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February 3rd 2013, Berlin
......Love begins at home
It is not how much we do
but how much love we put in the action....
....for my rainbow, Regina
who paints my love and my life in beauty
....for my sunshine, Samuel
who brings cheers and source of energy in my life
Housing is the
Firstly I would like to thank to God, my sheeperd, who always taking care of me
Working on the Berlin Cohousing topic brings me home as my pathways in housing expertise, therfore I feel greatfull to work this master study and I would like to thank you to Dr. Michael LaFond for the support, ideas, knowldege and especially to intorduce me the cohousing topic. Your support is as my pathway to be "ein Berliner"
I would like to thank you to all my interviewees who gave me the light of knowledges Rolf Novy Huy, Dorothee
I also would like to thank you to Dr. Bettina Hamann and the Urban Management office team who organize this study
For all my classmates in TU Berlin Christian, Ana Maria, Carolina, Pilar, Gloria, Bruno, Nancy, Sam, Linn, Mehedi, Bwalya, Monica, Sara, Hana, Jieun, Edward-Thung, Iwan and Laura, thank you for your support, and our best time in Berlin
Thank you for Mutti and Papa in Openwhere, without your support I would not be in this master study
Thank you Mami and Papi in Salatiga and my brothers and sisters for being
Last but not Least, I would like to thank to Regina and Samuel for being my source of life
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
This chapter describes the problem statement, research questions and research objectives as the base to form the master thesis.
1.1 Background and Problem Statement
Berlin : Demographic change
Berlin is the capital city and the largest city in Germany, it is the third most populous city in European Union with total population of 3.5 million people in 2011 which is increased 1.2% since 2006 (Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2012,p.24)1. Berlin has been growing continue and it is challenged with ongoing demographic change. The population is projected of 3.7 million in 2030 or increase 7 % from 2011. The aging population in Berlin continues following the forecast period 2011 to 2030. The average age increase from 42.3 years in 2011 to 44.2 in years 2030. The older people above 65 years old will increase 14% and the elderly age 80 and older will increased 80% of almost 120,000 people. However, the working group age between 18 and 65 years old which are for the future development of the city will be reduced by 6% or about 17,000 people. The number of workers age 25 to unders 45 years will decreasd by 0.8% while the number of older working age population (between 45 to under 65 years) increased by 2.1%. Immigration is the driving force population in Berlin, without immigration the population in Germany would decline significally. The children under six years will remain constant and but the age group between 6 until 18 is 20% growing or nearly 64,000 people. Immigration is the driving population in Germany as well as in Berlin, without immigration the population will decreased significantly. The population with immigrant background in Berlin is estimated 25% or more than 860 thousand people and is expected increase in the coming years. (SenStadtUm 2012,p.19-20)2. The demographic change in Berlin will affects the entire demographic issues such as day care, schools, hospitals, transportation, recreation areas as well as housings, therfore the result of the population projections are the basis guide for city planning in Berlin (SenStadtUm-planen)
Shortage of housing stock in Berlin
Berlin experiences a shortage of housing stock as the result of population growth. It is affected in the increased demand of housing for residential. The ongoing increase of demand and the slow growth of housing supply have led the reduction of vacant apartments until 6.9 % in 2010. However, Berlin has 130,000 vacant flats, but this number is not sufficient to cover the demand in the future. The city need to make a housing development to meet the shortage of housing stock in term of quantitative and qualitative demand, but the financial ability of the household should be considered (IBB 2011, p.1-5)
Shortage of affordable housing
Berlin is a city of tenant with number of 87%, while every year the rental price is slowly rising. The rental price is increased from â‚¬ 4 per sqm in year 2000 to â‚¬ 6.49 per sqm in year 2010 (heating and service charge are not included) (IBB 2011, p 5). The residents spend 20% of total income for paying rent in 2006 the average monthly net income per household is â‚¬ 1.475 and the amount of â‚¬ 309 or to be paid by household for 65m2 flat. The growing of rental price can be contributed to the stagnant income. The housing or flats with lower rent price is expected growing to meet the affordable housing demand. DIW Berlin found that housing price in Berlin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Cologne, Mannheim, Munich, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Wiesbaden were significantly higher than other cities. The flats price in Berlin has increased by 73 % since January 2007 (DIW Berlin, 2012).
The existing housing in Berlin does not meet the need of the expectation of increasing numbers of people (interview with Ring,17.9.2012). For this reason self-organized housing and housing associationa are formed. The self-organized housing is not a goal but as the way to escape from the existing housing production (Tummers 2011,p.162).
Figure Increasing price and rents for flats in Berlin
Source: DIW Berlin 2012
Berlin is a multi ethnic city; with over 25% of residents have an immigration background and the percentage of parents coming from foreign countries at 41%. Apart from the demographic changes, disintegration is one of the main challenges for the city of Berlin. Berlin needs for a variety of activities to preserve a social mix within neighbourhoods and districts in order to strengthen deprived urban areas (SenStadtUm 2012,p.19-20)
Energy consumption in buildings accounts for over 40% of all energy consumed in Europe. This is by far the greatest share of total energy consumption ahead of transport and industrial production. The energy consumed in buildings is attributes to heating and hot water generation (BMWi 2008, p.29). Berlin's energy consumption for heating and warm water is 28.6 % for residential building more than commercial buildings 24.9%. Another challenge is to enhance energy efficiency in the building stock to bring down energy costs. The improvement can be made not only from heating system and other technologies but also in the area of insulation.
Berlin Future Plan
Instead of the challenge on demographic changes and housing problems, Berlin has its opportunities and potentials for developing the city. Berlin elaborated the Urban Development Concept 2030 (UDC 2030) as the conceptual basis for integrated urban development related activities in the various policy areas. The UDC 2030 works closely with the result of new population forecast, City development plan for living, city development plan for centers and connected to the demography concept. With the UDC 2030, a model for Berlin citywide development strategies are created (SenStadtUm -Planen 2013).
The International Building Exhibition (IBA) Berlin 2020 is the instrument for Urban Development. It is more than a traditional architecture exhibition models but a source of innovation and experimentation. The IBA Berlin 2020 developed an urban development startegy with goals of sustainable development for the future Berlin with more quality, beauty and vibrancy, more equal opportunities, increased energy efficiency and increased citizen participation. The concept developed with three main startegies :Capital City, Spacious City and Instant City. The Capital city as a new forms of urban development and aesthetic dimensions for the functional mix. The spacious city develop an intelligent urban development strategy for numerous voids, large and small areas which increased the quality of life in the city. Instant city is both a method and tools for experimentation, building on the special culture of planning and participation in Berlin. The instant city refers to the temporary uses which Berlin is the home of temporary use. The participatory approaches with the democratic process and the citizen as the decision maker are given the opportunity of the citizen to form their city. (SenStadtUm-IBA Berlin 2020)
Cohousing in Berlin
Cohousing is understood as collaborative, cooperatives, collective and community oriented housing project (LaFond 2011, p.176). Cohousing ideally encourages neighbourhood engagement, implementing ecological building, saving energy and other resources, bringing together generation and developing inclusive living environments (LaFond et all 2012, p.17). The resident of cohousing are actively participate in the design and operation of their neighbourhood (www.cohousing.org). The physical environment in Cohousing is intentionally design to encourage social interaction (McCamant & Durret 1998, p.38).
The term "cohousing" is coined in English term by American architects Charles Durret and Kathryn McCamant based on the idea of bofoellesskab (living community) in Denmark. After extensive study about bofoellesskab they brought that idea, promoted and developed the concept of living community in United States as Cohousing. Since then, the cohousing term is also used in English speaking countries such as British, Canada and Australia (Vestbro 2010, p.24). Vestbro mentioned that Wohngemeinschaft (meaning community housing) and Gemeinschaftliches Wohnformen (community oriented forms of housing) are the most commonly concept which used in Germany. However, he found that there is no agreed definition of these concept (Vestbro 2010, p.24).
Ache and Fedrowitz stated that cohousing inititives are getting more and more attractive in Germany. There are about 500 projects with more than 20,000 inhabitants in Germany and this number seems to be on the rise (Ache & Fedrowitz 2012, p.395).
Cohousing could be one way of the solution for the challenging demographic changes and which cuased housing problems in Berlin. Cohousing could provide affordable housing in the city, promote social interaction and enhance energy efficiency and moreover its create qualities of the residents. Droste and Knorr-Siedow, the researchers from Berlin mentioned that cohousing can contribute socially, economically, and culturally to a neighbourhood. This housing approaches also offers solution for people with disabilities, people with immigrant backgrounds and those with lower incomes (Droste & Knorr-Siedow 2012, p.31). Ache and Fedrowitz stated that one main effects of cohousing projects for the municipalities is the immediate positive impact on the neighbourhood (Ache and Fedrowitz 2012,p.406).
Cohousing, the IBA Berlin 2020 and the Urban Development
The IBA Berlin 2020 is the instrument of Berlin Urban Development Plan (UDC 2030), whereas the cohousing could be the vehicle of the IBA 2020 to articulate the concept of the captial city, the spacious city and the instant city. In this way, it is necessary for the IBA 2020 to comprehend the concept of Cohousing. Learning from the cohousing development and management is the way to mastering the cohousing concept. Moreover it is the key direction for people or stakeholders to produce appropriate and effective cohousing project in Berlin. The cohousing development and management can be understood from project management life cycle which consist of the process of development and the management activities to drive or to perform the process.
This study examine the development and management of cohousing in Berlin through literature reviews, interviews, workshop and examine the cohousing current project as case studies. The examination of the cohousing development and management can presented the characteristics, the definitions, the stakeholders, the development process and the management activities including the main strength and weaknesses. This raise the problem statement question how to examine the development and management of current cohousing projects and make recommedation for the IBA Berlin 2020.
1.2 Research Questions
1.2.1 Main research questions :
What are the significant strengths and weaknesses of the development and management of current self-organized and community-oriented Cohousing projects in Berlin ?
What recommendations can be made for the IBA 2020, with the respect to self-organized and community-oriented Cohousing projects ?
1.2.2 Sub research questions :
What are the cohousing characteristics and possible definitions as the result from the analysis of the study?
How are cohousing projects developed and managed from the current cohousing projects in Berlin?
Who are the stakeholders involved in the cohousing development in Berlin and in the selected cohousing projects and what are thier significant roles?
What is the strengths and weaknesses of the development and management process of the selected cohousing projects in Berlin ?
How can cohousing be the vehicle and engine for the IBA Berlin 2020 in order to make contribution for sustainable urban development in Berlin?
1.3 Research Objectives :
The objectives of this study are to:
Examine the cohousing's definitions and characteristics from the selected cohousing current projects in Berlin to determine its nature and values and to from the representative identity and brand image so the cohousing is recognized simply
Analyse the development and management process of the selected cohousing current projects in Berlin in order to develop a typical model of cohousing project management
Analyse the cohousing stakeholders in Berlin and stakeholders in the selected cohousing current projects to acknowledging the stakholders as the important drivers for cohousing development and management
Compare the significant strength and weaknesses of the development and management process of the selected cohousing current projects in Berlin to guide the strategic planning for the cohousing development and management
Provide recommendation for the IBA Berlin 2020 in order to stearm cohousing as the vehicle and engine to reach the goals of sustainable urban development in Berlin
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 Research Design
The research design of this study was carried out under a qualitative research. The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide descriptions about the topic of the research. The qualitative research shares characteristics which are searching answer to questions, uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the questions, produces findings that were not determined in advance, and produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study. The general framework of qualitative research are seeks to explore phenomena and uses semi structure method such as in-depth interviews, focus group, and participant observation. One of the advantages of qualitative research is uses open ended questions which have the ability to get rich and explanatory information. (Mack et all 2005, p.1-4)
Four research phases was conducted during the research work for this thesis. The first consist of general understanding of cohousing, the second phase is identification with the result of findings, and the third phase is case studies selection and examination. The fourth phase is discussion and analysis and finally the fifth phase is the conclusion and recommendation. The research design is show in the diagram below:
Figure Research Design Diagram
The first phase consists of the general understanding of the cohousing, both in international perspective and in Germany as well as in Berlin. This phase was done by literature review, interviews, workshop and also site visit to some cohousing projects.
The second phase is to make identification of selected area based on the thesis questions and objectives. The aims of this phase is to get the findings of cohousing definitions and characteristics in Berlin perspective, the actors of cohousing in Berlin, the development and management of cohousing in Berlin and the recommended current cohousing projects for case study.
The third phase is case study selection and examination. There were 26 cohousing current projects in Berlin which were recommended by interviewees for the case study. Four projects were selected based on the category of the actors who have a key role in the development and management of the cohousing projects. Those categories of the key actors are the residents, the architects, the cooperative and the non profit organization. These four different types of cohousing projects were examined in the process of development and management that include the project ideas/concept/vision, actors, planning, organizing, financing, construction and resident management. Each project also analyzed the strength, the weaknesses, the opportunity and the thread.
The fourth phase is data analysis and discussion. This chapter consist of two areas of analysis; the cohousing definitions and characteristics analysis and the cohousing development and management analysis. The cohousing definitions and characteristics are necessary to defined to clarify the context of cohousing in Berlin. The cohousing development and management analysis is comparing the development and management form four project case studies using SWOT analysis.
2.2 Research Methods
The process to collect information and data for the purpose of the research consists of literature reviews, interviews, workshop, and case study.
2.2.1 Literature review
Literature review for this study gives overview for the topic of the research. Two areas of literature review were determined: Housing by the people and the Cohousing history and concept. The literature on housing by the people reviews the concept of self organized housing. The literature review on cohousing introduces the history of cohousing, the concept and the terminology of cohousing.
The interview is designed to get the data of the participants or interviewees perspective on the research topic. Ten actors in cohousing were interviewed from various stakeholders such as non profit organization, researcher, architects, promoter, bank, cooperative, networking institution, mediator and international cohousing organization from Kollektivhus NU - Sweden. It was conducted from September 2012 to October 2012.
Table List of interviewees
Christiane Droste &
Cohousing Network Institution
Mietergenossenschaft SelbstBau e.G.
id22 (Institute for Creative Sustainability)
Kollektivhus NU, Sweden
Cohousing Organization, Sweden
Heike Drischau, Gabriele Schambach, Ute Pieper, Christian Wegmann
Resident & Architect
id22 (Institute for Creative Sustainability)
Non profit organization
David Scheller, Judith Vey
The interview was focus on six main questions which was design to get the information about cohousing definitions, characteristics, actors, development and management and the recommended project for case study.
What are Cohousing definitions and the characteristics in Berlin perspective?
How is the cohousing historical development in Berlin?
Who are the actors in Cohousing (who, roles, and relationships)?
What are the roles of the interviewee in the Cohousing development/project?
How is the cohousing process development and management (initiation, planning, design, implementation, member selection)?
Which cohousing current project can be recommended for case study?
The workshop is part of the qualitative data collection where some cohousing actors meet as a group to discuss a given research topic. The advantage of this method is that it provides a lot of information in a short period of time. The workshop was held on 21 September 2012 on the event of Experimentdays 12.
The EXPERIMENTDAYS are a platform for cooperative housing projects, ideas and actors of creative sustainability in order to understand the city as a designed living space. Since 2003, the EXPERIMENTDAYS 2012 has offered the possibility to learn about different kinds of self organized housing, find other supporters and to think about the future of urban development. The EXPERIMENTDAYS 2012 offer a place for ideas and actions about everyday life, art and politics to be developed through discussion, building, and experimentation (www.experimentcity.net)
The workshop aims to exchange knowledge and experiences from participants on the discussion of selected cohousing topics: definitions, characteristics, actors and development process. Participants came from different institutions or organizations from various countries such as Germany and international (Sweden, Austria, Italy, Netherland, Switzerland, France, South Korea) and most of them are the actors of cohousing.
2.2.4 Case studies
The case studies were selected from 26 current cohousing projects in Berlin which recommended by the interviewees. Four cohousing projects were selected based on the different actors who have a key role in the management and development of the cohousing projects. The list of selected projects are presented in the table below :
Table List of selected cohousing projects for case studies
The Leuchtturm e.G.
Pappelallee Str 43
Prenzlauer Berg, 10437 Berlin
Residents + Cooperative
The Werkpalast Lichtenberg
Lichtenberg, 10367 Berlin
Architect + Residents
The Lebenstraum Johannisthal
Am Rundling 1-20
Treptow, 12487 Berlin
Residents + Non-Profit Organization
The Hausprojekt M29
Malmöer Str 29
Prenzlauer Berg, 10437 Berlin
Those projects were examined with the focus on four areas : (1) The characteristics of the projects, (2) How the projects were developed and managed (3) The stakeholders analysis and (4) The SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats).
Selecting only four case study from more than 200 existing cohousing projects in Berlin
There are lack of academic books or articles regarding the cohousing in Berlin therefore the literature review is limited
Limited review on German literature because the language barrier
Limited time available from the interviewees especially for the case study
Language barrier in German to understand the local context and in English for thesis writing as both not the mother language
Limited selection of the representatives for interview (only interviewee who can speak English)
This chapter reviews some literatures that give the basis of theoretical background for the research. It identifies studies related the research topic. Two Resident management :
Regular meeting, working group, social activities
1.Bonding the community
1.Appreciation from others
2.Place for lesson learn
The SWOT analysis of the Lebenstraum Johannisthal project indicates that the strengths and the opportunity is more than the waknesses and the thread. The significant sthreghts are :
Group members have the same vision of community living and persistance
The architect got a plot of land for the project
The architect who design the project apply the concept of cohousing projects
The residents were participate in the development processes of the project but some of the tasks are conducted by the architect, therefor the residents has less effort than other projects
The collaboration with Project Management Office as a moderator can support the project effectively
The residential managment bonds the community
Some significant weaknesses of the project are :
The project is privately finance therfeore the residents should has financial capital
The house is private property, selling propety can not be avoided
SWOT analysis The Hausprojekt M29
Table 21: SWOT analysis the Hausprojekt M29
1.Vision on community living
1.Other people with same vision
1.New member without understanding the vision
2.Changing generation with different vision
Gathering information, object searching, group formation
1.Found a plot of land
2.Got valuable information
1.different information different result
2.Segregation among members
Planning & Organizing :
Expert selection, Project design, stakeholder collaboration, legal from, financing, object purchasing
1.Partnership with the Mietshäuser Syndikat
2.Participatory project design
4.Financial cost sharing
5. Land lease
6. Non speculative
1.Supporting actors : the Mietshäuser Syndikat, GLS Bank
2.Soft loan for ecological building
Construction Development : Construction work, controlling, monitoring, closing
2. Human capital to reduce the cost
Resident management :
Regular meeting, working group, social activities
1.Bonding the community
New project, the residents need to adapt the community living
1.Place for lesson learn for other
- Other group with different political view
The SWOT analysis of the Hausprojekt M29 project indicates that the strengths and the opportunity is more than the waknesses and the thread. The significant sthreghts are :
Group members have the same vision of community living and persistance
The residents got a plot of land for the project
The collaboration with the Mietshäuser Syndikat is beneficial because the organization provided link to the architect who also the owner of the land
The residents were actively participate in the development processes of the project and they are the decision maker
The collaboration among stakeholders (the Mietshäuser Syndikat and the GLS Bank) can support the project effectively
The concept of the ownership keeps the property out of market (non speculative)
The residential management bonds the community
The significant weakness of the projects is that the project is new, the residents need time to adapt living in the community (the residents just moved in 3 month ago)
The SWOT analyses from the four selected projects indicate that the development and management of the project has much strength than the weaknesses and also has more opportunities than the risks.
The significant strengths of the projects are:
Group members have the same vision of community living, without the same vision the group will not work effectively
Persistent group members to reach the goals of the vision of the project
The objects (land and building) availability according to the resident's desire
Different types of ownership and legal form which make the projects rich with suitable options for the future residents
Collaboration with different actors or stakeholders make the project works
Participatory planning which placed the residents as the decision maker
Intentional design which support the social contact among the residents and also neighbourhood
Ecological building and living with result of energy efficiency
Non speculative make the project is far away for capitalist or speculation market
The residential management bonds the community
The weaknesses of the projects are:
Long process to find and to buy the object (land and building)
Two type of legal forms (Cooperative and GmbH) need certain capital of money
The projects are taking long process until the project completed
The residents need a lot of effort to managed the project if they are not make sharing roles with the actors
CONCLUSION & RECOMMEDATIONS
The examination of cohousing development and management produce the sum of knowledge in terms of cohousing significant components. These knowledge areas are consists of: cohousing characteristics and definitions, actors and cohousing project life cycle (project process and management):
Cohousing definition and characteristics
Cohousing determines 14 characteristics which are vision of sustainability, inclusive community, democratic, participative, sharing space and resources, empower human capital, non speculation, collaborative, self management, political, intentional design and ecological living. Those characteristics address the values of its projects.
Cohousing definitions is various however the definitions are necessary for people to understand not only the concept but also the meaning. Forming the definition of cohousing is necessary in order to make cohousing is understandable with ease. Therefore, cohousing in Berlin need the additional anchor words which the representation of the characteristics. The application of three words: community oriented, self organized and sustainable housing is necessary and applicable.
Definition can be use for performing the cohousing
Berlin has extensive actors in three sectors: public sector, civil society and private sector. Some of the actors are the key actors which have significant influence, others are primary actors who ultimately affected by the cohousing project and secondary actors who are the supporting actor in the development of cohousing.
The residents, the cooperative, the non profit organization and the architect can be the key actors in the cohousing project. However, the project will remain have the same characteristics as long as the resident is the decision maker.
Each actor contributed significant roles in the development and management cohousing which are compliment each other.
The cohousing actors in Berlin are the significant drivers in the development of cohousing because of their roles.
A good relationship among the actors is very important in the development of cohousing project as a key of successful and effective project. Cohousing project take times to develop in years. However, the good relationship among actors create effective cohousing project.
Cohousing Project life cycle
Cohousing can be developed and managed by different actors such as residents, cooperatives, non profit organization and architects.
The cohousing project is developed through a project process of vision, initiation, planning, organizing, construction management and residential management. The management of cohousing is a series of activities to operate and drive the development process. The key elements of cohousing management are: Develop a vision, Information gathering, forming a persistence group, obtain the objects, developing the concept and design, set up the legal from, and collaborate with actors, governing or overseeing the construction management and arranging residential management
Vision of community living and the persistence group is the foundation to develop the cohousing project because cohousing development and management requires time and energy. Collaborate with actors creates effective cohousing project.
The type of legal from is the important component to shaping the cohousing project
The group of people with strong vision and persistence mind set, availability of information, network and objects, different types of legal forms, the divers actors with various roles, the highest level of participation (residents are the decision makers), the intentional design, the ecological building and living and the non speculative point of view are the significant strength of the cohousing development and management. However, the difficulty to find the objects (land or buildings), long development process and the many number of management activates, the certain financial capital requirements are the weaknesses of the cohousing development and management.
The study of cohousing development and management generate some recommendations :
Expanding the cohousing project
The study presented that cohousing project has valuable characteristics towards the sustainability. It is necessary to expand cohousing project in Berlin as a instrument to reach the urban sustainability living.
Integrating the role of stakeholders in the cohousing project development and intensifiying their roles
The stakeholders have significancts roles in the cohousing development in Berlin. Integrating the stakeholders and intensifiying them will strenghten their capacity to contribute in the cohousing development project
Acquiring the access for cohousing development : financial and object (land & buildings)
Two main obstacles of cohousing development are lack of finance support and lack of available objects (land and buildings). Public Private Partnership could be one solution for financing. In the stakeholder analysis the private sector (bussiness sector) are not involved in the project. They could be the source of fund as the private company has Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The CRS fund could be donated to the non profit organizations or foundations to support the cohousing projects or apply as direkt credit from the concept of The Mietshäuser Syndikat.
The lack of objects (land and building) for cohousing project could be resolved by using empty spaces or vacant buildings which a lot in Berlin. The roles of the IBA Berlin 2020 will be very crucial as the IBA Berlin 2020 design a concept of Space City to use the empty spaces and vacant buildings. Other solution is to avoid privatisation of the land. Land should be viewed as the resources for every citizen not as a comodity. The concept of The Stiftung trias and The Mietshäuser Syndikat to take out the land from the market and to use it for benefit of the society will make the urban living sustainability.
Studying the cohousing development and management demonstrated how the cohousing is cultivate and shaping and how good is the values inside of it. The good fruit is the result of good tree, good soil, and good planter. Cohousing is a good tree it self, it cultivated in good soil: city of Berlin, which has perspective toward sustainable urban development, and cultivate by reliable farmers which are the cohousing actors in Berlin. The characteristics of cohousing which address quality of values are the fruits of cohousing. Planting cohousing "trees', harvesting fruits of values for the sustainable future.
7.2 Recommendations for The IBA Berlin 2020
The IBA Berlin 2020 with the three main concept strategies: capital city, space city, and instant city, is the instrument to reach the goals of future sustainable development Berlin 2030 with more quality, beauty and vibrancy, more equal opportunities, increased energy efficiency and increased participation. Cohousing is the vehicle to implement those three strategies, while the IBA Berlin 2020 is the engine and the cohousing actors is the drivers. Cohousing is as part of the strategy of Capital city, spacious city and Instant city.
Cohousing as the capital city strategy
Capital city which refers to the role of the city and the citizen in shaping a mix city which creating model for social and ethnic mix. Cohousing with the inclusive community characteristics is the application of mix city concept. The Alte Schule Karlshort in Karlshort can be one example of multigenerational living as well as Leuchtturm e.G project in Prenzlauer Berg. Baugruppe K20 in Friedrichshain is the example of mixed used spaces between community housing and hotels and Lebens(t)raum Johannisthal in Am Rundling is the example of mix use between residential and ecology.
Capital city also refers to an internationally example of urban project which places the stakeholders and processes in the centre stage. Cohousing could be the model of collaboration among stakeholders as the significant strength of cohousing project in Berlin. Berlin is rich with various stakeholders who compliment each other with different roles such as implementer, planner, project management, land lease, financial support, moderation, information centre, networking agency, researcher, promoter, and organizer. Four case study projects : Leuchtturm e.G, Werkpalast Lichtenberg, Leben(t)raum Johannisthal, and Hausprojekt M29 are the examples about collaboration between different stakeholders (residents, cooperative, architect, and non profit organization).
Cohousing as strategy for spacious city
Spacious city refers to explore and develop an intelligent urban development project in the empty spaces and vacant areas. Cohousing could be use as the urban development strategy to use numerous voids, large and small areas in Berlin or empty spaces, buildings, wastelands and all kinds of vacant areas. One of the cohousing development constrains are the lack of availability objects (land or building) to realise the projects. To use the vacant areas and empty building can resolve the problem as well as shortage of housing stock in Berlin. Choosing in Berlin is an intelligent urban project because it require certain knowledge area to developed and managed, more over the some of the cohousing projects use intelligent technology such as passive house (e.g. Living in Urban Unit Project in Schönholzer Str, Pankow-Berlin), Geothermal energy (e.g. Leuchtturm e.G in Prenzlauer Berg and Werkpalst Lichtenberg in Lichtenberg, wind gas energy (Hausprojekt M29 in Prenzlauer Berg) and household waste water recycling system in Lebens(t)raum Johannisthal project in Am Rundlin-Berlin).
Cohousing as an instant city
Instant city refers to the temporary use that are widely in Berlin and the participation approaches with democratic process and the citizen as decision maker. LaFond stated that cohousing can be seen as school of democracy. People learn how to make decision together, how to communicate and solving problems together. People can learn about organizing project, meeting and organizing people. Democracy is important to sustainability. If people want to live in democracy, people need to understand what that mean. What needed now is more direct democracy and cohousing is the representative of direct democracy. Cohousing can help people to learn direct democracy (interview with Michael LaFond, 20.11.2012). The resident's decision making is the soul of the community participation in cohousing project. Cohousing refers to the citizen power by Arnstein 1996, the voice by Qu and Haseelaar 2011, and the autonomy by Fitcher et all 1972 where the citizen enable to negotiate, have the power to bargain, have the ability to influence plans and product, involve in the design and maintenance processes, have managerial power, have the ability to get the needs and the power of making decision. In German word is "mitbestimmung" (the power in decision making)
In summary three sustainable urban development strategy of the IBA Berlin 2020 can be realise in the cohousing project. The concrete crucial constraints of cohousing developments are the lack of available space in desirable areas, lack of funding and unwillingness of most housing organizations to work together with the groups to realize new residential cohousing project (Eyrich,2012,p.51). The answer of these constrains will promote the development of cohousing in Berlin and cohousing would rise in numbers. It is necessary to realize Berlin as the capital city of cohousing with the belief :
Berlin as the "Capital city of cohousing" will shape the sustainable urban development for a better future.