This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
A number of streams that fall into Rawal Dam bring huge pollutants to the Dam as they pass through different residential areas including Barri Imam, Qaid-e-Azam University and housing societies like Banni Gala and poultry farms.
The residents of Rawalpindi are getting polluted water from Rawal Lake, the main source of drinking water for Rawalpindi. Water quality of Rawal Dam is deteriorating with each passing day as the water samples collected by Rawalpindi Environmental Improvement Project (REIP) from the lake revealed that the water contained high quantity of phosphate and sulphate, which is dangerous for health.
Rawal Lake is vulnerable to water pollution and one major problem is eutrophication, as lake water became artificially enriched with nutrients, causing abnormal plant growth.
The Capital Development Authority (CDA) has decided to install a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) at Rawal Dam for treating polluted water of streams falling into the dam to provide safe drinking water to residents of Rawalpindi.
The decision was taken in CDA board meeting presided over by the authority s chairman Tariq Mehmood Khan. All the board members including Member Engineering Tahir Shahmshad, Member Finance Saeedur Rahman, Member Estate Asad Munir, Member Environment Mazhar Hussain, Member Planning and Design Tanveer Bukhari, Member administration SM Farooqi and other senior officials attended the meeting.
CDA Board has also decided that the authority would construct STPs in sectors I-14, I-15, I-16 and I-11.
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
A multi facetted project is being launched to collect and treat the sewage coming from various areas including the ones located on west side of the railway lines passing through the capital territory. The topography of area relatively slopes downwards from the Margalla Hills in the north - all towards the l-series. The sewage from some of the sectors on east side of the railway lines is being treated in the Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) located in the Sector 1-9. Whereas the planned sector(s) including D-12 E-12 G-12 G-13 G-14 H-12 1-11 1-12 1-14 1-15 and 1-16 etc. and all the other area(s) presently not being serviced by the existing STPs have no such provision, whatsoever, at this point. Besides, the new Sectors and the areas attributable to private housing societies likely to be developed in future would also be expected to contribute to the sewage accumulation / out flow. Owing to the unique topographic features, it is not feasible to transport sewage from these areas to the existing STPs in Sector I-9.
Moreover, the alarming level of pollution in the natural streams and surface reservoirs especially the Rawal Lake is due to the contamination - resulting from the inflow of raw sewage from proximal habitats. These include amongst others - the Quaid e Azam University New Diplomatic Enclave Noorpur Shahan Bhara Kau Malpur Bani Gala and all the unplanned surroundings farther upstream. The Quaid e Azam University and its residential colony and the New Diplomatic Enclave are indeed the planned localities. It may as well be noted that, the said areas fall within the Capital Development Authority (CDA) Municipal Limits. However, the remaining areas though constituting the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) are not administratively in Municipal limits of the CDA. The Rawal Lake is presently the main source of water supply to the city of Rawalpindi. Hence, there is a need to control inflow of pollutant / raw sewage into the natural water courses on the upstream side further adding into the lake itself. The raw sewage / pollutants from all these localities are discharged into the natural water courses - later outflow into the Rawal Lake. These include the Kurang as well as the ones flowing through Ban Imam Village and Quaid e Azam University.
In view of the above, the Capital Development Authority has decided to conduct detailed feasibility studies to evolve a robust mechanism to control the menace of water pollution and the biological treatment thereof. The objective is to have a set of viable options in terms of economies of scale as well as conformance to the internationally acceptable environmental standards.
1.3 SCOPE OF WORK AND SERVICES
a) To invite prominent engineering consultancy firms while up keeping the futuristic vision of year 2050 - to provide planning as well as engineering services. These are to operate with a strategic approach in carrying out the detailed feasibility studies in the areas within the ICT limits. The same will cover in general, the sewage and the Complex underlying issues interalia: ascertainment of the type quantum and the area based collection treatment mythology - besides, the constraints thus encountered in the biological process etc.
b) Based on the feasibility studies in a way forward the work plan initiative on part of the engineering consultancy firms will include yet not limited to the following:
i. To evolve a whole range of area based a state of the art, engineering solutions for the treatment process / disposal of sewage within the ICT limits. Furthermore, to devise a solution oriented strategy leading to the following :
* Optimal handling of the issues relevant to the water pollution in the natural streams and surface reservoirs within the ICT limits including the Rawal Lake.
* The design optimization of the biological process as well as sating issues for in placement of STPs for all the planned areas within the ICT limits.
ii. The optimization/Implementation of engineering solution(s) to control the inflow of pollutants - including the choice for treatment and the inplacement of treatment facilities for model villages as well as all the industrial areas including Industrial Triangle Kahuta Road (ITKR), in the Capital City.
iii. The consultants are required to prepare logical, safe / economical design of sewage treatment works, where feasible, with emphasis upon the area centric inplacement within the ICT limits - according to the normal acceptable standard / engineering practices. Moreover, they are required to ensure the clear environment and the area is safeguarded against the hazards of pollution.
The consultants shall assess environmental impact and carry out socio-economic studies, identify the benefits, determine initial / future O&M costs and responsibilities for the same as a result of the Sewage treatment works.
The object is to control of inflow of pollutants in the natural streams / low lying areas and the surface reservoirs including the Rawal Lake etc - all within the ICT limits.
i. Provision of detailed feasibility studies - envisaging the planning and engineering aspects of all physical and environmental factors. The overall placement, the optimization of process and the design details of all Civil and E/M installations.
ii. The control of inflow of the pollutants into the natural streams within the ICT limits.
iii. The ascertainment of the types, the quantum of sewage and the most optimal/feasible sites - in area centric setting, for putting up the treatment facilities within the ICT limits.
iv. The detailed Planning and designing of the components - all to include the biological hydraulic/hydrological and structural aspects amongst others.
v. Detailed designing as well as re-planning the elements of sanitary sewage collection system in context with the start up treatment facility.
vi. The year 2050 is in vision spectrum to provide as well as upgrade the sewage collection and its treatment - covering both the planned as well as unplanned settings of the Capital city.
a) The Consultants are required to carry out the feasibility of the site(s) already earmarked in Sectors D-12, G-13, G-14, 1-15 and 1-16 and other areas constituting the ICT Zones I to V for setting up sewage treatment facilities and select a set of the most feasible ones.
b) The Consultants are required to carry out feasibility study and prepare reports and to incorporate measures to control the inflow of pollutants into the Rawal Lake and the choice for settings up treatment facilities (if any).
c) The detailed topographic surveys and digitized mapping of the areas for proposed/feasible sites of treatment facilities - besides, surface reservoirs and the natural streams leading to the same.
d) The Consultants are required to carry out census survey of the project area(s) contributing towards the accumulation of sewage load leading to the ascertainment of all input design parameters.
e) The Consultants are required to conduct geo-technical investigations, biological / chemical / engineering tests of materials attributable to the sites of the proposed STPs, natural streams and surface reservoirs including professional advice on all pertinent aspects.
f) Assessment of optimal land / area requirement within the available options for the start up facilities.
g) The Consultants are required to prepare and submit environmental clearance reports i.e. Initial Environment Examination (1EE) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and get it approved from Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency.
h) The Consultants are required to carry out the biological and hydrological / hydraulic studies of all streams naturally flowing towards the surface reservoirs including the Rawal Lake and the existing / proposed sites for the sewage treatment facilities.
i) The Consultants are required to collect and review available data and reports of the area(s) to be served.
j) The Consultants are required to conduct preliminary assessment / design of STPs / the ancillary works and measures to mitigate water pollution related issues in all ICT Zones and furnish inception report apriori.
k) The Consultants are required to carry out final Design including preparation of detailed working drawings of civil and Electrical/Mechanical works etc., landscaping details, BOQ/ Engineering estimates, specifications, preparation of PC-I etc. with supporting calculations /computation analytical models complete to the satisfaction of the Client - all leading to the initiation of Contract action.
l) Detailed construction supervision of works to be undertaken.
m) Ways for recovery of the project cost from the beneficiaries,
n) All other works required to complete this job.
o) Pre-contract services for selection of constructors and preparation of contract documents etc.
Time period Time to complete the detailed feasibility studies and
detailed design for the treatment facilities
1.3.1 COLLECTION OF DATA
For designing of the STP works, the Consultants shall be required to collect data on their own in entirety yet not limited to the following:
a) Detailed topographic and census surveys of the project areas contributing to the flow of Sewage towards the proposed treatment mechanism(s) / sites.
b) Detailed study of the catchment areas upstream of all surface reservoirs including the Rawal Lake in order to ascertain the expected design input parameters.
c) Data of water consumption and historic records of sewage load characteristics in the area.
d) Geo-physical / geological study and analysis of engineering materials.
All physical activities undertaken by the Consultant at the project site(s) shall be intimated to the Client before hand in the form of a comprehensive work program.
1.3.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN
Following the approval of the all items included in this multifaceted project, as delineated in the feasibility studies, the Consultant shall undertake further work/ preliminary design of the treatment mechanism and connected works. The design shall take into consideration the requirements/ restrictions and opportunities. Consultant shall submit different solutions / options for all pertinent stages and the steps thus involved. The approval of the same shall be required apriority measures for employer's consideration and approval along with rough cost estimates. The preliminary design - inception report will be produced thus containing the following:
a) Topographic and census survey, estimates, sewage volume, digital mapping and Geo-technical Investigation etc.
b) Concept design and justification.
c) Outline design and justification of choice.
d) Cost estimates.
e) Technical & Financial comparisons of considered options and chosen solutions.
f) Construction programme.
1.3.3 DETAILED DESIGN, BILL OF QUANTITIES AND TENDER DOCUMENTS
The preferred options are to be agreed to with the Client and detailed design will commence afterwards accordingly. The Consultant shall produce detailed design, drawings, bill of quantities and tender documents etc as approved by the Client and in accordance with the requirements stated here under for Tender Action:-
a) The consultant shall prepare detailed design(s), estimates, PC-I and contract documents etc, of all services as per scope of work and any other document for carrying out the contract action.
b) Provision of following facilities shall be made in the financial bid of contractor and PC-I for Client and Consultant:
* Office and residential accommodation with their utilities, furniture & bedding, fixtures, AC's furnishing, utility bills, stationery etc. for both Client & Engineer and their staff including office equipment e.g Computers (Table & Lap TOP), Photo Copier(s), Fax Machine, Walki-talkies, line Telephone and Mobile Telephones, GPS (handi), Vehicles, Messing facilities, still and movie camera etc..
* Vehicles for Supervisory Consultants and Client with drivers, fuel, insurance, taxes and repair/ maintenance thereof etc.
* Engineer's Material testing Laboratory with fixtures, equipment, furnishing etc. and to maintain the same.
* Survey Equipment, Total Station, GPS, Levels and theodolites etc. and to maintain the same.
* Utilities Bills & provision of refreshments for Supervisory Consultants and Client's staff i.e. Project Director and his staff.
c) The design should be interactive and practicable also considering the readily available engineering materials including the river gravels, stones, sand, soil and rock etc.
d) The Consultants shall certify that effluent discharged after Sewage Treatment Plant(s) satisfies the requirements of Pakistan National Environmental Quality (NEQ) World Health Organization (WHO) and the applications ISO standards.
e) The design(s) shall cater for the geotechnical investigations, topographic & census surveys of the site(s) etc. as touched base with already in this text. The consultant shall engage specialized firms after getting the approval from the Client for carrying out these tests at proposed/required sites(s) of the project. The cost of geotechnical investigation, topographic survey work, census and laboratory testing work etc. shall be borne by the Consultants and they should include it in their financial proposal. The Consultant will also include income tax to be deducted at source in their financial proposal.
f) The design(s) shall conform to the latest engineering standards. However, any deviations from these standards may be discussed with the Client and prior approval obtained. Also, the designs should incorporate latest seismic requirements as per prevailing codes.
g) The Consultant shall also prepare detailed specifications for the execution of the project clearly out-lining the materials to be incorporated which are readily available in Pakistani Market whether imported or local and have satisfactory documented performance record.
h) The Consultant shall certify that the designs are economical, estimates ' correctly prepared and in no case the cost is going to vary beyond permissible limit of 15% due to variations in the items/quantities etc. taken in the B.O.Q.
i) The Consultant shall certify that the designs are structurally sound and sewage load taken is correct in line of the futuristic vision and all design parameters as per applicable codal provisions / standards and seismic code provisions have also been incorporated. The responsibility of safe, correct and economical design rests with the Consultant and approval accorded by the Client shall not relieve him of any of his responsibilities under the contract.
j) The Consultant shall indemnify the Client in all respects - against all losses, which the Client may have to incur due to any incorrect design and due to non-availability of prompt decision on issues raised by the Client/ Contractor(s).
k) The Consultant shall work out the quantities accurately from the construction detailed drawings and topographical and census surveys / Geo-technical investigation and certify their correctness and shall prepare B.O.Q / estimates on the basis of latest N.H.A CSR / MES Schedule/ Pak PWD rates where applicable and the current market rates of material, labor etc. for non-scheduled items duly authenticated with detailed rate analysis and three number quotations.
l) The Consultant shall certify that all works, details etc. described in the specifications, drawings and B.O.Q correlate to each other absolutely correctly and in no case these documents shall cause complications/variations.
m) All design / details in the gist of contract documents etc., provided by the Consultant shall be the property of the Client and no copy thereof shall be provided by the Consultant to any third party or provision thus made in any other project without the prior written permission of the Client.
n) The Consultant shall, in association with CDA/concerned departments, survey and locate all services/ utilities passing through the proposed site(s) and prepare safe proposal in consultation with the concerned departments for shifting and relocating such services in the design being finalized by him. Such studies and design drawings for re-routing / protection of the services / utilities, where required, shall be prepared in advance and supplied to CDA along with levels, estimates etc so as to enable CDA to get all such services shifted. These services shall relate to Telephone, Electricity, Sui-Gas, Water supply, Sewerage, Drainage, Optical Fiber and Cable T.V. etc.
o) The Consultant shall maintain close liaison with the Client and with services authorities and other organizations concerned at all stages of the work
p) The Consultant shall be responsible for obtaining all required approvals and exact estimates for relocation of services, if any, from the concerned authorities/ Departments.
q) Any map/drawing/aerial photographs, images and any other information required for the purpose of design shall be obtained by the Consultant from authorities concerned at his own cost. However, the employer shall provide letter of authorization to obtain the same.
r) Within 15 days from the award of the Consultancy work, the Consultant shall establish their fully interactive / functional Design office in Islamabad. The Consultant shall also arrange and maintain his own transport, laboratory, all equipment etc. required for design, etc. for this project. The cost relating to these shall be included in the bid. The consultants are responsible for carrying out all Lab Tests to cover the biological, chemical and engineering aspects etc in connection with Design entirely at their own expense.
s) When approached in his office in Islamabad either in person or through telephone/ correspondence, the Consultant shall be available to the Client or his representative for explaining any provision of design/documents/specifications / drawings etc. at no additional cost, in the office of the Client.
t) The Consultant shall discuss the progress of work periodically with the Client during the design stages and approval should be taken from Client at each stage. Monthly progress reports shall be submitted in two copies.
u) The Consultant shall assist the Authority (CDA) in the pre-qualification of constructors as per procedure already approved and adopted by the CDA, if so required.
v) The Consultant shall issue tender documents comprising of instructions to bidders, conditions of contract, specifications, BOQs and construction drawings marked "fit for construction" on scale of not less 1:50 that may be modified upto 1:150, or whatsoever required by the Clients, to the contractors through CDA.
w) The Consultant shall also assist the CDA in the pre-bid meeting and attend to quarries of the bidders and advise on the most logical action plan required to be taken in the interest of the authority work.
x) The Consultant shall indicate their design fee for each item of the various components of design to complete this assignment which will be based on man-month rates of all engineers and staff engaged for this purpose. The methodology and the analysis thereof is also to be provided.
y) The Consultant is to provide one set of design calculations/computations and reproduce-able transparencies, original plan/computer discs / soft copies (10 Nos) related to the work and fifteen (15) sets of tender documents including drawings etc. Tenders shall be called on % age item rate basis, in the form of the packages as asked by the Client, without any additional cost to the Client. However, additional tender sets if required by Clients shall be paid at the rate of Rs. 50007- each.
z) The software/programs used during the design phase will become the property of Design Wing, CDA and the Consultants will provide the training facility to the Design Officers of CDA on the project.
aa) The Consultants will use F1DIC documents for both consultancy and construction contracts - also including the provisions of the CDA procedures and regulations.
1.3.4 THE ONSITE DETAILED CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION.
The Consultant shall provide the under mentioned services confirming to the role of the "The Engineer" as per PEC/FIDIC rules. It is his duty to include all the services required for him/his staff for successful completion of the project by providing additional services, as he may consider appropriate with prior knowledge of the Client at no additional cost. The cost of such additional services shall be deemed to be included in the fees demanded for the onsite job supervision.
a) To provide detailed supervision of construction / installation / erection by the Contractor(s) and see/test its operational soundness & efficiency.
b) To check / correct marking on the ground of the designed component(s) of the STP works and services etc.
c) To check the construction work as to its conformance with the final approved drawings, tenders documents and specifications.
d) To provide monthly progress reports and hold meetings with the Client and Contractor(s) on monthly basis.
e) To take action so that the Contactor(s) fulfill their obligations as per the contract agreement generally and particularly in respect of proper implementation of time schedule agreed upon between the Client, Consultant and Contractor(s).
f) To check the bills of the Contractor(s) and to certify in writing to the effect that the work done for which payment is being made is in accordance with drawings, design and specifications and that the works have been actually executed.
g) To evaluate variations resulting from revised requirements/ designs, adjustments, substitutions of materials etc. and issue formal variation orders after approval of the Client to the Contractor(s) with a copy to the Client as per approved provisions of construction documents. No work will be under taken till such time the variation order is approved by the Client.
h) To inspect the said project at time it is offered by the Contractor(s) for taking over by the Client and to prepare a list of all such defects or incomplete/partially completed works which exist at the time and to get the same rectified/completed through the Contractor(s).
i) To inspect the said project during defect liability period of 12 months from the certified date of completion and get the noticed defects during this period removed through the Contractor(s) as per provisions of the agreement.
j) Before the substantial completion certificate is issued to the Contractor(s), the project or part thereof will be inspected by the Consultant. A list of shortfalls/defects will be prepared by the Consultant which would be got completed/rectified by the Contractors(s)
k) At the time of final handing/taking over of the project, as built drawings will be prepared by the Contractor according to which the Project or part thereof will be taken over. The drawings will be checked by the Consultants as per the actual construction of the structures, services etc. on the ground and verified by him.