Salient Features Of The Brandhorst Museum In Munich Construction Essay

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This unusual structure the Brandhorst museum in Munich, Germany is a is a long, two-storey with a basement, rectangular structure abutting a considerably higher, trapezium-shaped section that widens to the north " The 12,100m2 building was designed by Berlin-based architects Sauerbruch Hutton and cost €46m and ten years planning and was finally opened on the 21st May 2009."1 The building is clad in 36,000 ceramic rods in 23 different colours arranged vertically over a horizontally striped, sheet metal skin. Inside the museum the walls, along with the beautifully crafted white walled galleries the flooring and staircase are constructed from light Danish oak that connect all three exhibition areas. "The main galleries are naturally lit throughout - a risky strategy, and one that would horrify many curators, since daylight has many moods, some kind to paintings, some cruel. Yet here, somehow, consistency has been maintained at the level of the displays; meanwhile, up above them, daylight is allowed to play its gentle games among a complex system of near-invisible louvers."2

Figure 1.1 - Brandhorst Museum Louvers3

Figure 1.2 - Brandhorst Museum Staircase4

Site Conditions - Question 2

Within this section question two asks me to identify the context of the expected site conditions that will have an impact on the solution to question 3.

Site Investigation & Soil Investigation

When the development of the Brandhorst museum was first considered a site investigation would have taken place to determine exactly what the potential development site was made up of, site investigations can bring to the surface any hidden dangers beneath that aren't visible to the naked eye. Part of the site investigation will also be to carry out a soil investigation to determine the suitability of the site for the Brandhorst museum. The soil investigation will also enable the architect to provide the correct foundation design has he/she will know the type of subsoil. The soil investigation will be carried out by digging trial pits usually of around 3m in depth to take soil samples.

Expected Site Conditions

Within this section I will discuss the expected site conditions as listed below;

Trees - preservation orders

Water Table

Soil Types

Contamination

Ground Subsidence

And the likely impact they will have on the following;

Choice of foundation

Excavation

Soil Retention

Ground Water Control

(See Appendix A - Expected Site Conditions and Impact)

I have made the following assumptions with regards to the development site for the Brandhorst Museum, Munich, Germany;

The construction site is a Green-Field site with no trees under the tree preservation order the water table is fairly low with no surrounding evidence to prove otherwise i.e. nearby rivers etc… although it is evident that groundwater control will be required whilst excavating due to the fact of having to excavate deep to accommodate the basement. The sub-soil content is dry sand/gravel with no signs of ground subsidence.

Foundation System (Substructure) - Question 3

Within this section I'm going to explain the likely sequence of the technology employed for the given foundation system for the Brandhorst museum, Munich, Germany.

Choice of Foundation

The choice of foundation for this project will be a reinforced concrete strip foundation as the sub-soil is suitable and stable enough to support such a foundation. The type of strip foundation most suitable for the development I feel is the wide strip with reinforced concrete due to the fact of the load of the structure will be relatively high.

Excavation

Basement

The method of excavation used for the basement of the Brandhorst museum is the open excavation total dig, this method does require a lot of site space but the development site for the Brandhorst museum is a fairly substantial size. The method of open excavation also reduces the amount of temporary support you require due to the battered side excavation that must be at a safe angle of repose. The angle of repose for Gravel & Dry sand is 40 degrees

(See Figure 3.2.1 - Open Basement Excavation Illustration)

(See Figure 3.2.2 - Brandhorst Museum Basement with Skylight)

Foundations

As a result of the choice of foundation the choice of excavation for the foundations will be a trench excavation with vertical faces. Using this method will require temporary support as opposed to the trench excavation with battered edges but will take up less space on site; I feel this is essential as the excavation for the basement will take up a large amount of space.

(See Figure 3.2.3 - Deep/Wide Strip Foundation Example)

(See Figure 3.2.4 - Trench Excavation with Vertical Sides Illustration)

(See Figure 3.2.5 - Trench Excavation with Battered Side Illustration)

Figure 3.2.1 - Open Basement Excavation Illustration5

Figure 3.2.2 - Brandhorst Museum Basement with Skylight6

Figure 3.2.3 - Deep/Wide Strip Foundation Example7

Figure 3.2.4 - Trench Excavation with Vertical Sides Illustration8

Figure 3.2.5 - Trench Excavation with Battered Side Illustration9

Basement Construction

The method used on the Brandhorst museum is the "Retaining Wall and Raft Basement - this is the general format for basement construction and consists of a slab raft foundation which forms the basement floor and helps to distribute the structural loads transmitted down the retaining walls"10

Most sites are suitable for a basement, but it is good practice to commission a geotechnical survey to ensure site suitability. Care should be taken if the survey reveals a permanently high water table, a high probability of a perched water table or if the site is in a flood risk area. These problems would not rule out a basement but are likely to increase construction and waterproofing costs.

In some cases maps or a site survey will show that there are power cables, sewers, or mains pipes running through the area where the basement is planned. These can often be moved, but in some cases the cost of doing so may prove prohibitive.

On Brownfield sites soil contaminants and ground gasses can present a problem. Fortunately, some waterproofing systems can provide protection against both of these.

(See Figure 3.2.6 - Retaining Wall and Raft Basement Illustration)

(See Figure 3.2.7 - Brandhorst Museum Basement Drawing)

Figure 3.2.6 - Retaining Wall and Raft Basement Illustration11

Figure 3.2.7 - Brandhorst Museum Basement Drawing12

Soil Retention

Temporary support for all the trench excavation walls are going to be required as well as the trench wall for the wall of the open basement excavation apart from the side that will be a battered side excavation that must be at a safe angle of repose.

Foundation Excavation Temporary Support

The temporary support used for the trenches excavated for the foundations "is called timbering irrespective of the actual materials used, if the sides of the excavation are completely covered with timbering it is known as a close timbering whereas any form of partial covering is called open timbering, An adequate supply of timber or other suitable material must be available and used to prevent danger to any person employed in an excavation from a fall or dislodgement of materials forming the sides of an excavation."13

(See Figure 3.3.1 - Timbering Example)

Basement Excavation Temporary Support

The temporary support going to be used for the excavation of the basement is going to be in the form of a cofferdam "These are temporary enclosures installed in soil or water to prevent the ingress of soil and/or water into the working area with the cofferdam. They are usually constructed from interlocking steel sheet piles which are suitably braced or tied back with ground anchors. Alternatively a cofferdam can be installed using any structural material which fulfils the required function."14

(See Figure 3.3.2 - Cofferdam Example)

Figure 3.3.1 - Timbering Example15

Figure 3.3.2 - Cofferdam Example16

Groundwater Control

Within this section I'm going to discuss the groundwater control techniques put in place for the excavation for both the basement construction and the foundation trenches.

Basement Construction Groundwater Control

As well as support for the excavation for the basement construction the cofferdam will be used in order to prevent water ingress whilst construction of the basement is carried out these can also be used in conjunction with a pump if required as detailed below.

Foundation Trench Groundwater Control

A simple pump method will be used for the groundwater control for the trench excavation, there will be a sump excavated beyond and below trench excavation and the water will be pumped from the sump inside the trench thus enabling the workers to temporarily lower the water table. As previously mentioned you can use a sump pump in conjunction with a cofferdam from groundwater control which is a similar kind of basis only for the basement excavation two pumps are required both methods will be illustrated within this report.

(See Figure 3.4.1 - Sump Pumping for Trench Excavation Illustration)

(See Figure 3.4.2 - Sump Pumping for Basement Excavation)

(See Appendix B - Brandhorst Museum Datasheet)

(See Appendix C - How Trees Affect Foundations)

(See Appendix D - Building Movement - Subsoil's & Foundations)

(See Appendix E - Groundwater Control Issues)

Figure 3.4.1 - Sump Pumping for Trench Excavation Illustration17

Figure 3.4.2 - Sump Pumping for Basement Excavation Illustration18

References

The Art Newspaper (2010). Museum Brandhorst [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.theartnewspaper.com/articles/Brandhorst-Museum-opens-in-Munich-on-21-May/17323

The Guardian (2009). Art & Design [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2009/jun/04/brandhorst-museum-modern-art-germany

The Dezeen (2009). The Brandhorst Museum by Sauerbruch Hutton [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.dezeen.com/2009/02/16/brandhorst-museum-by-sauerbruch-hutton/

Google Images (2010). Detail Magazine [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.detail.de/media_detail/images/2/814_500_333.26

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 247

Detail Magazine (2010). Sauerbruch-Hutton [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.detail.de/artikel_sammlung-brandhorst-sauerbruch-hutton-muenchen_23916_En.htm

Benfiel Datt (2010). Technical Information [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.benfieldatt.co.uk/technical_information/standard_details/foundations.html

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 261

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 261

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 251

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 251

Detail Magazine (2010). Sauerbruch-Hutton [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.detail.de/artikel_sammlung-brandhorst-sauerbruch-hutton-muenchen_23916_En.htm

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 264

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 272

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 264

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 272

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 285

Chudley, R and Greeno, R (2008). Building Construction Handbook. 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford - Page 285

Sauerbruch-Hutton (2010). Museum Brandhorst-Datasheet [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.sauerbruchhutton.de/images/brandhorst_museum_en.pdf

Darlington.gov (2010). Public Documents [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.darlington.gov.uk/dar_public/Documents/Development%20and%20Environment/Development%20and%20Regeneration/Building%20Control/Leaflets/Foundations%20Close%20to%20Trees%20Leaflet.pdf

Environment Agency (2010). Assessment of Foundations [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://environment.uwe.ac.uk/video/cd_new_demo/cd_assetdef_sampler/topic_foundations/UHD%20FOUNDATIONS.pdf

Geology (2010). Groundwater Control [online]. Last accessed on 30th October 2010 at: http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/webdav/site/GSL/shared/pdfs/specialist%20and%20regional%20groups/EngineeringGroup/6-%20MPreene%20Dewatering%20approaches%2014012009.pdf

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