understand their obligations, and must deliver their services in the time specified and at the best posible quality, which will enable the Main Contactor to perform its obligation under his main contract or agreement with the Client.
Training of the subcontractors and all the personnel involved is also the responsibility of the Main Contractor. He will have a person - Waste Manager, or a team of specialists responsible for the implementation of the WMP and for training on-site personnel and managing subcontractors in the way of achieving maximum benefits from waste minimisation. Main Contractor is responsible for insuring that appointed person(s) is trained and qualified enough to carry out the task, and have enough authority for the best performance of his(theirs) activity. All material and waste movement will be quantified, monitored, recorded and accompanied by specially design tables where actual data is introduced and signed by the both sides involved in the process. Feedback will be provided to Waste Manager at the agreed intervals, which makes possible to track down the waste movement to its final destination and to prevent illegal dumping. A computerised system will be used for recording the inputs and outputs of the waste movement. Waste Audits will be held, where inputs and outputs from the transportation documents are analysed to identify amount, composition and, most important, the source of waste generation which provides direct access to minimisation of the waste at the source, or "reduction through benchmarking of the arising waste."(Best Practice Guidelines). This system allows monitoring the amount and composition of the waste produced by different subcontractors and actually manages them into reduction of that particular waste generation. Measured quantities make possible cost calculation for waste management/disposal; identify savings and highlights benefit related to implementation of the SWMP.
Training session for site personnel and subcontractors will be held by Waste Manager at the regular intervals, where the implementation of the WMP will be assessed to identify:
If the techniques like maximum on-site segregation, selective demolition and material reuse are applied efficiently,
If every staff member can identify materials that are reusable or recyclable and actually are using the waste skips accordingly,
If every member of the staff, subcontractors and suppliers are complying with the requirements of the WMP in their day-by-day activities, and inform them about responsibilities that fall upon them regarding provision of the objectives from the WMP,
If Waste Manager have full cooperation and support from all staff members, contractors and material suppliers.
If any adjustment and corrective action to the plan are necessary and all the information is up-to-date.
If corrective action adopted early have the expected effect.
All staff members will be further instructed how to comply with the requirements of the WMP. Booklets and posters will be relist, for information and benefit of the staff on-site, subcontractors and the rest of stockholders, involved in the project.
According to the written agreement between Main Contractor and Subcontractors, the last will act to the best possible standard and will supply data about all materials quantities, evidence of their procurement/use, and disposal route. Information supplied by subcontractor will contain:
quantities of each material type and when and where it will be delivered;
material quantities factored in for contingency (design waste and construction process waste) or similar;
copies of purchase orders;
material delivery times, access, delivery points and documentation;
material load units - crates, pallets and any specific handling equipment/plant requirements;
details on material packaging and if it is returnable;
material labelling procedures and use of any Tag type systems;
material storage and security procedures;
material collection and returns procedures (including transfer/consignment notes if handled by subcontractors).
Material Logistics Plan (MLP)
What is MLP?
In the first place we have to answer what logistics means, in connection with materials and waste. It can be defined in five main principals as:
In the Right Place.
At the Right Time.
In Right Condition.
At the Right Price.
The slide 1 below, taken from WRAP Presentation "Logistics Implementation Workshop", very wall illustrates material logistics flow in construction industry.
MLP (Material Logistic Plan) have a main function to manage all materials for full duration of the project through all stages from the design to completion, reuse, recycle, disposal and includes all parties involved: Client, Design Team, Contractors, and Subcontractors. It covers such important aspects as:
Targets, objectives and KPI (Key Performance Indicator) for most efficient use of materials.
Efficient training of the staff plus subcontractors and suppliers.
Material optimal use and minimisation by:
Avoiding damage during delivery
Correct specification of ordered material
Materials storage in specially design places
Take care to avoid damage during handling
Avoiding damage at the use phase due to poor workmanship or mistakes.
MLP discusses the positive and negative aspects of the project, suggests improvements and excludes the possibility of repeated mistakes in the future projects.
Designs the project in a way to be easy deconstructed, at the end of the life cycle, and encourage the use of recyclable materials.
The aspects and principals of the MLP are overlapping with WMP and, is advisable for small projects, like Green Park Nursing Home, that Waste Manager and his team overlooks the implementation of both this plans, with full responsibility for the effects and results. Waste Manager will have to be an experienced person with knowledge in material logistics aspects and capable of training the others to:
Understand logistic methods and techniques,
Understand MLP and its steps including tables, charts, templates,
Set and follow up KPI,
Forecast the amount and value of the wasted material,
Use methods and tools for waste minimisation,
Illustrate the benefits and savings resulting from logical material management.
Other options to consider are employing a logistic specialist, by the Client or Main Contractor, or hiring him from the specialised external firm, for full duration of the project or just for same key tasks.
Why is the need there for MLP?
As was mentioned above the MLP is a tool to manage material through all the stages of the project, which will help the project to run smoothly and at the lowest possible cost. Managing materials means efficient use, and in the very end, cost reduction as a result of minimising material procurement and reduced cost for its disposal. It can be a significant cost reduction of all related costs of the project, because the cost for disposal is only a small part (top of the iceberg) that is easier to notice, but the following should also be considered:
Production cost for extra material,
Transport (in: extra material - out: waste),
Labour to fill the skip,
Loss of income for not saving the materials,
Damage to environment as a result of extra material production, transport and landfill disposal.
How can purchased material become waste?
The main sources are:
Cut offs from materials like plasterboard, timber, tiles.
Damaged material caused by bad storage or inaccurate handling.
Reworks caused by defective process, defective equipment, poor workmanship.
Material oversupplied caused by inaccurate ordering.
Incorrect material elivered
Tools and Techniques
Tools and techniques used by MLP for waste minimisation are:
On-site logistic specialist,
Use of CCC (Construction Consolidating Centres),
Logical planning and effective management of all supply chain which in its turn will contribute to smoothing demand and Just in Time delivery, strait to the points of use,
Organise and use the on-site marketplaces,
Design for use of offside prefabricated and preassembled construction elements,
Design for use of standard material sizes,
Material tracking systems
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) or Tag system. Materials are accompanied by label with an electronic code that can be read on site or from the distance and track their movement to the points of use.
Inventory Management Options (IMO), a software for measuring actual demand and predicting or forecasting, to distribute materials to the right place at the right time.
KPI (Key Performance Indicator) which will evaluate the performance and will reveal the links that are week and in need for adjustments.
Summary benefits of implementation MLP
For better understanding of the benefits, let's analyse what can be the impacts of poor logistics. It definitely brings unnecessary cost, increases time for the project completion, contributes to poor construction quality and to poor image of the construction industry, adds risk to health and safety.
Successful implementation of MLP can reverse all the negative impacts, described above, and also mitigate the negative impact to environment. So the summary benefits are:
Less environmental damage.
Reduced time for the project.
Reduced stress for staff involved.
Satisfaction with the job well done.
Good image for the company and entire industry.